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Scries II. Vol. XXII. 




Facsimile (reduced) of the 

COAT OF ARMS OF KING PHILIP II., 

From the Sarmiento MS., 1572^ G6ttingen University Library. 
Reproduced and printed for the Hakluyt Society by Donald Macbeth. 



, HISTORY OF tHE'lNCAS 

BY 

PEDRO SARMIENTO DE GAMBOA 

AND 

THE EXECUTION OF THE INCA 
TUPAC AMARU 

' BY 

CAPTAIN BALTASAR DE OCAMPO 

i 

* TRANSLATED AND EDITED 

! WITH NOTES AND AN INTRODUCTION 



I ■ BY 

SIR CLEMENTS MARKHAM, K.C.B. 

j PRESIDENT OF THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY. 



CAMBRIDGE : 

PRINTED FOR THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY. 

MDCCCCVII. 



••••••• • • ••• 

»•«•• ••• • 






Ciinlirt^r: 

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



COUNCIL 

OF 

THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY. 



Sir Clbments Markham, K.C.6., F.R.S., /Vrsidenf. 

The Right Hon. Thb Earl op Liverpool, Vice-President. 

The Right Hon. The Lord Amherst op Hackney, Vice-President, 

The Right Hon. The Lord Belhaven and Stenton. 

Thomas B. Bowring. 

Colonel George Earl Church. 

Sir William Martin Conway, M.A., F.S.A. 

The Rev. Canon John Nealb Dalton, C.M.G., C.V.O. 

George William Forrest, CLE. 

William Foster, B.A. 

The Right Hon. Sir George Taubman Goldie, K.C.M.G., D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S., Pres. R.G,S, 
Albert Gray, K.C. 
Edward Heawood, M.A. 
Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerpord Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.S.I., 

C.B., R.E. 
John Scott Keltie, LL.D. 

Admiral Sir Albert Hastings Markham, K.C.B. 
Admiral op the Fleet Sir Frederick William Richards, G.C.B. 
Admiral op the Fleet Sir Edward Hobart Seymour, G.C.B., O.M. 
LiBUT.-CoL. Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Bart., CLE. 
Roland Venables Vernon, B.A. 
Basil Harrington Soulsby, B.A., F.S.A., Honorary Secretary, 



47943; 



lUproa»ufd for Jhm Haklnyt 3oci«\y \j John B>rtbfal ZZ 




TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Introduction ix 

Dedicatory letter to King Philip II i 

I. Division of the history 13 

II. The ancient division of the land . . . 13 

III. Description of the ancient Atlantic Island 15 

IV. First inhabitants of the world and principally of 

the Atlantic Island 19 

V. Inhabitants of the Atlantic Island .... 22 

VI. The fable of the origin of these barbarous Indians 

of Peru, according to their blind opinions . . 27 

VII. Fable of the second age, and creation of the 

barbarous Indians according to their account . 32 

VIII. The ancient Behetrias of these kingdoms of Peru 

and their provinces . 37 

IX. The first settlers in the valley of Cuzco ... 39 

X. How the Incas began to tyrannize over the lands 

and inheritances 43 

XI. The fable of the origin of the Incas of Cuzco 44 

XII. The road which these companies of the Incas took 

to the valley of Cuzco, and of the fables which 

are mixed with their history . . • . 47 

XIII. Entry of the Incas into the valley of Cuzco, and 

the fables they relate concerning it . . . 53 

XIV. The difference between Manco Ccapac and the 

Alcabisas, respecting the arable land ... 58 

XV. Commences the life of Sinchi Rocca, the second 

Inca 62 

XVI. The life of Lloqui Yupanqui, the third Inca . . 64 
XVII. The life of Mayta Ccapac, the fourth Inca . . 66 

XVIII. The life of Ccapac Yupanqui, the fifth Inca . . 69 

XIX. The life of Inca Rocca, the sixth Inca ... 70 

XX. The life of Titu Cusi Hualpa, vulgarly called Yahuar- 

huaccac 73 

XXI. What happened after the Ayamarcas had stolen 

Titu Cusi Hualpa 75 



VI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

XXII. How it became known that Yahuar-huaccac was 

alive 77 

XXIII. Yahuar-huaccac Inca Yupanqui commences his 

reign alone, after the death of his father 79 

XXIV. Life of Viracocha, the eighth Inca ... 81 
XXV. The provinces and towns conquered by the 

eighth Inca Viracocha 84 

XXVI. Life of Inca Yupanqui or Pachacuti, the ninth 

Inca 87 

XXVII. Coming of the Chancas against Cuzco . 89 

XXVIII. The second victory of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui 

over the Chancas 94 

XXIX. The Inca Yupanqui assumes the sovereignty and 

takes the fringe, without the consent of his 
father 96 

XXX. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui rebuilds the city of 

Cuzco 98 

XXXI. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui rebuilds the House 

of the Sun and establishes new idols in it . 100 

XXXII. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui depopulates two 

leagues of country near Cuzco . . 103 

XXXIII. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui kills his elder brother 

named Inca Urco 104 

XXXIV. The nations which Pachacuti Inca subjugated 

and the towns he took: and first of Tocay 
Ccapac, Sinchi of the Ayamarcas, and the 
destruction of the Cuyos 106 

XXXV. The other nations conquered by Inca Yupanqui, 

either in person or through his brother Inca 
Rocca 107 

XXXVI. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui endows the House of 

the Sun with great wealth . . . . no 

XXXVII. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui conquers the province 

of Colla-suyu in 

XXXVIII. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui sends an army to 

conquer the province of Chinchay-suyu . . 115 
XXXIX. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui plants mitimaes in all 

the lands he had conquered . . . 119 

XL. The CoIIas, sons of Chuchi Ccapac, rebel against 

Inca Yupanqui to obtain their freedom . . 121 
XL I. Amaru Tupac Inca and Apu Paucar Usnu 
continue the conquest of the Collao and 
again subdue the Collas 124 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Vll 



PAGE 

XLII. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui nominates his son 

Tupac Inca Yupanqui as his successor . . 125 

XLII I. How Pachacuti armed his son Tupac Inca . 127 

XLIV. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui sends his son Tupac 

Inca Yupanqui to conquer Chinchay-suyu . 129 

XLV. How Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui visited the pro- 
vinces conquered for him by his captains . 131 

XLVI. Tupac Inca Yupanqui sets out, a second time, by 
order of his father, to conquer what remained 
unsubdued in Chinchay-suyu . . . . 133 

XLVI I. Death of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui ... 138 
XLVI 1 1. The life of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, the tenth Inca 140 

XLIX. Tupac Inca Yupanqui conquers the province 

of the Antis 141 

L. Tupac Inca Yupanqui goes to subdue and 

pacify the Collas 144 

LI. Tupac Inca makes the Yanaconas . . 147 

LI I. Tupac Inca Yupanqui orders a second visitation 

of the land, and does other things 149 

LI 1 1. Tupac Inca makes the fortress of Cuzco . . 151 
LIV. Death of Tupac Inca Yupanqui . . 153 

LV. The life of Huayna Ccapac, eleventh Inca . 154 

LVI. They give the fringe of Inca to Huayna Ccapac, 

the eleventh Inca 156 

LVI I. The first acts of Huayna Ccapac after he 

became Inca 156 

LVI 1 1. Huayna Ccapac conquers Chachapoyas . . 1-57 

LIX. Huayna Ccapac makes a visitation of the whole 

empire from Quito to Chile . . . . 158 
LX. Huayna Ccapac makes war on the Quitos, Pastos, 

Carangues, Cayambis, Huancavilcas . . 159 

LXI. The Chirihuanas come to make war in Peru 

against those conquered by the Incas . . 165 

LXI I. What Huayna Ccapac did after the said wars. 166 

LXI 1 1. The life of Huascar, the last Inca, and of 

Atahualpa 169 

LXIV. Huascar Inca marches in person to fight Chalco 

Chima and Quiz-quiz, the captains of Atahualpa 175 

LXV. The battle between the armies of Huascar and 

Atahualpa. Huascar made prisoner . . 179 

LXV I. What Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz did con- 
cerning Huascar and those of his side in ' 
words • . • . 183 



viii TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

LXVII. The cruelties that Atahualpa ordered to be 
perpetrated on the prisoners and conquered 

of Huascar's party 184 

LXVII I. News of the S]>aniards comes to Atahualpa 186 

LXIX. The Spaniards come to Caxamarca and seize 
Atahualpa, who orders Huascar to be killed. 
Atahualpa also dies 188 

LXX. It is noteworthy how these Incas were tyrants 
against themselves, besides being so against 
the natives of the land 190 

LXX I. Summary computation of the period that the 

Incas of Peru lasted 194 

Certificate of the proofs and verification of this history . 195 

Account of the Province of Vilcapampa and a narrative of 
the execution of the Inca Tupac Amaru, by Captain 
Baltasar de Ocampo 203 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



I. Map of Central Peru. 1907. By Graham Mackay, 
R.G.S 



To face page 



Six Facsimiles (reduced) from the Sarmiento MS., 1572 
(G6ttingen University Library): 

2. a. Arms of Philip II of Spain. Coloured . 

3. b. Last page of Sanniento's introductory Letter 

to Philip II, with his autograph . 

4. c. Arms of Philip II. foL i . 

5. €L Title of the Sarmiento MS. foL 2 . 

6. e. Arms of Don Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy of 

Peru, 1569— 1581. foL 132 . 

7. / Signatures of the attesting witnesses, 1572. fol 

138 



Tide 

12 

I 
xxiii 



202 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS viii a 

To face page 

8. Portrait of the Viceroy, Don Francisco de Toledo, 

at Lima. From a sketch by Sir Clements Mark- 
ham in 1853 8 

9. Group of Incas, in ceremonial dresses, from figures 

in the pictures in the Church of Santa Ana, Cuzco, 
A.D. 1570. From a sketch by Sir Clements 
Markham in 1853 129 

10. Portraits of the Incas. Facsimile of the Title-page 

of the Fifth Decade of Antonio de Herrera's 
Historia GenercU de los Hechos de los Castellanos 
en las Islas y Tierra Firme del Mar Oceano^ 
Madrid, 161 5. fol. From the Rev. C. M. Crache- 
rode's copy in the British Museum ... ix 

1 1. Capture of Atahualpa, and Siege of Cuzco. From 

the Title-page of the Sixth Decade of Antonio de 

Herrera 190 

12. Map of Vilca-Pampa. 1907. By Graham Mackay, 

R.G.S 203 

Plates 2 — 7 have been reproduced from the negatives, kindly lent 
for the purpose by Professor Dr Richard Pietschmann, Director of 
the Gottingen University Library. 



l«7. 



Scries m Vol. XXII. 




Reproduced and printed for the Hakluyt Society by Donald Macbeth^ 

PORTRAITS OF THE INCAS. 

From the Rex\ C. M. Cracherodt'a copy in the British Museum. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The publication of the text of the Sarmiento manu- 
script in the Library of Gottingen University, has enabled 
the Council to present the members of the Hakluyt Society 
with the most authentic narrative of events connected with 
the history of the Incas of Peru. 

The history of this manuscript, and of the documents 
which accompanied it, is very interesting. The Viceroy, 
Don Francisco de Toledo, who governed Peru from 1569 
to 1581, caused them to be prepared for the information of 
Philip II. Four cloths were sent to the King from Cuzco, 
and a history of the Incas written by Captain Pedro 
Sarmiento de Gamboa. On three cloths were figures of 
the Incas with their wives, on medallions, with their Ayllus 
and a genealogical tree. Historical events in each reign 
were depicted on the borders. The fable of Tampu-tocco 
was shown on the first cloth, and also the fables touching 
the creations of Viracocha, which formed the foundation 
for the whole history. On the fourth cloth there was a 
map of Peru, the compass lines for the positions of towns 
being drawn by Sarmiento. 

The Viceroy also caused reports to be made to him, to 
prove that the Incas were usurpers. There were thirteen 
reports from Cuzco, Guamanga, Xauxa, Yucay, and other 
places, forming a folio of 213 leaves, preserved in the 
Archive de IndiasK At Cuzco all the Inca descendants 

1 Printed in the same volume with Montesinos, and edited by 
Jimenes de la Espada, Informaciones acerca del senario y gobiemo 
de los Ingas hechas por mandado de Dan Francisco de Toledo^ 
1570—72. 

M. s. ' b 



X INTRODUCTION 

were called upon to give evidence resf>ecting the history 
of Peru under their ancestors. They all swore that they 
would give truthful testimony. The compilation of the 
history was then entrusted to Captain Pedro Sarmiento 
de Gamboa, the cosmographer of Peru. When it was 
completed the book was read to the Inca witnesses, chapter 
by chapter, in their own language. They discussed each 
chapter, and suggested some corrections and alterations 
which were adopted. It was then submitted to the Viceroy, 
who caused the documents to be attested by the principal 
Spaniards settled at Cuzco, who had been present at the 
conquest, or had taken a leading part in the subsequent 
administration. These were Dr Loarte, the licentiate Polo 
de Ondegardo^ Alonso de Mena', Mancio Serra de L^ui- 
sano', Pero Alonso Carrasco, and Juan de Pancorvo*, in 
whose house the Viceroy resided while he was at Cuzco. 
Mancio Serra de Leguisano married Beatriz Nusta, an 
Inca princess, daughter of Huayna Ccapac. The Viceroy 
then made some final interpolations to vilify the Incas, 
which would not have been approved by some of those 
who had attested, certainly not by Polo de Ondegardo or 
Leguisano. 

Sarmiento mentions in his history of the Incas that it 
was intended to be the Second Part of his work. There 
were to be three Parts. The First, on the geography of 
Peru, was not sent because it was not finished. The Third 
Part was to have been a narrative of the conquest. 

The four cloths, and the other documents, were taken 
to Spain, for presentation to the King, by a servant of the 



* The accomplished lawyer, author, and statesman. 

* One of the first conquerors. His house at Cuzco was in the 
square of our Lady, near that of Garcilasso de la Vega. 

' A generous defender of the cause of the Indians. 

* One of the first conauerors. He occupied a house near the 
square, with his fi'iend ana comrade Alonso de Marchena. 



INTRODUCTION xi 

Viceroy named Geronimo Pacheco, with a covering letter 
dated at Yucay on March ist, 1572. 

Of all these precious documents the most important 
was the history of the Incas by Sarmiento, and it has 
fortunately been preserved. The King's copy found its 
way into the famous library of Abraham Gronovius, which 
was sold in 1785, and thence into the library of the Uni- 
versity of Gottingen, where it remained, unprinted and 
unedited, for 120 years. But in August, 1906, the learned 
librarian, Dr Richard Pietschmann published the text at 
Berlin, very carefully edited and annotated with a valuable 
introduction. The Council of the Hakluyt Society is thus 
enabled to present an English translation to its members 
very soon after the first publication of the text. It is 
a complement of the other writings of the great navigator, 
which were translated and edited for the Hakluyt Society 
in 1895. 

The manuscript consists of eight leaves of introduction 
and 138 of text The dedicatory letter to the King is 
signed by Sarmiento on March 4th, 1572. The binding 
was of red silk, under which there is another binding 
of green leather. The first page is occupied by a coloured 
shield of the royal arms, with a signature el Capita Sarmi 
de Gdboa. On the second page is the title, surrounded by 
an ornamental border. The manuscript is in a very clear 
hand, and at the end are the arms of Toledo {chequy azure 
and argent) with the date Cuzco, 29 Feb., 1572. There 
is also the signature of the Secretary, Alvaro Ruiz de 
Navamuel^ 



* Alvaro Ruiz and his brother Captain Francisco Ruiz were the 
sons of Francisco Santiago Rodriguez de los Rios by Inez de 
Navamuel. Both used their mother's name of Navamuel as their 
surname ; and both were born at Aquilar del Campo. Alonso Ruiz 
de Navamuel was Secretary to the governments of five successive 
Viceroys. He wrote a Relacion de las cosas mas notables que hiza 
en el Peruy siendo Virev Don Francisco de Toledo^ 20 Dec. 1578. He 

b2 



xil INTRODUCTION 

The history of the Incas by Sarmiento is, without 
any doubt, the most authentic and reliable that has yet 
appeared. For it was compiled from the carefully attested 
evidence of the Incas themselves, taken under official 
sanction. Each sovereign Inca formed an ayllu or "gens" 
of his descendants, who preserved the memory of his deeds 
in quifus, songs, and traditions handed down and learnt by 
heart There were many descendants of each of these 
ayllus living near Cuzco in 1572, and the leading members 
were examined on oath ; so that Sarmiento had oppor- 
tunities of obtaining accurate information which no other 
writer possessed. For the correct versions of the early 
traditions, and for historical facts and the chronological 
order of events, Sarmiento is the best authority. 

But no one can supersede the honest and impartial old 
soldier, Pedro de Cieza de Leon, as regards the charm of 
his style and the confidence to be placed in his opinions ; 
nor the Inca Garcilasso de la Vega as regards his remi- 
niscences and his fascinating love for his people. Molina 
and Yamqui Pachacuti give much fuller details respecting 
the ceremonial festivals and religious beliefs. Polo de 
Ondegardo and Santillana supply much fuller and more 
reliable information respecting the laws and administra- 
tion of the Incas. It is in the historical narrative and 
the correct order of events that Sarmiento, owing to his 
exceptional means of collecting accurate information, 
excels all other writers. 



died in the year 1613. The descendants of his son Juan de los Rios 
formed the tnayorazgos of Rios and Cavallero. 

By his wife Angela Ortiz de Arbildo y Berriz, a Biscayan, he had 
a daughter Inez married to her cousin Geronimo Aliaga, a son of the 
Secretary's brother Captain Francisco Ruiz dc Navamuel, the en- 
comendero of Caracoto in the Collao, by Juana, daughter of Captain 
Geronimo de Aliaga. His marriage, ai which the Viceroy Toledo 
was present, took place on November 23rd, 1578. From the marriage 
of the younger Geronimo de Aliaga with Inez Navamuel, descend the 
Aliagas, Counts of Luringancho in Peru. 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

There is one serious blemish. Sarmiento's book was 
written, not only or mainly to supply interesting informa- 
tion, but with an object. Bishop Las Casas had made 
Europe ring with the cruelties of the Spaniards in the 
Indies, and with the injustice and iniquity of their con- 
quests. Don Francisco de Toledo used this narrative for 
the purpose of making a feeble reply to the good bishop. 
Under his instructions Sarmiento stated the Viceroy's 
argument, which was that the King of Spain was the 
rightful sovereign of Peru because the Incas had usurped 
their power by conquest and had been guilty of acts of 
cruelty. Hence the constant repetition of such phrases as 
"cruel tyranny" and "usurping tyrant"; and the numerous 
interpolations of the Viceroy himself are so obvious that 
I have put them in italics within brackets. He goes back 
as far as the first Inca to make out the usurpation, and he 
is always harping on illegitimacy. If we go back as far as 
Sancho IV the title of Philip II to Spain was voided by the 
grossest usurpation, while we need only go back to Henry II 
to see how Philip's title was vitiated by illegitimacy. As for 
cruelty, it would be a strange plea from the sovereign by 
whose orders the Netherlands were devastated, the Moors 
of Granada almost annihilated, and under whose rule the 
Inquisition was in full swing. It is the old story of preach- 
ing without practice, as Dr Newman once observed in 
quoting what James I said to George Heriot: 

" O Geordie, jingling Geordie, it was grand to hear Baby Charles 
laying down the guilt of dissimulation, and Steenie lecturing on the 
turpitude of incontinence." 

It is right to say that Philip never seems to have 
endorsed the argument of his Viceroy, while his father 
prohibited the circulation of a book by Dr Sepulveda 
which contained a similar argument; nor was the work 
of Sarmiento published. 

Barring this blemish, the history of the Incas, written 
by order of the Viceroy Toledo, is a most valuable addition 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

to the authorities who have given us authentic accounts of 
Andean civilization ; for we may have every confidence in 
the care and accuracy of Sarmiento as r^ards his collection 
and statennent of historical facts, provided that we always 
keep in mind the bias, and the orders he was under, to seek 
support for the Viceroy's untenable argument 

I have given all I have been able to find respecting the 
life of Sarmiento in the introduction to my edition of the 
voyages of that celebrated navigator. 

But the administration of the Viceroy Don Francisco 
de Toledo, from 1569 to 1581, forms a landmark in the 
history of Peru, and seems to call for some notice in this 
place. He found the country in an unsettled state, with 
the administrative system entirely out of gear. Though 
no longer young he entered upon the gigantic task of 
establishing an orderly government, and resolved to visit 
personally every part of the vast territory under his rule. 
This stupendous undertaking occupied him for five years. 
He was accompanied by ecclesiastics, by men well versed 
in the language of the Incas and in their administrative 
policy, and by his secretary and aide-de-camp. These 
were the Bishop of Popayan, Augustin de la Corufia, the 
Augustine friars Juan Vivero and Francisco del Corral, 
the Jesuit and well-known author, Joseph de Acosta, the 
Inquisitor Pedro Ordoftez Flores, his brother, the Viceroy's 
chaplain and confessor, the learned lawyer Juan Matienzo, 
whose work is frequently quoted by Solorzano^ the licen- 
tiate Polo de Ondegardo, who had been some years in the 
country and had acquired an intimate knowledge of the 
laws of the Incas, the secretary Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel, 
and as aide-de-camp his young nephew, Geronimo de 



* In his PoliHca Indiana, There are two manuscripts of Juan 
Matienzo de Peralta at the British Museum, Goviemo tUl Peru 
and Reladon del libro intitulado Govierno del Peru, apparently 
one work in two parts. Add, MSS. 5469, in Gayangos Catalogue, 
vol. II. p. 470. 



INTRODUCTION XV 

Figueroa, son of his brother Juan, the Ambassador at 
Rome^ 

Toledo was endowed with indefatigable zeal for the 
public service, great energy, and extraordinary powers of 
application. He took the opinions of others, weighed 
them carefully, and considered long before he adopted any 
course. But he was narrow-minded and obstinate, and 
when he had once determined on a measure nothing 
could alter him. His ability is undoubted, and his ap- 
pointment, at this particular juncture, is a proof of Philip's 
sagacity. 

The Viceroy's intercourse with Polo de Ond^ardo 
informed him respecting the administrative system of the 
Incas, so admirably adapted to the genius of the people, 
and he had the wisdom to see that there was much to 
learn from it. His policy was to collect the people, who, 
to a great extent, were scattered over the country and 
hiding from the Spaniards, in villages placed near the 
centres of their cultivated or pasture lands. He fixed the 
numbers in each village at 400 to 500, with a priest and 
Alcalde. He also ordered the boundaries of all the parishes 
to be settled. Spanish Corregidors were to take the places 
of the Tucuyricoc or governors of Inca times, and each 
village had an elected Alcalde approved by the Corregidor. 
Under him there were to be two overseers, a Pichca pachaca 
over 500, and a Pachaca as assistant. Another important 
measure was the settlement of the tribute. The name 
"tribute" was unfortunate. The system was that of the 
Incas, and the same which prevailed throughout the east. 
The government was the landlord, and the so-called 
"tribute" was rent. The Incas took two-thirds for the 



^ Some sons took the father's surname, others that of the mother. 
The Viceroy had the name of his father, Francisco Alvarez de Toledo, 
the third Count of Oropesa, while his brother Juan had the surname 
of Figueroa, being that of his mother. 



XVI INTRODUCTION 

State and for religion, and set apart one-third for the 
cultivators. Toledo did much the same, assessing, accord- 
ing to the nature of the soil, the crops, and other local 
circumstances. For the formation of villages and the 
assessment of the tribute he promulgated a whole code 
of ordinances, many of them intended to prevent local 
oppression in various forms. 

The Viceroy next took up the questions of the position 
of yanacunas or domestic servants, and of forced service. 
Both these institutions existed in Incarial times. All that 
was needed were moderate laws for the protection of servants 
and conscripts, and the enforcement of such laws. Toledo 
allowed a seventh of the adult male population in each 
village to be made liable for service in mines or factories, 
fixed the distance they could be taken from their homes, 
and made rules for their proper treatment. It is true that 
the mita, as it was called, was afterwards an instrument of 
cruel oppression, that rules were disregarded, and that it 
depopulated the country. But this was not the fault of 
Toledo. 

The Viceroy gave much attention to the mining in- 
dustry, promoted the introduction of the use of mercury 
in the extraction of silver, and founded the town of 
Huancavelica near the quick-silver mine. His personality 
pervaded every department of the state, and his tcisas or 
ordinances fill a large volume. He was a prolific legislator 
and a great statesman. 

His worst mistake was the policy he adopted with 
regard to the family of the Incas. He desired to establish 
the position of the King of Spain without a rival. He, 
therefore, sought to malign the preceding dynasty, perse- 
cuted the descendants of the Incas, and committed one act 
of cruel injustice. 

When Atahualpa put his half-brother Huascar, the last 
reigning Inca, to death, there remained three surviving sons 



INTRODUCTION XVll 

of their father the great Inca Huayna Ccapac, named 
Manco, Paullu, and Titu Atauchi, and several daughters. 
After his occupation of Cuzco, Pizarro acknowledged 
Manco Inca as the legitimate successor of his brother 
Huascar, and he was publicly crowned, receiving all the 
insignia on March 24th, 1534. He escaped from the 
Spaniards and besieged them in Cuzco at the head of 
a large army. Forced to raise the siege he established 
his headquarters at Oilantay-tampu, where he repulsed 
an attack led by Hernando Pizarro. He was, however, 
defeated by Orgoftez, the lieutenant of Almagro, and took 
refuge in the mountainous province of Vilcapampa on the 
left bank of the Vilcamayu. From thence he made constant 
attacks on the Spaniards, maintaining his independence in 
this small remnant of his dominions. Some of the partisans 
of Almagro took refuge with him, and he was accidentally 
killed by one of them in 1544, after a not inglorious reign 
of ten years. 

He left two legitimate sons, named Sayri Tupac and 
Tupac Amaru, by his wife and niece the Princess Ataria 
Cusi Huarcay, daughter of his ill-fated brother Huascar. 
This marriage was legalized by a bull of Pope Paul HI in 
the time of the Viceroy Marquis of Caftete, 1555 — 1561. 
He had also an illegitimate son named Cusi Titu Yupanqui, 
and a daughter named Maria Tupac Usca, married to Don 
Pedro Ortiz de Orue, one of the first conquerors^ 



1 Diego Ortiz de Orue was bom in the village of Getafe, near 
Madrid. He went out to Peru in 1559, and at once began to study 
the Quichua language. He was encomendero of Maras, a village 
overlooking the valley of Yucay. By the Inca princess he had a 
daughter named Catalina married to Don Luis Justiniani of Seville, 
descended from the Genoese family. Their son Luis was the grand- 
father of Dr Justo Pastor Justiniani who married Manuela Catano, 
descended from Tupac Inca Yupanaui. Their son Don Pablo 
Justiniani was Cura of Laris until his death in 1858, and was a great 
depository of Inca lore. He had a very early copy of the Inca drama 
of Ollanta. 



XVlil INTRODUCTION 

Sayri Tupac succeeded as fourteenth Incaof Peru. On 
the arrival of the Marquis of Caftete as Viceroy in 1555, he 
caused overtures to be made to Sayri Tupac through his 
aunts, who were living at Cuzco with their Spanish husbands, 
Juan Sierra de Leguisano and Diego Hernandez. It was 
finally arranged that the Inca should receive 17000 castel- 
lanos of rent and the valley of Yucay. On October 7th, 
1557, Sayri Tupac left Vilcapampa with 300 followers, 
reaching Andahuaylas on November 5th. He entered 
Lima on January 6th, 1558, was cordially greeted by the 
Viceroy and received investiture, assuming the names of 
Manco Ccapac Pachacuti Yupanqui. He went to live in 
the lovely vale of Yucay. He had been baptized with the 
name of Diego, but he did not long survive, dying at 
Yucay in 1560. His daughter Clara Beatriz married 
Don Martin Garcia Loyola. Their daughter Lorenza 
was created Marchioness of Oropesa and Yucay, with 
remainder to descendants of her great uncle Tupac Amaru. 
She was the wife of Juan Henriquez de Borja, grandson of 
the Duke of Gandia. 

On the death of Sayri Tupac, his ill^itimate brother, 
Cusi Titu Yupanqui assumed sovereignty, owing to the 
youth of the legitimate brother Tupac Amaru, both remain- 
ing in Vilcapampa. 

PauUu Tupac Yupanqui, the next brother of Manco 
Inca, was baptized with the name of Crist6val. He ac- 
companied Almagro in his expedition to Chile, and was 
with young Almagro at the battle of Chupas. Eventually 
he was allowed to fix his residence on the Colcampata of 
Cuzco, at the foot of the fortress, and by the side of the 
church of San Crist6val. From the terrace of the Col- 
campata there is a glorious view with the snowy peak of 
Vilcaftota in the far distance. Paullu died in May, 1549, 
and was succeeded on the Colcampata by his son Carlos 
Inca. He had two other sons named Felipe and BartoIom6. 



INTRODUCTION XIX 

From the latter was descended the late Archdeacon of 
Cuzco, Dr Justo Salmaraura Inca. 

Titu Atauchi, the youngest son of Huayna Ccapac, had 
a son Alonso. 

The princesses, daughters of Huayna Ccapac and sisters 
of Manco and Paullu, were Beatriz Nusta, married first to 
Martin de Mustincia, and secondly to Di^o Hernandez of 
Talavera ; Leonor Nusta, the wife of Juan de Balsa, who 
was killed at the battle of Chupas on the side of young 
Almagro, secondly of Francisco de Villacastin : Francisca 
Nusta, niece of Huayna Ccapac, married to Juan de 
Collantes, and was great-grandmother of Bishop Piedra- 
hita, the historian of Nueva Granada : another Beatriz 
Nusta married Mancio Sierra de Leguisano, the generous 
defender of the natives ; and Inez Nusta married first 
Francisco Pizarro and had a daughter Francisca, who has 
descendants, and secondly to Francisco Ampuero. Ange- 
lina, daughter of Atahualpa, was married to Juan de 
Betanzos, the author and Quichua scholar. The brother 
of Huayna Ccapac, named Hualpa Tupac Yupanqui, had 
a daughter, Isabel Nusta Yupanqui, the wife of Garcilasso 
de la V^a, and mother of the Inca Garcilasso de la Vega^ 
the historian, author of the Comentarios Reales. 

This then was the position of the Inca family when the 
Viceroy, Francisco de Toledo, came to Cuzco in 1571. Cusi 
Titu Yupanqui and Tupac Amaru, sons of the Inca Manco 
were in the mountains of Vilcapampa, the former maintain- 
ing his independence. Carlos Inca, son of Paullu, was 
baptized, and living on the Colcampata at Cuzco with his 
wife Maria de Esquivel. Seven Inca princesses had married 
Spaniards, most of them living at Cuzco with their husbands 
and children. 



^ The Inca Garcilasso was a third cousin of the regicide Viceroy 
Toledo. Their great grandfathers were brothers. 



XX INTRODUCTION 

The events, connected with the Inca family, which 
followed on the arrival of the Viceroy Toledo at Cuzco, 
will be found fully described in this volume. It need only 
be stated here that the inexorable tyrant, having got the 
innocent young prince Tupac Amaru into his power, re- 
solved to put him to death. The native population was 
overwhelmed with grief. The Spaniards were horrified. 
They entreated that the lad might be sent to Spain to be 
judged by the King. The heads of religious orders and 
other ecclesiastics went down on their knees. Nothing 
could move the obstinate narrow-minded Viceroy. The 
deed was done. 

When too late Toledo seems to have had some mis- 
givings. The judicial murder took place in December, 

1 571. The history of the Incas was finished in March, 

1572. Yet there is no mention of the death of Tupac 
Amaru. For all that appears he might have been still in 
Vilcapampa. Nevertheless the tidings reached Philip II, 
and the Viceroy's conduct was not approved. 

There was astonishing audacity on the part of Toledo, 
in basing arguments on the alleged cruelty and tyranny 
of the Incas, when the man was actually red-handed with 
the blood of an innocent youth, and engaged in the tyran- 
nical persecution of his relations and the hideous torture 
of his followers. His arguments made no impression on 
the mind of Philip II. The King even showed some 
favour to the children of Tupac Amaru by putting them 
in the succession to the Marquisate of Oropesa« In the 
Inca pedigrees Toledo is called "el execrable regicidio.** 
When he presented himself on his return from Peru the 
King angrily exclaimed : " Go away to your house ; for I 
sent you to serve kings ; and you went to kill kings V 



* "Idos a vuestra casa, que yo os en vie a servir rcyes; y vos 
fuiste a matar reyes." 



INTRODUCTION Xxi 

All his faithful services as a legislator and a statesman 
could not atone for this cruel judicial murder in the eyes 
of his sovereign. He went back to his house a disgraced 
and broken-hearted man, and died soon afterwards. 

The history of the Incas by Sarmiento is followed, in 
this volume, by a narrative of the execution of Tupac 
Amaru and of the events leading to it, by an eye-witness, 
the Captain Baltasar de Ocampo. It has been translated 
from a manuscript in the British Museum. 

The narrative of Ocampo, written many years after 
the event, is addressed to the Viceroy Marquis of Montes 
Claros. Its main object was to give an account of the 
province of Vilcapampa, and to obtain some favours for 
the Spanish settlers there. 

Vilcapampa is a region of very special historical and 
geographical interest, and it is one of which very little is 
known. It is a mountainous tract of country, containing 
the lofty range of Vilcacunca and several fertile valleys, 
between the rivers Apurimac and Vilcamayu, to the north 
of Cuzco. The mountains rise abruptly from the valley of 
the Vilcamayu below Ollantay-tampu, where the bridge 
of Chuqui-chaca opened upon paths leading up into a land 
of enchantment. No more lovely mountain scenery can be 
found on this earth. When Manco Inca escaped from the 
Spaniards he took refuge in Vilcapampa, and established 
his court and government there. The Sun temple, the 
convent of virgins, and the other institutions of the Incas 
at Cuzco, were transferred to this mountain fastness. Even 
handsome edifices were erected. Here the Incas continued 
to maintain their independence for 35 years. 

Ocampo opens his story with a very interesting account 
of the baptism of Melchior Carlos, son of Carlos Inca, who 
had become a Christian, and lived in the palace on the 
Colcampata at Cuzco. He then describes the events which 
culminated in the capture of the Inca Tupac Amaru, and 



XXll INTRODUCTION 

gives a pathetic and touching account of the judicial murder 
of that ill-fated young prince. Ocampo was an actor in 
these events and an eye-witness. The rest of his narrative 
consists of reminiscences of occurrences in Vilcapampa 
after it was occupied by the Spaniards. He owned property 
there, and was a settler holding official posts. He tells of 
the wealth and munificence of a neighbour. He gives the 
history of an expedition into the forests to the northward, 
which will form material for the history of these expeditions 
when it is written. He tells the story of an insurrection 
among the negro labourers, and complains of the spiritual 
destitution of his adopted land. He finally returns to 
Cuzco and gives an account of a very magnificent pageant 
and tilting match. But this story should have preceded 
the mournful narrative of the fate of Tupac Amaru ; for 
the event took place at the time of the baptism of Melchior 
Carlos, and before the Viceroy Toledo became a regicide. 
Ocampo's story is that of an honest old soldier, inclined to 
be garrulous, but an eye-witness of some most interesting 
events in the history of Peru. 

I think it is an appropriate sequel to the history by 
Sarmiento, because it supplies material for judging whether 
the usurpation and tyranny were on the side of the Incas 
or of their accuser. 



S«ffie«ll. VoLXXll. 






'vf 












00 n an isrplcco v'l rirv -M 
ifobcrnaobi vcap ffchc;*!^. 

KvjlL)ci(tiUjcopu(br 



— ^. "/ r- 



tf^iiJibba:--^-^^ 



M 






J 



Facsimile (reduced) of 

PAGE II OF THE SARMIENTO MS. 1572. 

From <A« original, Odttingen University Library. 
Reproduced and Printed for the Hakluyt Society by Donald Macbeth, 



\ 



THE 

SECOND PART 

OF THE 

GENERAL HISTORY 

CALLED 

"INDICA" 



WHICH WAS COMPOSED 

BY 

THE CAPTAIN PEDRO SARMIENTO DE GAMBOA 

BY ORDER OF 

THE MOST EXCELLENT 
LORD DON FRANCISCO DE TOLEDO 

VICEROY GOVERNOR AND CAPTAIN-GENERAL 

OF THE 

KINGDOMS OF PERU 

AND MAYOR-DOMO OF THE ROYAL HOUSEHOLD 

OF CASTILLE 



1572 



Scries II. Vol XXII 




^^ '^- i 



Pacaimilc (reduced i of 

PAGE I OF THE SARMIENTO MS. 1572. 

From the original, OOttingen University Library. 
Rgproduced and Printtd for the Hakluyt Society by Donald MacbeiK 



TO HIS SACRED CiESARIAN MAJESTY THE 
KING, DON FELIPE, OUR LORD. 

Among the excellencies, O sovereign and catholic 
Philip, that are the glorious decorations of princes, placing 
them on the highest pinnacle of estimation, are, according 
to the father of Latin eloquence, generosity, kindness, and 
liberality. And as the Roman Consuls held this to be the 
principal praise of their glory, they had this title curiously 
sculptured in marble on the Quirinal and in the forum of 
Trajan — "Most powerful gift in a Prince is liberality*." 
For this kings who desired much to be held dear by their 
own people and to be feared by strangers, were incited to 
acquire the name of liberal. Hence that royal sentence 
became immortal " It is right for kings to give." As this 
was a quality much valued among the Greeks, the wise 
Ulysses, conversing with Antinous*, King of the Phseacians, 
said — " You are something like a king, for you know how 
to give, better than others." Hence it is certain that 
liberality is a good and necessary quality of kings. 

I do not pretend on this ground, most liberal monarch, 
to insinuate to your Majesty the most open frankness, for 
it would be very culpable on my part to venture to suggest 
a thing which, to your Majesty, is so natural that you 
would be unable to live without it. Nor will it happen 
to so high minded and liberal a lord and king, what befell 
the Emperor Titus who, remembering once, during supper 

* " Primum signum nobilitatis est liberalitas." 

* Alcinous. 

M. s. I 



2 TO HIS SACRED C^CSARIAN MAJESTY 

time, that he had allowed one day to pass without doing 
some good, gave utterance to this laudable animadversion 
of himself. "O friends! I have lost a day'." For not 
only does your Majesty not miss a day, but not even an 
hour, without obliging all kinds of people with benefits and 
most gracious liberality. The whole people, with one voice, 
says to your Majesty what Virgil sang to Octavianus 
Augustus : 

''Nocte pluit tota, redeunt spectacula mane, 
Di visum imperium cum Jove Caesar habet'' 

But what I desire to say is that for a king who complies 
/SO well with the obligation of liberality, and who gives so 
much, it is necessary that he should possess much; for 
nothing is so suitable for a prince as possessions and riches 
for his gifts and liberalities, as Tully says, as well as to 
acquire glory. For it is certain, as we read in Sallust that 
** in a vast empire there is great glory*"; and in how much 
it is greater, in so much it treats of great things. Hence ' 
the glory of a king consists in his possessing many vassals, 
and the abatement of his glory is caused by the diminution 
of the number of his subjects. 

Of this glory, most Christian king, God Almighty gives 
you so large a share in this life that all the enemies of the 
holy catholic church of Christ our Lord tremble at your 
exalted name ; whence you most justly deserve to be 
named the strength of the church. As the treasure which 
God granted that your ancestors should spend, with such 
holy magnanimity, on worthy and holy deeds, in the 
extirpation of heretics, in driving the accursed Saracens 
out of Spain, in building churches, hospitals and monasteries, 
and in an infinite number of other works of charity and 
justice, with the zeal of zealous fathers of their count r>', 

^ **Amici ! diem perdidi.'^ Suetonius. 
* Proem of Catiline. 



THE KING, DON FELIPE, OUR LORD 3 

not only entitled them to the most holy title of catholics, 
but the most merciful and almighty God, whom they 
served with all their hearts, saw fit to commence repayment 
with temporal goods, in the present age. It is certain that 
" He who grants celestial rewards does not take away 
temporal blessingsV* so that they earned more than the 
mercies they received. This was the grant to them of the 
evangelical office, choosing them from among all the kings 
of this world as the evangelizers of his divine word in the 
most remote and unknown lands of those blind and barbarous 
gentiles. We now call those lands the Indies of Castille, 
because through the ministry of that kingdom they will 
be put in the way of salvation, God himself being the 
true pilot. He made clear and easy the dark and fearful 
Atlantic sea which had been an awful portent to the most 
ancient Argives, Athenians, Egyptians, and Phoenicians, 
and what is more to the proud Hercules, who, having come 
to Cadiz from the east, and seen the wide Atlantic sea, 
he thought this was the end of the world and that there 
was no more land. So he set up his columns with this 
inscription " Ultra Gades nil " or " Beyond Cadiz there is 
nothing." But as human knowledge is ignorance in the 
sight of God, and the force of the world but weakness in 
his presence, it was very easy, with the power of the 
Almighty and of your grandparents, to break and scatter 
the mists and difficulties of the enchanted ocean. Laughing 
with good reason at Alcides and his inscription, they 
discovered the Indies which were very populous in souls to 
whom the road to heaven could be shown. The Indies are 
also most abundant in all kinds of inestimable treasures, 
with which the heavy expenses were repaid to them, and 



* From the poem of Coelius Sedulius, a Christian poet who 
flourished about a.d. 450. The passage is — " Hostis Herodes impie 
Christum venire quod timeo? Non eripit mortalia qui regna dat 
coelestia." (Note by Dr Peitschmann.) 



4 TO HIS Sacred CiESARiAN majesty 

yet remained the richest princes in the world, and thus 
continued to exercise their holy and Christian liberality 
until death. By reason of this most famous navigation, 
and new and marvellous discovery, they amended the 
inscription on the columns of Hercules, substituting " Plus 
ultra" for "Ultra Gades nil"; the meaning was, and with 
much truth, that further on there are many lands. So this 
inscription, ''Plus ultra," remained on the blazon of the 
arms and insignia of the Indies of Castille. 

As there are few who are not afflicted by the accursed 
hunger for gold, and as good successes are food for an 
enemy, the devil moved the bosoms of some powerful 
princes with the desire to take part in this great business. 
Alexander VI, the Vicar of Jesus Christ, considering that 
this might give rise to impediments in preaching the holy 
evangel to the barbarous idolaters, besides other evils which 
might be caused, desired of his own proper motion, without 
any petition from the catholic kings, by authority of 
Almighty God, to give, and he gave and conceded for ever, 
the islands and main lands which were then discovered and 
which might hereafter be discovered within the limits and 
demarcation of i8o° of longitude, which is half the world, 
with all the dominions, rights, jurisdictions and belongings, 
prohibiting the navigation and trading in those lands from 
whatever cause, to the other princes, kings, and emperors 
from the year 1493, to prevent many inconveniences. 

But as the devil saw that this door was shut, which 
he had begun to open to introduce by it dissensions and 
disturbances, he tried to make war by means of the ver>' 
soldiers who resisted him, who were the same preachers. 
They began to make a difficulty about the right and title 
which the kings of Castille had over these lands. As your 
invincible father was very jealous in matters touching his 
conscience, he ordered this point to be examined, as closely 
as possible, by very learned doctors who, according to the 



THE KING, DON FELIPE, OUR LORD $ 

report which was given out, were indirect and doubtful 
in their conclusions. They gave it as their opinion that 
these Incas, who ruled in these kingdoms of Peru, were and 
are the true and natural lords of that land. This gave a 
handle to foreigners, as well catholics as heretics and other 
infidels, for throwing doubt on the right which the kings 
of Spain claim and have claimed to the Indies. Owing to 
this the Emperor Don Carlos of glorious memory was on 
the point of abandoning them, which was what the enemy 
of the faith of Christ wanted, that he might regain the 
possession of the souls which he had kept in blindness for 
so many ages. 

All this arose owing to want of curiosity on the part 
of the governors in those lands, at that time, who did not 
use the diligence necessary for ascertaining the truth, and 
also owing to certain reports of the Bishop of Chiapa 
who was moved to passion against certain conquerors in 
his bishoprick with whom he had persistent disputes, as 
I knew when I passed through Chiapa and Guatemala^ 
Though his zeal appears holy and estimable, he said things 
on the right to this country gained by the conquerors of 
it, which differ from the evidence and judicial proofs which 
have been seen and taken down by us, and from what we 
who have travelled over the Indies enquiring about these 
things, leisurely and without war, know to be the facts'. 

* See the introduction to my Voyages of Sarmiento^ p. x. 

' Sarmiento here refers to the efforts of Las Casas to protect the 
natives from the tyranny and cruelties of the Spanish settlers. He 
appears to have been in Guatemala when Las Casas arrived to take up 
his appointment as Bishop of Chiapas, and encountered hostility and 
obstruction from certain ''conquistadores de su obispado," as Sarmiento 
calls them. On his return to Spain, the good Las Casas found that a 
certain Dr Sepulveda had written a treatise maintaining the right 
of Spain to suodue the natives by war. Las Casas put forward his 
Historia Apolo^etka in reply. A Junta of theologians was con- 
voked at Valladolid in 1550, before which Sepulveda attacked and 
Las Casas defended the cause of the natives. Mr Helps {Spanish 
conquest in America^ vol. iv. Book xx. ch. 2) has ^iven a lucid 
account of the controversy. Sarmiento is quite wrong m saying that 



6 TO HIS SACRED CiESARIAN MAJESTY 

This chaos and confusion of ignorance on the subject 
being so spread over the world and rooted in the opinions 
of the best informed literary men in Christendom, God put 
it into the heart of your Majesty to send Don Francisco de 
Toledo, Mayor-domo of your royal household, as Viceroy 
of these kingdoms'. When he arrived, he found many 
things to do, and many things to amend. Without resting 
after the dangers and long voyages in two seas which he 
had suffered, he put the needful order into all the things 



Las Casas was ignorant of the history of Peru. The portion of his 
Historia Apologetica relating to Peru, entitled De las antiguas 

fentes del Peru, has been edited and published by Don Marcos 
imenez de la Espada in the "Coleccion de libros Espanoles raros 
6 curiosos " (1892). It shows that Las Casas knew the works of Xeres, 
Astete, Cieza de Leon, Molina, and probably others ; and that he bad a 
remarkably accurate knowledge of Peruvian history. 

* Don Francisco de Toledo was Viceroy of Peru, from Nov. i6th, 
1 569, to Sept 28th, 1 581, and in some respects a remarkable man. He 
was a younger son of the third Count of Oropesa who had a common 
ancestor with the Dukes of Alva. His mother was Maria de Figueroa 
daughter of the Count of Feria. Throuj;h her he was directly 
descended from the first Duke of Alva. He was a first cousin of that 
Duke of Feria who made, a love match with Jane Dormer, the friend 
and playmate of our Edward VI. Moreover Don Francisco was a 
third cousin of Charles V. Their great grandmothers were sisters, 
daughters of Fadrique Henriquez, the Admiral of Castille. 

This V^iceroy was advanced in years. He held the appointment of 
a Mayor-domo at the court of Philip II, and another brother Juan 
was Ambassador at Rome. The Viceroy Toledo came to Peru with 
the Inquisition, which proved as great a nuisance to him as it was 
a paralyzing source of terror to his people. He was a man of extra- 
ordinary energy and resolution, and was devoted heart and soul to the 
public service. Sarmiento does not speak too highly of his devotion to 
duty in undertaking a personal visit to every part of his government. 
He was a most prolific legislator, founding his rules, to some extent, 
on the laws of the Incas. He was shrewd but narrow minded and 
heartless ; and his judicial murder of the young Inca, Tupac Amaru, 
has cast an indelible stain on his memory. 

Such a man could have no chance in an attack on the sound 
arguments of Las Casas. 

There is a picture which depicts the outward appearance of the 
Viceroy Toledo. A tall man with round stooping shoulders, in a suit 
of black velvet with the green cross of Alcantara embroidered on his 
cloak. A gloomy sallow face, with aquiline nose, high forehead and 
piercing black eyes too close together. The face is shaded by a high 
beaver hat, while one hand holds a sword, and the other rests on 
a table. 



Series 11. Vol. XXII. 




Pacsitttilt (re^HO€dt) of th€ 

COAT OF ARMS OF DON FRANCISCO DE TOLEDO. 

VICEROY OF PERU. 1569—1581. 
Prom the Sarmitnto MS. 1372, OOHingen Unixftraity Library. 

Reproduced and Printed for the Hakluyt Society by Donald Macbeth, 



THE KING, DON FELIPE, OUR LORD 7 

that were necessary. He amended the errors of former 
times, and laid a sure foundation for the future in such 
a way that the fruits of his measures will be lasting, because 
they rest on solid and reasoned foundations. He provided 
not only for what was his more direct duty, but also for 
the needs of contiguous governments. Especially he 
succoured the rich kingdom of Chile with troops and 
munitions of war, supplying a complete remedy for that 
land, which was on the point of being lost if help had 
not promptly come. He provided for the province of 
Esmeraldas, which would have been entirely neglected 
if he had not supplied its needs. The government of 
Yagualsongo and Cumdinama, in Santiago de los 
Montafias, of which Juan de Salinas had charge, would 
certainly have been abandoned owing to differences among 
the Spaniards if his good ruling had not made them listen 
to reason and respect justice. Besides this it was an object 
that, in the same government, a very good and rich piece 
of land should be occupied by Spaniards. When his 
measures became known throughout this new world, 
applications for help came from the remotest parts of it. 
This he gave, both as regards their spiritual and their 
temporal affairs, to the provinces of Tucuman, Juries, 
and Diaguitas, giving safety to them which it previously 
seemed impossible that they could ever secure. In the 
same way he helped and provided for the government of 
Santa Cruz de la Sierra, to enable it to check and punish 
the Chirihuanas, eaters of human flesh who infested this 
your kingdom of Peru in the direction of Charcas. Thanks 
to Don Francisco de Toledo are due for his measures to 
help these provinces and secure their future welfare ; thus 
giving occupation to all sorts of idle people. This was all 
done with the utmost diligence. For he did not care to 
enjoy the pleasures and ease of Lima, where his pre- 
decessors lived a life of enchantment But with that lively 
and untiring zeal which he has to serve your Majesty, he 



8 TO HIS SACRED Ci€SARIAN MAJESTY 

undertook new and greater labours, such as no former 
viceroys or governors had undertaken or even thought o£ 
His determination was to travel over this most rugged 
country himself, to make a general visitation of it, during 
which, though it is not finished, it is certain that he has 
remedied many and very great faults and abuses in the 
teaching and ministry of the Christian doctrine, giving holy 
and wise advice to its ministers that they should perform 
their offices as becomes the service of God, and the dis- 
chaise of your royal conscience, reducing the people to 
congr^ations of villages formed on suitable and healthy 
sites which had formerly been on crags and rocks where 
they were neither taught nor received spiritual instruction. 
In such places they lived and died like wild savages, 
worshipping idols as in the time of their Inca tyrants and 
of their blind heathenism. Orders were given to stop their 
public drinking bouts, their concubinage and worship of 
their idols and devils, emancipating and freeing them from 
the tyrannies of their curacas^ and finally giving them 
a rational life, which was before that of brutes in their 
manner of loading them as such. 

The work done by your Viceroy is such that the 
Indians are r^enerated, and they call him loudly their 
protector and guardian, and your Majesty who sent him, 
they call their father. So widely has the news spread 
of the benefits he has conferred and is still conferring, that 
the wild warlike Indians in many contiguous provinces, 
holding themselves to be secure under his word and safe 
conduct, have come to see and communicate with him, and 
have promised obedience spontaneously to your Majest>\ 
This has happened in the Andes of Xauxa, near Pilcocanti, 
and among the Maftaries and Chunchos to the east of 
Cuzco. These were sent back to their homes, grateful and 
attached to your royal service, with the presents he gave 
them and the memory of their reception. 

Among Christians, it is not right to take anything 




DON FRANCISCO D£ TOLEDO, 

Viceroy of Peru, A.D. 1569— 1581. 

After the portrait at Lima, from a sketch by Sir Clements Markham-, 1853. 



Series II. Vol, 22. 



Reproduced for tht Hakluyt Society by John Clay. 



THE KING, DON FELIPE, OUR LORD 9 

without a good title, yet that which your Majesty has to 
these parts, though more holy and more honourable than 
that which any other kings in the world have for any of 
their possessions, has suffered detriment, as I said before, 
in the consciences of many learned men and others, for 
want of correct information. The Viceroy proposes to do 
your Majesty a most signal service in this matter, besides 
the performance of all the other duties of which he has 
charge. This is to give a secure and quiet harbour to your 
royal conscience against the tempests raised even by your 
own natural subjects, theologians and other literary men, 
who have expressed serious opinions on the subject, based 
on incorrect information. Accordingly, in his general 
visitation, which he is making personally throughout the 
kingdom, he has verified from the root and established by a 
host of witnesses examined with the greatest diligence and 
care, taken from among the principal old men of the 
greatest ability and authority in the kingdom, and even 
those who pretend to have an interest in it from being 
relations and descendants of the Incas, the terrible, in- 
veterate and horrible tyranny of the Incas, being the 
tyrants who ruled in these kingdoms of Peru, and the 
curacas who governed the districts. This will undeceive 
all those in the world who think that the Incas were 
legitimate sovereigns, and that the curacas were natural 
lords of the land. In order that your Majesty may, with 
the least trouble and the most pleasure, be informed, and 
the rest, who are of a contrary opinion, be undeceived, 
I was ordered by the Viceroy Don Francisco de Toledo, 
whom I follow and serve in this general visitation, to take 
this business in hand, and write a history of the deeds 
of the twelve Incas of this land, and of the origin of the 
people, continuing the narrative to the end This I have 
done with all the research and diligence that was required, 
as your Majesty will see in the course of the perusal and by 



lO TO HIS SACRED Ci€SARIAN MAJESTY 

the ratification of witnesses. It will certify to the truth of 
the worst and most inhuman tyranny of these Incas and of 
their mracas who are not and never were original lords of 
the soil, but were placed there by Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 
\the greatest^ the most atrocious and harmful tyrant of them 
all\ The curacas were and still are great tyrants appointed 
by other great and violent tyrants, as will clearly and 
certainly appear in the history ; so that the tyranny is 
proved, as well as that the Incas were strangers in Cuzco, 
and that they had seized the valley of Cuzco, and all the 
rest of their territory from Quito to Chile by force of arms, 
making themselves Incas without the consent or election of 
the natives. 

Besides this, there are their tyrannical laws and customs. 
[// will be understood that your Majesty has a specially true 
and holy title to these kingdoms of Peru, because your 
Majesty and your most sacred ancestors stopped the sacrifices 
of innocent men^ the eating of human fleshy the accursed sin, 
the promiscuous concubinage with sisters and mothers^ the 
abominable use of beasts, and their wicked and accursed 
custofns^.] For from each one God demands an account of 
his neighbour, and this duty specially appertains to princes, 
and above all to your Majesty. Only for this may war 
be made and prosecuted by the right to put a stop to the 
deeds of tyrants. Even if they had been true and natural 
lords of the soil, it would be lawful to remove them and 
introduce a new government, because man may rightly be 
punished for these sins against nature, though the native 
community has not been opposed to such practices nor 
desires to be avenged, as innocent, by the Spaniards. For 
in this case they have no right to deliver themselves and 
their children over to death, and they should be forced 
to observe natural laws, as we are taught by the Archbishop 

1 For a contradiction of these slanders by an impartial witness see 
Cieza de Leon, ii. p. 78. 



THE KING, DON FELIPE, OUR LORD II 

of Florence, Innocent, supported by Fray, Francisco de 
Victoria in his work on the title to the Indies. So that by 
this title alone, without counting many others, your Majesty 
has the most sufficient and legitimate right to the Indies, 
better than any other' prince in the world has to any 
lordship whatever. For, whether more or less concealed 
or made known, in all the lands that have been discovered 
in the two seas of your Majesty, north and south, this 
general breaking' of the law of nature has been found. 

By this same title your Majesty may also, without 
scruple, order the conquest of those islands of the archi- 
pelago of "Nombre de Jesus,*' vulgarly but incorrectly 
called the Solomon Isles, of which I gave notice and 
personally discovered in the year 1 567 ; although it was 
for the General Alvaro de Mendafia ; and many others 
which are in the same South Sea^ I offer myself to your 
Majesty to discover and settle these islands, which will 
make known and facilitate all the commercial navigation, 
with the favour of God, by shorter routes. I offer much, 
well do I see it, but I trust in almighty God with whose 
favour, I believe I can do what I say in your royal service. 
The talent which God has given me leads me to aspire to 
the accomplishment of these achievements, and does not 
demand of me a strict account, and I believe that I shall 
comply with what will be required, for never did I so wish 
to achieve anything. Your Majesty sees and does not lose 
what other kings desire and hold by good fortune. This 
makes me speak so freely of my desire to die in your 
service in which I have laboured since my childhood, and 
under what circumstances others may say. 

Believing that, in writing this present history, I have 
not done a less but a greater service than all the rest, 
I obeyed your Viceroy who made me undertake it Your 

* See my introduction to the Voyages of Sarmiento^ pp. xiii— xvii. 



12 TO HIS MAJESTY THE KING, DON FELIPE, OUR LORD 

Majesty will read it many times because, besides that the 
reading of it is pleasant, your Majesty will take a great 
interest in the matters of conscience and of administration 
of which it treats. I call this the Second Part, because it 
is to be preceded by the geographical description of all 
these lands, which will form the First Part. This will 
result in great clearness for the comprehension of the 
establishment of governments, bishopricks, new settlements, 
and of discoveries, and will obviate the inconveniences 
formerly caused by the want of such knowledge. Although 
the First Part ought to precede this one in time, it is not 
sent to your Majesty because it is not finished, a great part 
of it being derived from information collected during the 
general visitation. Suffice that it will be best in quality, 
though not in time. After this Second Part will be sent a 
Third Part on the times of the evangel. All this I have to 
finish by order of the Viceroy Don Francisco de Toledo. 
May your Majesty receive my work with the greatest and 
most favourable attention, as treating of things that will be 
of service to God and to your Majesty and of great profit 
to my nation ; and may our Lord preserve the sacred 
catholic and royal person of your Majesty, for the repair 
and increase of the catholic Church of Jesus Christ. 
From Cuzco. The ^th of March^ 1 572. 

Your catholic royal Majesty 

from the least vassal of your Majesty 

The Captain 

Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa. 



Series II. Vol. XXII. 



SVc.^^nA^Q^,StCn^6u,^^l>ZtT^r>m ^T^^/L Hcmf>^ 



' ^ ' • ^ ^^-m^ f) 



Facsimile (reduced) of the last Page of 

SARMIENTO'S INTRODUCTORY LETTER TO KING PHILIP II, 1572. 

Prom the original MS,, GOtiingen University Library. 

Reproduced and printed for the Hakluyt Society by Donald Macbeth, 



I. 

DIVISION OF THE HISTORY. 

This general history of which I took charge by order of 
Don Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy of these kingdoms of 
Peru, will be divided into three Parts. The First will be the 
natural history of these lands, being a particular description 
of them. It will contain accounts of the marvellous works 
of nature, and other things of great profit and interest I 
am now finishing it, that it may be sent to your Majesty 
after this, though it ought to have come before it. The 
Second and Third Parts treat of the people of these kingdoms 
and of their deeds in the following order. In the Second 
Part, which is the present one, the most ancient and first 
peoplers of this land will be discussed in general, and then, 
descending to particulars, I shall describe [tAe terrible and 
inveterate tyranny of] the Ccapac Incas of these kingdoms, 
down to the end and death of Huascar, the last of the 
Incas. The Third and Last Part will treat of the times of 
the Spaniards, and of their notable deeds in the discovery 
and settlement of this kingdom and others adjoining it, 
with the captains, governors, and viceroys who have ruled 
here, down to the present year 1572. 

II. 

THE ANCIENT DIVISION OF THE LAND. 

When historians wish to write, in an orderly way, of the 
world or some part of it, they generally first describe the 
situation containing it, which is the land, before they deal 
with what it contains, which is the population, to avoid the 



14 THE ANCIENT DIVISION OF THE LAND 

former in the historical part. If this is so in ancient and 
well known works, it is still more desirable that in treating 
of new and strange lands, like these, of such vast extent, a 
task which I have undertaken, the same order should be 
preserved. This will not only supply interesting informa- 
tion but also, which is more to be desired, it will be useful 
for navigation and new discoveries, by which God our Lord 
may be served, the territories of the crown of Spain 
extended, and Spaniards enriched and respected. As I 
have not yet finished the particular description of this land, 
which will contain everything relating to gec^raphy and 
the works of nature minutely dealt with, in this volume I 
shall only offer a general summary, following the most 
ancient authors, to recall the remains of those lands which 
are now held to be new and previously unknown, and 
of their inhabitants. 

The land, which we read of as having existed in the first 
and second age of the world, was divided into five parts. 
The three continents, of which geographers usually write, 
Asia, Africa, and Europe, are divided by the river Tanais, 
the river Nile, and the Mediterranean Sea, which Pomponius 
calls "our" sea. Asia is divided from Europe by the river 
Tanais', now called Silin, and from Africa by the Nile, 
though Ptolemy divides it by the Red Sea and isthmus of 
the desert of Arabia Deserta. Africa is divided from 
Europe by "our" sea, commencing at the strait of Gibraltar 
and ending with the Lake of Meotis. The other two parts 
are thus divided. One was called, and still ought to be 
called, Catigara* in the Indian Sea, a very extensive land 
now distinct from Asia. Ptolemy describes it as being, in 

I The Don. 

' Marinus of Tyre, quoted by Ptolemy, gave an enormous extension 
to eastern Asia, and placed the region he called Catigara far to the 
S.E. of it- Catigara was described by Marinus of Tyre as an emponum 
and important place of trade. It is not mentioned in the Periplus of 
the Erythraean Sea. 



THE ANCIENT DIVISION OF THE LAND IS 

his time and in the time of Alexander the Great, joined on 
to Asia in the direction of Malacca. I shall treat of this in 
its place, for it contains many and very precious secrets, 
and an infinity of souls, to whom the King our Lord may 
announce the holy catholic faith that they may be saved, 
for this is the object of his Majesty in these new lands of 
barbarous idolatry. The fifth part is or was called the 
Atlantic Island, as famous as extensive, and which exceeded 
all the others, each one by itself, and even some joined 
tc^ether. The inhabitants of it and their description will 
be treated of, because this is the land,^or at least part of it, 
of these western Indies of Castille. 



III. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ANCIENT ATLANTIC ISLAND. 

The cosmographers do not write ofthis ancient Atlantic 
Island because there was no memory, when they wrote, of 
its very rich commercial prosperity in the second, and 
perhaps in the first age. But from what the divine Plato 
tells us and from the vestiges we see which agree with what 
we read, we can not only say where it was and where parts 
of it were, as seen in our time, but we can describe it 
almost exactly, its grandeur and position. This is the 
truth, and" the same Plato affirms it as true, in the Timaeus, 
where he gives its truthful and marvellous history. 

We will speak first of its situation, and then of its 
inhabitants. It is desirable that the reader should give his 
attention because, although it is very ancient history, it is 
so new to the ordinary teaching of cosmography that it 
may cause such surprise as to raise doubts of the story, 
whence may arise a want of appreciation. 

From the words which Plato refers to Solon, the 



l6 DESCRIPTION OF THE ANCIENT ATLANTIC ISLAND 

wisest of the seven of Greece, and which Solon had 
heard with attention from the most learned Egyptian 
priest in the city called Delta, we learn that this Atlantic 
Island was larger than Asia and Africa together, and that 
the eastern end of this immense island was near the 
strait which we now call of Gibraltar. In front of the 
mouth of the said strait, the island had a port with 
a narrow entrance ; and Plato says that the island was 
truly continental. From it there was a passage by the 
sea, which surrounded it, to many other neighbouring 
islands, and to the main land of Europe and Africa. In 
this island there were kings of great and admirable power 
who ruled over that and many adjacent islands as well 
as the greater part of Europe and Africa, up to the 
confines of Egypt, of which I shall treat presently. The 
extent of the island was from the south, where were the 
highest mountains, to the north. The mountains exceeded 
in extent any that now exist, as well in their forests, 
as in height, and in beauty. These are the words of Plato 
in describing the situation of this most richly endowed 
and delightful Atlantic Island. It now remains for me 
to do my duty, which is to explain what has been said 
more clearly and from it to deduce the situation of the 
island. 

From what Plato says that this island had a port near 
the mouth of the strait of the pillars of Hercules, that 
it was larger than Asia and Africa together, and that it 
extended to the south, I gather three things clearly towards 
the understanding of all that invites attention. The first is 
that the Atlantic Island began less than two leagues from the 
mouth of the strait, if more it was only a little more. The 
coast of the island then turned north close to that of Spain, 
and was joined to the island of Cadiz or Gadiz, or Caliz, as 
it is now called. I affirm this for two reasons, one by 
authority and the other by conjectural demonstration. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ANCIENT ATLANTIC ISLAND 1 7 

The authority is that Plato in his Critias, telling how 
Neptune distributed the sovereignty of the island among 
his ten sons, said that the second son was called in the 
mother tongue " Gadirum," which in Greek we call 
" Eumelo." To this son he gave the extreme parts of the 
island near the columns of Hercules, and from his name 
the place was called Gadiricum which is Caliz. By demon- 
stration we see, and I have seen with my own eyes, more 
than a league out at sea and in the neighbourhood of the 
island of Caliz, under the water, the remains of very large 
edifices of a cement which is almost imperishable*, an 
evident sign that this island was once much larger, which 
corroborates the narrative of Critias in Plato. The second 
point is that the Atlantic Island was larger than Asia and 
Africa. From this I deduce its size, which is incredible or 
at least immense. It would give the island 2300 leagues 
of longitude, that is from east to west For Asia has 1500 
leagues in a straight line from Malacca which is on its 
eastern front, to the boundary of Egypt ; and Africa has 
800 leagues from Egypt to the end of the Atlantic moun- 
tains or " Montes Claros " facing the Canary Islands; which 
together make 2300 leagues of longitude. If the island 
was larger it would be more in circuit. Round the coast 
it would have 7100 leagues, for Asia is 5300 and Africa 
2700 leagues in circuit, a little more or less, which together 
makes 7100 leagues, and it is even said that it was more. 

Having considered the measurement of its great size we 
come to the third point, which is the true position over 



* Dr Peitschmann quotes from Juan Bautisia Suarez de Salazar, 
Grandezas y antizuedades de la islay ciudad de Cadiz (Cadiz, 1610) — 
"That which all those who traverse the sea affirm was that to the south, 
the water being clear, there is seen beneath it at a distance of a league, 
ruins of edifices which are good evidence that the ocean has gained 
upon the land in this part.'* He refers also to a more recent history of 
Cadiz and its province by Adolfo de Castro (1858), and to the five first 
books of the General Chronicle of Spain of Florian de Ocampo, 1552 
(lib. ii. cap. 11). 

M. S. 2 



l8 DESCRIPTION OF THE ANCIENT ATLANTIC ISLAND 

which this great island extended. Plato says that the 
position of the island extended to the south ; opposite 
to the north. From this we should understand that, the 
front conterminous with Spain from the strait of Gibraltar 
to Cadiz thence extended westward, making a curve along 
the coast of Barbary or Africa, but very close to it, 
between west and south, which is what sailors call south- 
west For if it was opposite to north, which is between 
east and north, called north-east, it must necessarily have 
its direction in the said south-west, west-south-west, or 
south- south-west. It would include and incorporate the 
Canary Islands which, according to this calculation, would 
be part of it, and from thence the land trended south-west 
As regards the south, it would extend rather more to the 
south and south-south-west, finally following the route by 
which we go when we sail from Spain to the Indies, 
forming a continent or main land with these western 
Indies of Castille, joining on to them by the parts stretch- 
ing south-west, and west-south-west, a little more or less 
from the Canaries. Thus there was sea on one side and on 
the other of this land, that is on the north and south, and 
the Indies united with it, and they were all one. The 
proof of this is that if the Atlantic Island had 2300 leagues 
of longitude, and the distance of Cadiz to the mouth of the 
river Marafton or Orellana and Trinidad, on the coast of 
Brazil, is not more than 1000, 900, or 11 00 leagues, being 
the part where this land joined to America, it clearly 
appears that, to complete the complement of 2300 leagues, 
we have to include in the computation all the rest of the 
land from the mouth of the Marafton and Brazil to the 
South Sea, which is what they now call America. Follow- 
ing this course it would come to Coquimbo. Counting 
what is still wanting, this would be much less than 2300 
leagues. Measuring the circumference, the island was 
more than 7100 leagues round, because that is about the 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ANCIENT ATLANTIC ISLAND 19 

circumference of Asia and Africa by their coasts. If this 
land is joined to the other, which in fact it was in con- 
formity with the description, it would have a much greater 
circuit, for even now these parts of the western Indies, 
measured by compass, and latitude, have more than 7100 
leagues. 

From all this it may be inferred that the Indies of 
Castille formed a continent with the Atlantic Island, and 
consequently that the same Atlantic Island, which ex- 
tended from Cadiz over the sea we traverse to the Indies, 
and which all cosmographers call the Atlantic Ocean 
because the Atlantic Island was in it, over which we 
now navigate, was land in ancient times. Finally we shall 
relate the sequel, first giving an account of the sphere 
at that time and of the inhabitants. 



IV. 



FIRST INHABITANTS OF THE WORLD AND 
PRINCIPALLY OF THE ATLANTIC ISLAND. 

Having described the four parts of the world, for of 
Catigara, which is the fifth, we shall not speak except in 
its place which the ancients assigned to it, it will be right 
to come to the races which peopled them. All of which 
I have to treat has to be personal and heathen history. 
The chief value and perfection of history consists in its 
accuracy, thoroughly sifting each event, verifying the times 
and periods of what happened so that no doubt may remain 
of what passed. It is in this way that I desire to write 
the truth in so far as my ability enables me to do so 
respecting a thing so ancient as the first peopling of these 
new lands. I wish, for the better illustration of the present 
history, to precede it with the foundations that cannot 
be denied, counting the time in conformity with the 

2 — 2 



20 FIRST INHABITANTS OF THE WORLD 

chronology of the Hebrews in the days before our Saviour 
Jesus Christ, and the times after his most holy mtivity 
according to the counting used by our mother the holy 
church, not making account of the calculations of Chaldean 
or Egyptian interpreters. 

Thus, passing over the first age from Adam to the 
Deluge, which covers 1656 years, we will b^in from 
the second age, which is that of the patriarch Noah, second 
universal father of mortals. The divine scriptures show us 
that eight persons were saved from the flood, in the ark. 
Noah and his wife Terra or Vesta, named from the first 
fire lighted by crystal for the first sacrifice as Berosus 
would have: and his three sons to wit, Cam and his wife 
Cataflua, Sem and his wife Prusia or Persia, Japhet and his 
wife Funda, as we read in the roister of the chronicles. 
The names of some of these people remain, and to this day 
we can see clearly whence they were derived, as the 
Hebrews from Heber, the Assyrians from Asur, but most 
of them have been so changed that human intelligence 
is insufficient to investigate by this way. Besides the three 
sons, Noah had others after the flood. 

The descendants of these men having multiplied and 
become very numerous, Noah divided the world among his 
first sons that they might people it, and then embarked on 
the Euxine Sea as we gather from Xenophon. The giant 
Noah then navigated along the Mediterranean Sea, as 
Filon says and Annius repeats, dividing the whole land 
among his sons. He gave it in charge to Sem to people 
Asia from the Nile to the eastern Indies, with some of the 
sons he got after the flood. To Cam he gave Africa from 
the Rinocoruras to the straits of Gibraltar with some mor^ 
of the sons. Europe was chosen for Japhet to people with 
the rest of the sons begotten after the flood, who were 
all the sons of Tuscan, whence descend the Tadescos> 
Alemanes, and the nations adjacent to them. 



AND PRINCIPALLY OF THE ATLANTIC ISLAND 21 

In this voyage Noah founded some towns and colonies 
on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, and remained in 
them for ten years, until 112 years after the universal 
deluge. He ordered his daughter Araxa to remain in 
Armenia where the ark rested, with her husband and 
children, to people that country. Then he, with the rest 
of his companions, went to Mesopotamia and settled. 
There Nembrot was raised up for king, of the descendants 
of Cam. This Nembrot, says Berosus, built Babylon 130 
years after the flood. The sons of Sem elected for their 
king, Jektan, son of Heber. Those of Japhet chose 
Fenec for their king, called Assenes by Moses. There 
were 300,000 men under him only 310 years after the 
deluge. Each king, with his companions, set out to people 
the part of the world chosen for them by the patriarch 
Noah. It is to be noted that, although Noah divided the 
parts of the world among his three sons and their de- 
scendants, many of them did not keep to the boundaries. 
For some of one lineage settled on the lands of another 
brother. Nembrot, being of the line of Cam, remained 
in the parts of Sem, and many others were mixed together 
in the same way. 

Thus the three parts of the world were peopled by 
these and their descendants, of whom I do not propose 
to treat in detail, for our plan is to proceed in our 
narrative until we come to the inhabitants of the Atlantic 
Island, the subject of this history. This was so near 
Spain that, according to the common fame, Caliz used 
to be so close to the main land in the direction of the 
port of Santa Maria, that a plank would serve as a 
bridge to pass from the island to Spain. So that no one 
can doubt that the inhabitants of Spain, Jubal and his 
descendants, peopled that land, as well as the inhabitants 
of Africa which was also near. Hence it was called the 
Atlantic Island from having been peopled by Atlas, the 



22 FIRST INHABITANTS OF THE WORLD 

giant and very wise astrologer who first settled Mauritania 
now called Barbary, as Godefridus and all the chronicles 
teach us. This Atlas was the son of Japhet by the 
nymph Asia, and grandson of Noah. For this there is 
no authority except the above, corroborated by the divine 
Plato as I began by explaining, and it will be necessary to 
seek his help to give the reader such evidence as merits 
belief respecting the inhabitants of this Atlantic Island. 



INHABITANTS OF THE ATLANTIC ISLAND. 

We have indicated the situation of the Atlantic Island 
and those who, in conformity with the general peopling of 
the world, were probably its first inhabitants, namely the 
early Spaniards and the first Mauritanian vassals of the 
King Atlas. This wonderful history was almost forgotten 
in ancient times, Plato alone having preserved it, as has 
already been related in its place, and which should again 
be consulted for what remains. Plato, in Critias, says that 
to Neptune's share came the Atlantic Island, and that he 
had ten sons. He divided the whole island amongst them, 
which before and in his time was called the empire of 
the floating islands, as Volaterranius tells us. It was 
divided by Neptune into ten regions or kingdoms. The 
chief one, called Venus, he gave to his eldest son named 
Atlantis, and appointed him sovereign of the whole island ; 
which consequently took the name of Atlantica, and the 
sea Atlantic, a name which it retains to this day. The 
second son, named Gadirun, received the part which lies 
nearest to Spain and which is now Caliz. To the third 
son Neptune gave a share. His name was Amferes, the 
fourth's Eutoctenes, the seventh's Alusipo, the eighth's 
Mestores, the ninth's Azaen, the tenth's Diaprepero. 



INHABITANTS OF THE ATLANTIC ISLAND 23 

These and their descendants reigned for many ages, 
holding the lordships, by the sea, of many other islands, 
which could not have been other than Hayti, which we call 
Santo Domingo, Cuba and others, also peopled by emi- 
grants from the Atlantic Island. They also held sway 
over Africa as far as Egypt, and over Europe to Tirrenia 
and Italy. 

The lineage of Atlas extended in a grand succession 
of generations, and his kingdom was ruled in succession by 
the firstborns. They possessed such a copious supply of 
riches that none of the natives had seen it all, and that 
no new comers could realise it. This land abounded in 
all that is necessary for sustaining human life, pasture, 
timber, drugs, metals, wild beasts and birds, domestic 
animals including a great number of elephants, most 
fragrant perfumes, liquors, flowers, fruits, wine, and all the 
vegetables used for food, many dates, and other things for 
presents. That island produced all things in great pro- 
fusion. In ancient times it was sacred, beautiful, admirable 
and fertile, as well as of vast extent In it were extensive 
kingdoms, sumptuous temples, palaces calling forth great 
admiration, as is seen from the relation of Plato respecting 
the metropolis of the island which exceeded Babylon, Troy, 
or Rome, with all their rich buildings, curious and well- 
constructed forts, and even the seven wonders of the world 
concerning which the ancients sing so much. In the chief 
city of this empire there was a port to which so many 
ships and merchants resorted from all parts, that owing to 
the vast concourse a great and continual noise caused the 
residents to be thunderstruck. The number of these 
Atlantics ready for war was so great that in the capital 
city alone they had an ordinary garrison of 60,000 soldiers, 
always distributed among farms, each farm measuring 
100 furlongs. The rest inhabited the woods and other 
places, and were innumerable. They took to war 10,000 



24 INHABITANTS OF THE ATLANTIC ISLAND 

two-horse chariots each containing eight armed men, with 
six slingers and stone throwers on either side. For the 
sea they had 200,000 boats with four men in each, making 
800,000 men for the sea-service alone. Thb was quite 
necessary owing to the great number of subject nations 
which had to be governed and kept in obedience. 

The rest which Plato relates on this subject will be 
discussed in the sequel, for I now proceed to our principal 
point, which is to establish the conclusion that as these 
people carried their banners and trophies into Europe and 
Africa which are not contiguous, they must have overrun 
the Indies of Castille and peopled them, being part of the 
same main land. They used much policy in their rule. 
But at the end of many ages, by divine permission, and 
perhaps owing to their sins, it happened that a great and 
continuous earthquake, with an unceasing deluge, perpetual 
by day and night, opened the earth and swallowed up 
those warlike and ambitious Atlantic men. The Atlantic 
Island remained absorbed beneath that great sea, which 
from that cause continued to be unnavigable owing to the 
mud of the absorbed island in solution, a wonderful thing. 

This special flood may be added to the five floods 
recorded by the ancients. These are the general one of 
Moses, the second in Egypt of which Xenophon makes 
mention, the third flood in Achaia of Greece in the time of 
Ogyges Atticus, described by Isidore as happening in the 
days of Jacob, the fourth in Thessaly in the time of 
Deucalion and Pyrrha, in the days of Moses according to 
Isidore, in 782 as given by Juan Annius. The fifth flood 
is mentioned by Xenophon as happening in Egypt in the 
time of Proteus. The sixth was this which destroyed so 
great a part of the Atlantic Island and suflliced so to 
separate the part that was left unsubmerged, that all 
mortals in Asia, Africa and Europe believed that all were 
drowned. Thus was lost the intercourse and commerce of 



INHABITANTS OF THE ATLANTIC ISLAND 25 

the people of these parts with those of Europe and Africa, 
in such sort that all memory of them would have been lost, 
if it had not been for the Egyptians, preservers of the 
most ancient deeds of men and of nature. The destruction 
of the Atlantic Island, over at least looo leagues of longi- 
tude, was in the time when Aod^ governed the people of 
Israel, 1320 years before Christ and 2162 years after the 
Creation, according to the Hebrews. I deduce this calcu- 
lation from what Plato relates of the conversation between 
Solon and the Egyptian priest. For, according to all the 
chronicles, Solon lived in the time of Tarquinius Priscus 
the King of Rome, Josiah being King of Israel at Jeru- 
salem, before Christ 610 years. From this period until 
the time when the Atlantics had put a blockade over 
the Athenians 9000 lunar years had passed which, referred 
to solar years, make 869. All added together make the 
total given above. Very soon afterwards the deluge must 
have come, as it is said to have been in the time of Aod^ or 
748 years after the general deluge of Noah. This being so 
it is to be noted that the isle of Caliz, the Canaries, the 
Salvages, and Trinidad must have been parts of the ab- 
sorbed land. 

It may be assumed that these very numerous nations 
of Atlantis were sufficient to people those other lands of 
the Western Indies of Castille. Other nations also came 
to them, and peopled some provinces after the above 
destruction. Strabo and Solinus say that Ulysses, after 
the fall of Troy, navigated westward to Lusitania, founded 
Lisbon, and, after it had been built, desired to try his 
fortune on the Atlantic Ocean by the way we now go to 
the Indies. He disappeared, and it was never afterwards 
known what had become of him. This is stated by Pero 
Anton Beuter, a noble Valencian historian and, as he 

» Ehud. 



26 INHABITANTS OF THE ATLANTIC ISLAND 

mentions, this was the opinion of Dante Aligheri, the 
illustrious Florentine poet. Assuming this to be correct 
we may follow Ulysses from island to island until he came 
to Yucatan and Campeachy, part of the territory of New 
Spain. For those of that land have the Grecian bearing 
and dress of the nation of Ulysses, they have many Grecian 
words, and use Grecian letters. Of this I have myself seen 
many signs and proofs. Their name for God is " Teos " 
which is Greek, and even throughout New Spain they use 
the word *'Teos" for God. I have also to say that in 
passing that way, I found that they anciently preserved an 
anchor of a ship, venerating it as an idol, and had a certain 
genesis in Greek, which should not be dismissed as absurd 
at first sight. Indeed there are a sufficient number of 
indications to support my conjecture concerning Ulysses. 
From thence all those provinces of Mexico, Tabasco, 
Xalisco, and to the north the Capotecas, Chiapas, Guate- 
malas, Honduras, Lasandones, Nicaraguas, Tlaguzgalpas, 
as far as Nicoya, Costa Rica, and Veragua. 

Moreover Esdras recounts that those nations which 
went from Persia by the river Euphrates came to a land 
never before inhabited by the human race. Going down 
this river there was no way but by the Indian Sea to reach 
a land where there was no habitation. This could only 
have been Catigara, placed in 9** S. by Ptolemy, and 
according to the navigators sent by Alexander the Great, 
40 days of navigation from Asia. This is the land which 
the describers of maps call the unknown land of the south, 
whence it is possible to go on settling people as far as the 
Strait of Magellan to the west of Catigara, and the Javas, 
New Guinea, and the islands of the archipelago of Nombre 
de Jesus which I, our Lord permitting, discovered in the 
South Sea in the year 1568, the unconquered Felipe II 
reigning as King of Spain and its dependencies by the 
demarcation of 180° of longitude. 



INHABITANTS OF THE ATLANTIC ISLAND 2/ 

It may thus be deduced that New Spain and its 
provinces were peopled by the Greeks, those of Catigara 
by the Jews, and those of the rich and most powerful 
kingdoms of Peru and adjacent provinces by the Atlantics 
who were descended from the primeval Mesopotamians 
and Chaldaeans, peoplers of the world. 

These, and other points with them, which cannot be 
discussed with brevity, are true historical reasons, of a 
quality worthy of belief, such as men of reason and letters 
may adopt respecting the peopling of these lands. When 
we come to consider attentively what these barbarians of 
Peru relate of their origin and of the tyrannical rule of the 
Incas Ccapacs, and the fables and extravagances they 
recount, the truth may be distinguished from what is false, 
and how in some of their fables they allude to true facts 
which are admitted and held by us as such. Therefore the 
reader should peruse with attention and read the most 
strange and racy history of barbarians that has, until now, 
been read of any political nation in the world. 

VI. 

THE FABLE OF THE ORIGIN OF THESE BARBAROUS 
INDIANS OF PERU, ACCORDING TO THEIR BLIND 
OPINIONS. 

As these barbarous nations of Indians were always 
without letters, they had not the means of preserving the 
monuments and memorials of their times, and those of 
their predecessors with accuracy and method. As the devil, 
who is always striving to injure the human race, found 
these unfortunates to be easy of belief and timid in obe- 
dience, he introduced many illusions, lies and frauds, 
giving them to understand that he had created them from 
the first, and afterwards, owing to their sins and evil deeds, 
he had destroyed them with a flood, again creating them 
and giving them food and the way to preserve it By 



28 PERUVIAN STORY OF THE CREATION 

chance they formerly had some notice, passed down to 
them from mouth to mouth, which had reached them from 
their ancestors, respecting the truth of what happened 
in former times. Mixing this with the stories told them 
by the devil, and with other things which they changed, 
invented, or added, which may happen in all nations, they 
made up a pleasing salad, and in some things worthy of 
the attention of the curious who are accustomed to consider 
and discuss human ideas. 

One thing must be noted among many others. It is 
that the stories which are here treated as fables, which they 
are, are held by the natives to be as true as we hold the 
articles of our faith, and as such they affirm and confirm 
them with unanimity, and swear by them. There are a few, 
however, who by the mercy of God are opening their eyes 
and beginning to see what is true and what is false re- 
specting those things. But we have to write down what 
they say and not what we think about it in this part. We 
shall hear what they hold respecting their first age, [and 
afterwards we shall come to the inveterate and cruel tyranny 
of the Inca tyrants who oppressed these kingdoms of Peru for 
so long. All this is done by order of the most excellent Don 
Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy of these kingdoms\ I have 
collected the information with much diligence so that this 
history can rest on attested proofs from the general testi- 
mony of the whole kingdom, old and young, Incas and 
tributary Indians. 

The natives of this land affirm that in the beginning, 
and before this world was created, there was a being called 
Viracocha. He created a dark world without sun, moon 
or stars. Owing to this creation he was named Viracocha 
Pachayachachi, which means "Creator of all things^" And 



^ Uiracocha (Viracocha) was the Creator. Garcilasso de la Vega 
pointed out the mistake of supposing that the word signified " foam of 
the sea " (ii. p. i6). He beheved it to be a name, the derivation of 
which he did not attempt to explain. Bias Valera (i. p. 243) said the 



PERUVIAN STORY OF THE CREATION 29 

when he had created the world he formed a race of giants 
of disproportioned greatness painted and sculptured, to see 
whether it would be well to make real men of that size. 
He then created men in his likeness as they are now ; and 
they lived in darkness. 

Viracocha ordered these people that they should live 
without quarrelling, and that they should know and serve 
him. He gave them a certain precept which they were to 
observe on pain of being confounded if they should break 
it They kept this precept for some time, but it is not 
mentioned what it was. But as there arose among them 
the vices of pride and covetousness, they transgressed the 
precept of Viracocha Pachayachachi and falling, through 
this sin, under his indignation, he confounded and cursed 
them. Then some were turned into stones, others into 
other things, some were swallowed up by the earth, others 
by the sea, and over all there came a general flood which 
they call uHu packaaiti, which means "water that over- 
turns the land." They say that it rained 60 days and nights, 



meaning was the ** will and power of God " ; not that this is the 
signification of the word, but by reason of the godlike qualities 
attributed to Him who was known by it. Cieza de Leon says that 
Tici-Uiracocha was God, Creator of heaven and earth : Acosta that to 
Ticci-Uiracocha they assigned the chief power and command over all 
things ; Montesinos that lUa-tici-Uiracocha was the name of the 
creator of the world ; Molina that Tecsi-Uiracocha was the Creator 
and incomprehensible God ; the anonymous Jesuit that Uiracocha 
meant the great God of " Pirua ^ ; Betanzos that the Creator was Con- 
Tici- Uiracocha. 

According to Montesinos and the anonymous Jesuit Uira or Vtra is 
a corruption of Pirua meaning a depository. The first meaning of 
Cocha is a lake, but here it is held to signify profundity, abyss, space. 
The " Dweller in Space." Tied or Tici is base or foundation, hence 
the founder. Ilia means light. The anonymous Jesuit gives the 
meaning ** Eternal Light" to Illa-Ticci. The word Con^ given by 
Betanzos and Garcia, has no known meaning. 

Pachacamac and Pachayachachi are attributes of the deity. 
Pacha means time or place, also the universe. Canute is the Ruler, 
Yachachi the Teacher. ** The Ruler and Teacher of the Universe." 

The meaning and significance of the word 67mr0^Aa has been very 
fully discussed, by Senor Don Leonardo Villar of Cuzco in a paper 
entitled Lexicologia Keshua Viracocha (Lima, 1887}. 



30 FABLE OF THE CANARIS 

that it drowned all created things, and that there alone 
remained some vestiges of those who were turned into 
stones, as a memorial of the event, and as an example to 
posterity, in the edifices of Pucara, which are 60 leagues 
from Cuzco. 

Some of the nations, besides the Cuzcos, also say that 
a few were saved from this flood to leave descendants for 
a future age. Each nation has its special fable which is 
told by its people, of how their first ancestors were saved 
from the waters of the deluge. That the ideas they had in 
their blindness may be understood, I will insert only one, 
told by the nation of the Caftaris, a land of Quito and 
Tumibamba, 400 leagues from Cuzco and more. 

They say that in the time of the deluge called uflu 
pachacuti there was a mountain named Guasano in the 
province of Quito and near a town called Tumipampa. The 
natives still point it out. Up this mountain went two of 
the Caftaris named Ataorupagui and Cusicayo. As the 
waters increased the mountain kept rising and keeping 
above them in such a way that it was never covered by the 
waters of the flood. In this way the two Caftaris escaped. 
These two, who were brothers, when the waters abated 
after the flood, began to sow. One day when they had 
been at work, on returning to their hut, they found in it 
some small loaves of bread, and a jar of chicha, which is 
the beverage used in this country in place of wine, made of 
boiled maize. They did not know who had brought it, but 
they gave thanks to the Creator, eating and drinking of 
that provision. Next day the same thing happened. As 
they marvelled at this mystery, they were anxious to find 
out who brought the meals. So one day they hid them- 
selves, to spy out the bringers of their food. While they 
were watching they saw two Caftari women preparing the 
victuals and putting them in the accustomed place. When 
about to depart the men tried to seize them, but they 



STORIES OF A DELUGE 3 1 

evaded their would-be captors and escaped. The Caftaris, 
seeing the mistake they had made in molesting those who 
had done them so much good, became sad and prayed to 
Viracocha for pardon for their sins, entreating him to let 
the women come back and give them the accustomed meals. 
The Creator granted their petition. The women came back 
and said to the Cafiaris — "The Creator has thought it well 
that we should return to you, lest you should die of hunger." 
They brought them food. Then there was friendship 
between the women and the Caftari brothers, and one of 
the Caftari brothers had connexion with one of the women. 
Then, as the elder brother was drowned in a lake which 
was near, the survivor married one of the women, and had 
the other as a concubine. By them he had ten sons who 
formed two lineages of five each, and increasing in numbers 
they called one Hanansaya which is the same as to say the 
upper party, and the other Hurinsaya, or the lower party. 
From these all the Caftaris that now exist are descended^ 

In the same way the other nations have fables of how 
some of their people were saved from whom they trace 
their origin and descent But the Incas and most of those 
of Cuzco, those among them who are believed to know 
most, do not say that anyone escaped fro m th e flood, but 
that Viracocha b^an to create men afresh* as will be 
related further ^"^r — ©nc' fhing is believed among all the 
nations of these parts, for they all speak generally and as 
well known of the general flood which they call uflu 
packacuti. From this we may clearly understand that if, 
in these parts they have a tradition of the great flood, this 
great mass of the floating islands which they afterwards 



* The same story of the origin of the Cafiaris is told by Molina, 
p. 8. But the mountain is called Huaca-yuan ; and instead of women 
the beings who brought the food were macaws. Molina tells another 
story received from the people of Ancas-mayu. Both seem to have 
been obtained by asking leading questions about a deluge. 



32 VIRACOCHA THE CREATOR 

called the Atlanticas, and now the Indies of Castille or 
America must have begun to receive a population imme- 
diately after the flood, although, by their account, the 
details are dtfierent from those which the true Scriptures 
teach us. This must have been done by divine Providence, 
through the first people coming over the land of the 
Atlantic Island, which was joined to this, as has been 
already said. For as the natives, though barbarous, give 
reasons for their very ancient settlement, by recording the 
flood, there is no necessity for setting aside the Scriptures 
by quoting authorities to establish this origin. We now 
come to those who relate the events of the second age 
after the flood, which is the subject of the next chapter. 



VII. 



FABLE OF THE SECOND AGE, AND CREATION OF 
THE BARBAROUS INDIANS ACCORDING TO THEIR 
ACCOUNT. 

It is related that everything was destroyed in the flood 
called unu pachacuti^. It must now be known that Viracocha 
Pachayachachi, when he destroyed that land as has been 
already recounted, preserved three men, one of them named 
Taguapaca, that they might serve and help him in the 
creation of new people who had to be made in the second 
age after the deluge, which was done in this manner. The 
flood being passed and the land dry, Viracocha determined 
to people it a second time, and, to make it more perfect, he 
decided upon creating luminaries to give it light With 
this object he went, with his servants, to a great lake in the 
Collao, in which there is an island called Titicaca, the 



* UHu pachacuti would mean the world {pacha) overturned {cult) 
by water {uHu). Probably a word coined by the priests, after putting 
leading questions about a universal deluge. 



CREATION BY VIRACOCHA 33 

meaning being "the rock of lead," of which we shall treat 
in the first part. Viracocha went to this island, and 
presently ordered that the sun, moon, and stars should 
come forth, and be set in the heavens to give light to the 
world, and it was so. They say that the moon was created 
brighter than the sun, which made the sun jealous at the 
time when they rose into the sky. So the sun threw over 
the moon's face a handful of ashes, which gave it the shaded 
colour it now presents. This frontier lake of Chucuito, in 
the territory of the Collao, is 57 leagues to the south of 
Cuzco. Viracocha gave various orders to his servants, but 
Taguapaca disobeyed the commands of Viracocha. So 
Viracocha was enraged against Taguapaca, and ordered 
the other two servants to take him, tie him hands and feet, 
and launch him in a balsa on the lake. This was done. 
Taguapaca was blaspheming against Viracocha for the 
way he was treated, and threatening that he would return 
and take vengeance, when he was carried by the water 
down the drain of the same lake, and was not seen again 
for a long time. This done, Viracocha made a sacred idol 
in that place, as a place for worship and as a sign of what 
he had there created*. 

Leaving the island, he passed by the lake to the 
main land, taking with him the two servants who survived. 

^ This servant of Uiracocha is also mentioned by Cieza de Leon 
and Yamqui Pachacuti. Cieza appears to consider that Tuapaca 
was merely the name of Uiracocha m the Collao. Yamqui Pachacuti 
gives the names Tarapaca and Tonapa and connects them with 
Uiracocha. But he also uses the word Pachacca, a servant. 
These names are clearly the same as the Tahuapaca of Sarmiento. 
Tahua means four, but Sarmiento gives three as the number of 
these servants of Uiracocha. The meaning oi paca is anything secret 
or mysterious, from pacani to hide. The names represent an ancient 
myth of some kind, but it is not possible, at this distance of time, 
to ascertain more than the names. Tonapa looks like a slip of the 
pen, and is probably Tarapa for Tarapaca. Don Samuel A. Lapone 
Quevedo published a mythological essay entitled £/ Culto de 
Tonapa with reference to the notice in the work of Yamqui Pacha- 
cuti ; but he is given to speculations about phallic and solar worship, 
and to the arbitrary alteration of letters to fit into his theories. 

M. S. 3 



34 PEOPLING OF THE LAND 

He went to a place now called Tiahuanacu in the province 
of Colla-suyu, and in this place he sculptured and designed 
on a great piece of stone, all the nations that he intended 
to create. This done, he ordered his two servants to charge 
their memories with the names of all tribes that he had 
depicted, and of the valleys and provinces where they were 
to come forth, which were those of the whole land. He 
ordered that each one should go by a different road, naming 
the tribes, and ordering them all to go forth and people 
the countr}'. His servants, obeying the command of 
Viracocha, set out on their journey and work. One went 
by the mountain range or chain which they call the heights 
over the plains on the South Sea. The other went by the 
heights which overlook the wonderful mountain ranges 
which we call the Andes, situated to the east of the said 
sea. By these roads they went, saying with a loud voice 
"Oh you tribes and nations, hear and obey the order of 
Ticci Viracocha Pachayachachi, which commands you to go 
forth, and multiply and settle the land." Viracocha himself 
did the same along the road between those taken by his 
two servants, naming all the tribes and places by which 
he passed. At the sound of his voice every place obeyed, 
and people came forth, some from lakes, others from 
fountains, valleys, caves, trees, rocks and hills, spreading 
over the land and multiplying to form the nations which 
are to-day in Peru. 

Others affirm that this creation of Viracocha was made 
from the Titicaca site where, having originally formed some 
shapes of large strong men* which seemed to him out of 
proportion, he made them again of his stature which was, 
as they say. the average height of men, and being made 
he gave them life. Thence they set out to people the land. 



* Jayaneo. This was the name given to giants in the books of 
chivalry. See Don Quijote^ i. cap. 5, p. 43. 



THE CACHA TRADITION 35 

As they spoke one language previous to starting, they 
built those edifices, the ruins of which may still be seen, 
before they set out This was for the residence of Vira- 
cocha, their maker. After departing they varied their 
languages, noting the cries of wild beasts, insomuch 
that, coming across each other afterwards, those could 
not understand who had before been relations and neigh- 
bours. 

Whether it was in one way or the other, all agree 
that Viracocha was the creator of these people. They 
have the tradition that he was a man of medium height, 
white and dressed in a white robe like an alb secured 
round the waist, and that he carried a staflf and a book in 
his hands. 

Besides this they tell of a strange event ; how that 
Viracocha, after he had created all people, went on his 
road and came to a place where many men of his creation 
had congr^ated. This place is now called Cacha. When 
Viracocha arrived there, the inhabitants were estranged 
owing to his dress and bearing. They murmured at it 
and proposed to kill him from a hill that was near. They 
took their weapons there, and gathered together with evil 
intentions against Viracocha. He, falling on his knees on 
some plain ground, with his hands clasped, fire from above 
came down upon those on the hill, and covered all the 
place, burning up the earth and stones like straw. Those 
bad men were terrified at the fearful fire. They came 
down from the hill, and sought pardon from Viracocha 
for their sin. Viracocha was moved by compassion. He 
went to the flames and put them out with his staff. But 
the hill remained quite parched up, the stones being 
rendered so light by the burning that a very large stone 
which could not have been carried on a cart, could be 
raised easily by one man. This may be seen at this day, 
and it is a wonderful sight to behold this hill, which is 

3—2 



36 DEPARTURE OF VIRACOCHA 

a quarter of a league in extent, all burnt up. It is in 
the CoUao^ 

After this Viracocha continued his journey and arrived 
at a place called Urcos, 6 leagues to the south of Cuzco. 
Remaining there some days he was well served by the 
natives of that neighbourhood. At the time of his 
departure, he made them a celebrated kucica or statue, 
for them to offer gifts to and worship ; to which statue the 
Incas, in after times, offered many rich gifts of gold and 
other metals, and above all a golden bench. When the 
Spaniards entered Cuzco they found it, and appropriated 
it to themselves. It was worth 1 17,000. The Marquis 
Don Francisco Pizarro took it himself, as the share of the 
General. 

Returning to the subject of the fable, Viracocha 
continued his journey, working his miracles and instructing 
his created beings. In this way he reached the territory 
on the equinoctial line, where are now Puerto Viejo and 
Manta. Here he was joined by his servants. Intending 
to leave the land of Peru, he made a speech to those he 
had created, apprising them of the things that would 
happen. He told them that people would come, who 
would say that they were Viracocha their creator, and that 
they were not to believe them ; but that in the time to 
come he would send his messengers who would protect 
and teach them. Having said this he went to sea with 
his two servants, and went travelling over the water as 
if it was land, without sinking. For they appeared like 
foam over the water and the people, therefore, gave them 
the name of Viracocha which is the same as to say the 
grease or foam of the sea*. At the end of some years 



* Not in the Collao, but in the valley of the Vilcamayu. Afterwards 
a very remarkable temple was built there, described by Squier. 
2 A mistake. See Garcilasso de la Vega, ii. p. 66. 



ANCIENT INDEPENDENCE 37 

after Viracocha departed, they say that Taguapaca, who 
Viracocha ordered to be thrown into the lake of Titicaca 
in the Collao, as has already been related, came back and 
began, with others, to preach that he was Viracocha. 
Although at first the people were doubtful, they finally 
saw that it was false, and ridiculed them\ 

This absurd fable of their creation is held by these 
barbarians and they affirm and believe it as if they had 
really seen it to happen and come to pass'. 



VIII. 

THE ANCIENT BEHETRIAS^ OF THESE KINGDOMS 
OF PERU AND THEIR PROVINCES. 

It is important to note that these barbarians could 
tell nothing more respecting what happened from the 
second creation by Viracocha down to the time of the 
Incas. But it may be assumed that, although the land 
was peopled and full of inhabitants before the Incas, it 
had no regular government, nor did it have natural lords 
elected by common consent to govern and rule, and who 
were respected by the people, so that they were obeyed 
and received tribute. On the contrary all the people were 
scattered and disorganized, living in complete liberty, and 
each man being sole lord of his house and estate. In each 



^ This story is told in a somewhat different form by Yamqui 
Pachacuti, p. 72. 

* The tradition of the exercise of his creative powers by Viracocha 
at lake Titicaca, is derived from the more ancient people who were 
the builders of Tiahuanacu. Besides Sarmiento, the authors who give 
this Titicaca Myth are Garcilasso de la Vega, Cieza de Leon, Molina, 
Betanzos, Yamqui Pachacuti, Polo de Ondegardo, and the anonymous 
Jesuit. Acosta, Montesinos, Balboa and Santillana are silent respect- 
ing it. 

' Beheiria. A condition of perfect equality without any distinction 
of rank. Freedom from the subjection of any lord. 



38 THE ANCIENT BEHETRIAS OF THESE 

tribe there were two divisions. One was called Hanansaya, 
which means the upper division, and the other Hurinsaya, 
which is the lower division, a custom which continues to 
this day. These divisions do not mean anything more 
than a way to count each other, for their satisfaction, 
though afterwards it served a more useful purpose, as will 
be seen in its place. 

As there were dissensions among them, a certain kind 
of militia was oi^anized for defence, in the following way. 
When it became known to the people of one district that 
some from other parts were coming to make war, they 
chose one who was a native, or he might be a stranger, 
who was known to be a valiant warrior. Often such a man 
offered himself to aid and to fijght for them against their 
enemies. Such a man was followed and his orders were 
obeyed during the war. When the war was over he became 
a private man as he had been before, like the rest of the 
people, nor did they pay him tribute either before or 
afterwards, nor any manner of tax whatever. To such 
a man they gave and still give the name of Sinchi 
which means valiant. They call such men " Sinchi-cuna " 
which means "valiant now" as who should say — "now 
during the time the war lasts you shall be our valiant man, 
and afterwards no " : or another meaning would be simply 
" valiant men," for " cuna " is an adverb of time, and also 
denotes the pluraP. In whichever meaning, it is very 
applicable to these temporary captains in the days of 
befietrias and general liberty. So that from the general 
flood of which they have a tradition to the time when the 
Incas began to reign, which was 3519 years, all the natives 



^ Cinchicona. Sinchi means strong. Cuna is the plural particle. 
Sinchi was the name for a chief or leader. I have not met with cuna 
as an adverb of time and meaning ''now." No such meaning is given 
in the Grammar of Domingo de Santo Tomas, which was published in 
1560, twelve years before Sarmiento wrote. 



KINGDOMS OF PERU AND THEIR PROVINCES 39 

of these kingdoms lived on their properties without 
acknowledging either a natural or an elected lord. They 
succeeded in preserving, as it is said, a simple state of 
liberty, living in huts or caves or humble little houses. 
This name of "Sinchi" for those who held sway only 
during war, lasted throughout the land until the time of 
Tupac Inca Yupanqui, the tenth Inca, who instituted 
"Curacas" and other officials in the order which will be 
fully described in the life of that Inca. Even at the 
present time they continue this use and custom in the 
provinces of Chile and in other part5 of the forests of Peru 
to the east of Quito and Chachapoyas, where they only 
obey a chief during war time, not any special one, but he 
who is known to be most valiant, enterprising and daring, 
in the wars. The reader should note that all the land was 
private property with reference to any dominion of chiefs, 
yet they had natural chiefs with special rights in each 
province, as for instance among the natives of the valley 
of Cuzco and in other parts, as we shall relate of each part 
in its place. 



IX. 



THE FIRST SETTLERS IN THE VALLEY OF CUZCO. 

I have explained how the people of these lands 
preserved their inheritances and lived on them in ancient 
times, and that their proper and natural countries were 
known. There were many of these which I shall notice 
in their places, treating specially at present of the original 
settlers of the valley where stands the present city of Cuzco. 
For from there we have to trace the origin of the tyranny 
of the Incas, who always had their chief seat in the valley 
of Cuzco. 

Before all things it must be understood that the valley 



40 SETTLERS AT CUZCO 

of Cuzco is in 13** 15' from the equator on the side of the 
south pole*. In this valley, owing to its being fertile for 
cultivation, there were three tribes settled from most ancient 
times, the first called Sauaseras, the second Antasayas, 
the third Huallas. They settled near each other, although 
their lands for sowing were distinct, which is the property 
they valued most in those days and even now. These 
natives of the valley lived there in peace for many years, 
cultivating their farms. 

Some time before the arrival of the Incas, three Sinchis, 
strangers to this valley, the first named Alcabisa», the second 
Copalimayta, and the third Culunchima, collected certain 
companies and came to the valley of Cuzco, where, by 
consent of the natives, they settled and became brothers 
and companions of the original inhabitants. So they lived 
for a long time. There was concord between these six 
tribes, three native and three immigrant They relate that 
the immigrants came out to where the Incas then resided, 
as we shall relate presently, and called them relations. 
This is an important point with reference to what happened 
afterwards. 

Before entering upon the history of the Incas I wish 
to make known or, speaking more accurately, to answer 
a difficulty which may occur to those who have not been 
in these parts. Some may say that this history cannot 
be accepted as authentic being taken from the narratives 
of these barbarians, because, having no letters, they could 
not preserve such details as they give from so remote an 



^ 13"* 31'. He is 16 miles out in his latitude. 

* The Alcabisas, as original inhabitants of the Cuzco valley, are 
mentioned by Cieza de Leon (ii. p. 105) who calls them Alcaviquiza. 
Betanzos has Alcaviya, and Balboa Allcay-villcas. Cieza describes 
the victory over them by Mayta Ccapac. Yamqui Pachacuti gives 
Allcayviesas, CuUinchinas, and Cayancachis as the names of the tribes 
who originally inhabited the Cuzco valley. Cayancachi is a southern 
suburb of Cuzco outside the Huatanay river. 



METHODS OF RECORDING EVENTS 4 1 

antiquity. The answer is that, to supply the want of letters, 
these barbarians had a curious invention which was very 
good and accurate. This was that from one to the other, 
from fathers to sons, they handed down past events, 
repeating the story of them many times, just as lessons are 
repeated from a professor's chair, making the hearers say 
these historical lessons over and over again until they were 
fixed in the memory. Thus each one of the descendants 
continued to communicate the annals in the order described 
with a view to preserve their histories and deeds, their 
ancient traditions, the numbers of their tribes, towns, 
provinces, their days, months and years, their battles, deaths, 
destructions, fortresses and "Sinchis." Finally they 
recorded, and they still record, the most notable things 
which consist in their numbers (or statistics), on certain 
cords called quipu, which is the same as to say reasoner 
or accountant. On these cords they make certain knots 
by which, and by differences of colour, they distinguish and 
record each thing as by letters. It is a thing to be admired 
to see what details may be recorded on these cords, for 
which there are masters like our writing masters\ 

Besides this they had, and still have, special historians 
in these nations, an hereditary office descending from father 
to son. The collection of these annals is due to the great 
diligence of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, the ninth Inca, who 
sent out a general summons to all the old historians in all 
the provinces he had subjugated, and even to many others 
throughout those kingdoms. He had them in Cuzco for 



* The system of recording by quipus is described by Garcilasso de la 
Vega, i. pp. 1 50 and 191, also ii. p. 117 and more fully at ii. pp. 121 — 125. 
Cieza de Leon mentions the quipu system in his first part (see i. p. 291 
and note) and in the second part (ii. pp. 33—35, 53, 57, 61, 165), At p. 32 
the method of preserving the memory of former events is described 
very much as in the text. See also Molina, pp. 10, 169. Molina also 
describes the boards on which historical events were painted, p. 4. 
They were, he says, kept in a temple near Cuzco, called Poquen-cancha. 
See also Cieza de Leon (second part), p. 28. 



42 METHODS OF RECORDING EVENTS 

a long time, examining them concerning their antiquities, 
origin, and the most notable events in their history. These 
were painted on great boards, and deposited in the temple 
of the Sun, in a great hall. There such boards, adorned 
with gold, were kept as in our libraries, and learned persons 
were appointed, who were well versed in the art of under- 
standing and declaring their contents. No one was allowed 
to enter where these boards were kept, except the Inca 
and the historians, without a special order of the Inca. 

In this way they took care to have all their past history 
investigated, and to have records respecting all kinds of 
people, so that at this day the Indians generally know and 
agree respecting details and important events, though, in 
some things, they hold different opinions on special points. 
By examining the oldest and most prudent among them, 
in all ranks of life, who had most credit, I collected and 
compiled the present history, referring the sayings and 
declarations of one party to their antagonists of another 
party, for they are divided into parties, and seeking from 
each one a memorial of its lineage and of that of the 
opposing party. These memorials, >vhich are all in my 
possession, were compared and corrected, and ultimately 
verified in public, in presence of representatives of all the 
parties and lineages, under oaths in presence of a judge, 
and with expert and very faithful interpreters also on oath, 
and I thus finished what is now written. Such great 
diligence has been observed, because a thing which is the 
foundation of the true completion of such a great work 
as the establishment of the tyranny of the cruel Incas 
of this land will make all the nations of the world under- 
stand the judicial and more than legitimate right that the 
King of Castille has to these Indies and to other lands 
adjacent, especially to these kingdoms of Peru. As all the 
histories of past events have been verified by proof, which 
in this case has been done so carefully and faithfully by 



ORIGIN OF THE INCAS 43 

order and owing to the industry of the most excellent 
Viceroy Don Francisco de Toledo, no one can doubt that 
everything in this volume is most sufficiently established 
and verified without any room being left for reply or 
contradiction. I have been desirous of making this di- 
gression because, in writing the history, I have heard that 
many entertain the doubts I have above referred to, and 
it seemed well to satisfy them once for all. 



X. 



HOW THE INCAS BEGAN TO TYRANNIZE OVER 
THE LANDS AND INHERITANCES. 

Having explained that, in ancient times, all this land 
was owned by the people, it is necessary to state how 
the Incas b^an their tyranny. Although the tribes all 
lived in simple liberty without recognising any lord, there 
were always some ambitious men among them, aspiring 
for mastery. They committed violence among their 
countrymen and among strangers to subject them and 
bring them to obedience under their command, so that 
they might serve them and pay tribute. Thus bands of 
men belonging to one r^ion went to others to make war 
and to rob and kill, usurping the lands of others. 

As these movements took place in many parts by 
many tribes, each one trying to subjugate his neighbour, 
it happened that 6 leagues from the valley of Cuzco, 
at a place called Paccari-tampu, there were four men with 
their four sisters, of fierce courage and evil intentions, 
although with lofty aims. These, being more able than 
the others, understood the pusillanimity of the natives of 
those districts and the ease with which they could be made 
to believe anything that was propounded with authority 
or with any force. So they conceived among themselves 



44 THE FABLE OF THE ORIGIN OF THE INCAS 

the idea of being able to subjugate many lands by force 
and deception. Thus all the eight brethren, four men and 
four women, consulted tc^ether how they could tyrannize 
over other tribes beyond the place where they lived, and 
they proposed to do this by violence. Considering that 
most of the natives were ignorant and could easily be made 
to believe what was said to them, particularly if they were 
addressed with some roughness, rigour and authority, 
against which they could make neither reply nor resistance, 
because they are timid by nature, they sent abroad certain 
fables respecting their origin, that they might be respected 
and feared. They said that they were the sons of Viracocha 
Pachayachachi, the Creator, and that they had come forth 
out of certain windows to rule the rest of the people. As 
they were fierce, they made the people believe and fear 
them, and hold them to be more than men, even worshipping 
them as gods. Thus they introduced the religion that 
suited them. The order of the fable they told of their 
origin was as follows. 



XL 



THE FABLE OF THE ORIGIN OF THE INCAS 
OF CUZCO. 

All the native Indians of this land relate and affirm 
that the Incas Ccapac originated in this way. Six leagues 
S.S.W. of Cuzco by the road which the Incas made, there 
is a place called Paccari-tampu, which means "the house of 
production^" at which there is a hill called Tampu-tocco, 
meaning "the house of windows." It is certain that in 
this hill there are three windows, one called " Maras-tocco," 
the other "Sutic-tocco," while that which is in the middle, 

* Correctly "the tavern of the dawn." 



THE FABLE OF THE ORIGIN OF THE INCAS 45 

between these two, was known as " Ccapac-tocco," which 
means ''the rich window/' because they say that it was 
ornamented with gold and other treasures. From the 
window called "Maras-tocco" came forth, without parentage, 
a tribe of Indians called Maras, There are still some of 
them in Cuzco. From the "Sutic-tocco" came Indians called 
Tampus, who settled round the same hill, and there are 
also men of this lineage still in Cuzco. From the chief 
window of "Ccapac-tocco," came four men and four women, 
called brethren. These knew no father nor mother, beyond 
the story they told that they were created and came out of 
the said window by order of Ticci Viracocha, and they 
declared that Viracocha created them to be lords. For 
this reason they took the name of Inca,which is the same 
as lord. They took "Ccapac** as an additional name 
because they came out of the window ** Ccapac-tocco," which 
means ** rich," although afterwards they used this term to 
denote the chief lord over many. 

The names of the eight brethren were as follows : The 
eldest of the men, and the one with the most authority was 
named Manco Ccapac, the second Avar Auca, the third 
Avar Cachi, the fourth Avar Uchu. Of the women 
the eldest was called Mama Occlo, the second Mama 
HUACO, the third Mama Ipacura, or, as others say. Mama 
CuRA, the fourth Mama Raua. 

The eight brethren, called Incas, said — " We are born 
strong and wise, and with the people who will here join us, 
we shall be powerful. We will go forth from this place to 
seek fertile lands and when we find them we will sub- 
jugate the people and take the lands, making war on all 
those who do not receive us as their lords." This, as they 
relate, was said by Mama Huaco, one of the women, who 
was fierce and cruel. Manco Ccapac, her brother, was also 
cruel and atrocious. This being agreed upon between the 
eight, they began to move the people who lived near the 



46 THE FABLE OF THE ORIGIN 

hill, putting it to them that their reward would be to 
become rich and to receive the lands and estates of those 
who were conquered and subjugated. For these objects 
they moved ten tribes or ayllus, which means among these 
barbarians "lineages" or "parties"; the names of which 
are as follows : 

I. CHAUIN CUZCO AYLLU of the lineage of 
Avar Cachi, of which there are still some in Cuzco, 
the chiefs being MARTIN Chucumbi, and Don Diego 

HUAMAN PAUCAR. 

IL ARAYRACA AYLLU CUZCO-CALLAN. At 
present there are of this ayllu Juan Pizarro Yupanqui, 
Don Francisco Quispi, Alonso Tarma Yupanqui of 
the lineage of Ayar Uchu. 

III. TARPUNTAY AYLLU. Of this there are now 
some in Cuzco. 

IV. HUACAYTAQUI AYLLU. Some still living 
in Cuzco. 

V. SANOC AYLLU. Some still in Cuzco. 

The above five lineages are H anan-cuzco, which means 
the party of Upper Cuzco. 

VI. SUTIC-TOCCO AYLLU is the lineage which 
came out of one of the windows called " SUTIC-TOCCO," as 
has been before explained. Of these there are still some 
in Cuzco, the chiefs being Don Francisco Avca Micho 
AvRi SuTic, and Don Alonso Hualpa. 

VII. MARAS AYLLU. These are of the men who 
came forth from the window " Maras-TOCCO." There are 
some of these now in Cuzco, the chiefs being Don Alonso 
Llama Oca, and Don Gonzalo Ampura Llama Oca. 

VIII. CUYCUSA AYLLU. Of these there are still 
some in Cuzco, the chief being Cristoval Acllari. 



OF THE INCAS OF CUZCO 47 

IX. MASCA AYLLU. Of this there is in Cuzco— 
Juan Quispi. 

X. ORO AYLLU. Of this lineage is Don Pedro 

YUCAY. 

I say that all these ayllus have preserved their records 
in such a way that the memory of them has not been lost. 
There are more of them than are given above, for I only 
insert the chiefs who are the protectors and heads of the 
lineages, under whose guidance they are preserved. Each 
chief has the duty and obligation to protect the rest, and 
to know the history of his ancestors. Although I say that 
these live in Cuzco, the truth is that they are in a suburb 
of the city which the Indians call Cayocache and which is 
known to us as Belem, from the church of that parish 
which is that of our Lady of Belem. 

Returning to our subject, all these followers above 
mentioned marched with Manco Ccapac and the other 
brethren to seek for land \and to tyrannize over those who 
did no harm to them, nor gave them any excuse for war^ 
and without any right or title beyond what has been stated]. 
To be prepared for war they chose for their leaders Manco 
Ccapac and Mama Huaco, and with this arrangement 
the companies of the hill of Tampu-tocco set out, to put 
their design into execution. 



XII. 



THE ROAD WHICH THESE COMPANIES OF THE INCAS 
TOOK TO THE VALLEY OF CUZCO, AND OF 
THE FABLES WHICH ARE MIXED WITH THEIR 
HISTORY. 

The Incas and the rest of the companies or ayllus 
set out from their homes at Tampu-tocco, taking with 
them their property and arms, in sufficient numbers to 



48 THE MARCH TO CUZCO 

form a good squadron, having for their chiefs the said 
Manco Ccapac and Mama Huaco. Manco Ccapac took 
with him a bird like a falcon, called ifidi^^ which 
they all worshipped and feared as a sacred, or, as some 
say, an enchanted thing, for they thought that this bird 
made Manco Ccapac their lord and obliged the people to 
follow him. It was thus that Manco Ccapac gave them to 
understand, and it was carried in vahtdos\ always kept in 
a covered hamper of straw, like a box, with much care. 
He left it as an heirloom to his son, and the Incas had it 
down to the time of Inca Yupanqui. In his hand he 
carried with him a staff of gold, to test the lands which 
they would come to. 

Marching together they came to a place called Huana- 
cancha, four leagues from the valley of Cuzco, where they 
remained for some time, sowing and seeking for fertile 
land. Here Manco Ccapac had connexion with his sister 
Mama Occlo, and she became pregnant by him. As this 
place did not appear able to sustain them, being barren, 
they advanced to another place called Tampu-quiro, where 
Mama Occlo begot a son named Sinchi Rocca. Having 
celebrated the natal feasts of the infant, they set out in 
search of fertile land, and came to another place called 
Pallata, which is almost contiguous to Tampu-quiro, and 
there they remained for some years. 

Not content with this land, they came to another called 
Hays-quisro, a quarter of a league further on. Here they 
consulted together over what ought to be done respecting 
their journey, and over the best way of getting rid of Ayar 
Cachi, one of the four brothers. Ayar Cachi was fierce 



^ This bird called indiy the familiar spirit of Manco Ccapac, is 
not mentioned by any other author. There is more about it in the 
life of Mayta Ccapac, the great-grandson of Manco Ccapac. The word 
seems to be the same as Ynti the Sun-God. 

* Vahido means giddiness, vertigo. 



FATE OF AVAR CACHI 49 

and strong, and very dexterous with the sling. He com- 
mitted great cruelties and was oppressive both among the 
natives of the places they passed, and among his own 
people. The other brothers were afraid that the conduct 
of Ayar Cachi would cause their companies to disband and 
desert, and that they would be left alone. As Manco 
Ccapac was prudent, he concurred with the opinion of the 
others that they should secure their object by deceit. 
They called Ayar Cachi and said to him, "Brother! Know 
that in Ccapac-tocco we have forgotten the golden vases 
called tupaC'Cusi^, and certain seeds, and the napa\ which 
is our principal ensign of sovereignty." The napa is a 
sheep of the country, the colour white, with a red body 
cloth, on the top ear-rings of gold, and on the breast a plate 
with red badges such as was worn by rich Incas when they 
went abroad ; carried in front of all on a pole with a cross of 
plumes of feathers. This was called suntur-paucar*. They 
said that it would be for the good of all, if he would go back 
and fetch them. When Ayar Cachi refused to return, his 
sister Mama Huaco, raising her foot, rebuked him with 
furious words, saying, "How is it that there should be such 
cowardice in so strong a youth as you are? Get ready 
for the journey, and do not fail to go to Tampu-tocco, and 
do what you are ordered." Ayar Cachi was shamed by 
these words. He obeyed and started to carry out his orders. 
They gave him, as a companion, one of those who had 
come with them, named Tampu-chacay, to whom they 

* Tupac-cusi^ meaning golden vases, does not occur elsewhere. It 
may be a mis-print for tupac-ccuri^ tupac meaning anything royal and 
ccuri gold. 

* Napa was the name of a sacred figure of a llama, one of the 
insignia of royalty. See Molina, pp. 19, 39, 47. The verb napani is to 
salute, napay^ salutation. Raymi-napa was the flock dedicated for 
sacrifice. 

' Suntur-paucar was the head-dress of the Inca. See Balboa, 
p. 20. Literally the "brilliant circle.'' See also Molina, pp. 6, 17, 39, 
42, 44, and Yamqui Pachacuti, pp. 14, 106, 120. 

M. S. 4 



50 FATE OF AVAR CACHI 

gave secret orders to kill Ayar Cachi at Tampu-tocco, 
and not to return with him. With these orders they both 
arrived at Tampu-tocco. They had scarcely arrived when 
Ayar Cachi entered through the window Ccapac-tocco, to 
get the things for which he had been sent He was no 
sooner inside than Tampu-chacay» with great celerity, put a 
rock against the opening of the window and sat upon it, 
that Ayar Cachi might remain inside and die there. When 
Ayar Cachi turned to the opening and found it closed he 
understood the treason of which the traitor Tampu-chacay 
had been guilty, and determined to get out if it was 
possible, to take vengeance. To force an opening he used 
such force and shouted so loud that he made the mountain 
tremble. With a loud voice he spoke these words to 
Tampu-chacay, " Thou traitor ! thou who hast done me so 
much harm, thinkest thou to convey the news of my mortal 
imprisonment ? That shall never happen. For thy treason 
thou shalt remain outside, turned into a stone." So it was 
done, and to this day they show the stone on one side of 
the window Ccapac-tocco. Turn we now to the seven 
brethren who had remained at Hays-quisro. The death of 
Ayar Cachi being known, they were very sorry for what they 
had done, for, as he was valiant, they regretted much to be 
without him when the time came to make war on any one. 
So they mourned for him. This Ayar Cachi was so 
dexterous with a sling and so strong that with each shot 
he pulled down a mountain and filled up a ravine. They 
say that the ravines, which we now see on their line of 
march, were made by Ayar Cachi in hurling stones. 

The seven Incas and their companions left this place, 
and came to another called Quirirmanta at the foot of 
a hill which was afterwards called Huanacauri. In this 
place they consulted together how they should divide the 
duties of the enterprise amongst themselves, so that there 
should be distinctions between them. They agreed that as 



FATE OF AVAR UCHU SI 

Manco Ccapac had had a child by his sister, they should be 
married and have children to continue the lineage, and 
that he should be the leader. Ayar Uchu was to remain 
as a hucica for the sake of religion. Ayar Auca, from the 
position they should select, was to take possession of the 
land set apart for him to people. 

Leaving this place they came to a hill at a distance of 
two leagues, a little more or less, from Cuzco. Ascending 
the hill they saw a rainbow, which the natives call huana- 
cauri. Holding it to be a fortunate sign, Manco Ccapac 
said: "Take this for a sign that the world will not be 
destroyed by water. We shall arrive and from hence we 
shall select where we shall found our city." Then, first 
casting lots, they saw that the signs were good for doing 
so, and for exploring the land from that point and be- 
coming lords of it. Before they got to the height where 
the rainbow was, they saw a huaca which was a place of 
worship in human shape, near the rainbow. They deter- 
mined among themselves to seize it and take it away from 
there. Ayar Uchu offered himself to go to it, for they said 
that he was very like it. When Ayar Uchu came to the 
statue or huaca, with great courage he sat upon it, asking 
it what it did there. At these words the kuaca turned its 
head to see who spoke, but, owing to the weight upon it, it 
could not see. Presently, when Ayar Uchu wanted to get 
off he was not able, for he found that the soles of his feet 
were fastened to the shoulders of the huaca. The six 
brethren, seeing that he was a prisoner, came to succour 
him. But Ayar Uchu, finding himself thus transformed, 
and that his brethren could not release him, said to them — 
" O Brothers, an evil work you have wrought for me. It 
was for your sakes that I came where I must remain for 
ever, apart from your company. Go ! go ! happy brethren, 
I announce to you that you will be great lords. I, there- 
fore, pray that in recognition of the desire I have always 

4—2 



52 HUANACAURI 

had to please you, you will honour and venerate me in all 
your festivals and ceremonies, and that I shall be the first 
to whom you make offerings. For I remain here for your 
sakes. When you celebrate the huarachico (which is the 
arming of the sons as knights) you shall adore me as their 
father, for I shall remain here for ever." Manco Ccapac 
answered that he would do so, for that it was his will and 
that it should be so ordered. Ayar Uchu promised for the 
youths that he would bestow on them the gifts of valour, 
nobility, and knighthood, and with these last words he 
remained, turned into stone. They constituted him the 
hu€u:a of the Incas, giving it the name of Ayar Uchu 
Huanacauri\ And so it always was, until the arrival of 
the Spaniards, the most venerated htmca, and the one that 
received the most offerings of any in the kingdom. Here 
the Incas went to arm the young knights until about 
twenty years ago, when the Christians abolished this 
ceremony. It was religiously done, because there were 
many abuses and idolatrous practices, offensive and con- 
trary to the ordinances of God our Lord. 



^ Huanacauri was a very sacred huaca of the Peruvians. Cieza de 
Leon tells much the same story as Sarmiento, ii. pp. 17, 18, 19, 22, 89, 
1 01, 107, III. Garcilasso de la Vega mentions Huanacauri four times, 
i. pp. 65, 66, and ii.pp. 169, 230, as a place held in ^reat veneration. It 
is mquently mentioned by Molina. The word is given by Yamqui 
Pachacuti as Huayna-captiy. Huayna means a youth, capHy is the 
subjunctive of the verb cani^ \ am. The word appears to have 
reference to the arming of youths, and the ordeals they went through, 
which took place annually at this place. 



CEREMONIES 53 



XIII. 

ENtRY OF THE INCAS INTO THE VALLEY OF CUZCO, 
ANIO THE FABLES THEY RELATE CONCERNING IT. 

The six brethren were sad at the loss of Ayar Uchu, 
and at the loss of Ayar Cachi ; and, owing to the death of 
Aya;- Cachi, those of the lineage of the Incas, from that 
time to this day, always fear to go to Tampu-tocco, lest 
they should have to remain there like Ayar Cachi. 

They went down to the foot of the hill, whence they 
began their entry into the valley of Cuzco, arriving at a 
place called Matahua, where they stopped and built huts, 
intending to remain there some time. Here they armed as 
knight the son of Manco Ccapac and of Mama Occlo, named 
Sinchi Rocca, and they bored his ears, a ceremony which 
is called huartuhico, being the insignia of his knighthood 
and nobility, like the custom known among ourselves. On 
this occasion they indulged in great rejoicings, drinking 
for many days, and at intervals mourning for the loss of 
their brother Ayar Uchu. It was here that they invented 
the mourning sound for the dead, like the cooing of a dove. 
Then they performed the dance called Ccapac Raymi^ a 
ceremony of the royal or great lords. It is danced, in long 
purple robes, at the ceremonies they call quicochico^y which 
is when girls come to maturity, and the huarachico\ when 



* Quicu-chicuy was the ceremony when girls attained puberty. 
The customs, on this occasion, are described by Molina, p. 53. See 
also Yamqui Pachacutt, p. 80, and the anonymous Jesuit, p. 181. 

' Huarachicu was the great festival when the youths went through 
their ordeals, and were admitted to manhood and to bear arms. 
Garcilasso de la Vega gives the word as "Huaracu''; and fully 
describes the ordeals and the ceremonies, ii. pp. 161— 178. Sec also 
Molina, pp. 34 and 41—46, and Yamqui Pachacuti, p. 80. 



56 EXPULSION OF THE HUALLAS 

Mama Cuca, of the lineage of Safiu, daughter of a Sinchi 
named Sitic-huaman, by whom he afterwards had a son 
named Sapaca. He also instituted the sacrifice called 
capa cocha^y which is the immolation of two male and two 
female infants before the idol Huanacauri, at the time 
when the Incas were armed as knights. These things 
being arranged, he ordered the companies to follow him 
to the place where Ayar Auca was. 

Arriving on the land of Huanay-pata, which is near 
where now stands the Arco de la plata leading to the 
Charcas road, he found settled there a nation of Indians 
named Huallas, already mentioned. Manco Ccapac and 
Mama Occlo b^an to settle and to take possession of 
the land and water, against the will of the Huallas. On 
this business they did many violent and unjust things. As 
the Huallas attempted to defend their lives and properties, 
many cruelties were committed by Manco Ccapac and 
Mama Occlo. They relate that Mama Occlo was so fierce 
that, having killed one of the Hualla Indians, she cut 
him up, took out the inside, carried the heart and lungs in 
her mouth, and with an ayuinto^ which is a stone fastened 
to a rope, in her hand, she attacked the Huallas with 
diabolical resolution. When the Huallas beheld this 
horrible and inhuman spectacle, they feared that the same 
thing would be done to them, being simple and timid, and 
they fled and abandoned their rights. Mama Occlo reflect- 
ing on her cruelty, and fearing that for it they would 
be branded as tyrants, resolved not to spare any Huallas, 
believing that the aflair would thus be forgotten. So they 
killed all they could lay their hands upon, dragging infants 



^ Ccapac-cocha. The weight of evidence is, on the whole, in 
favour of this sacrifice of two infants having taken place at the Huara- 
chicu. Cieza de I^on, in remarking that the Spaniards falsely imputed 
crimes to the Indians to justify their ill-treatment, says that the practice 
of human sacrifice was exaggerated, ii. pp. 79, 80. See also Molina, 
PP» 54i 57- Yamqui Pachacuti, p. 86. 



RESISTANCE OF COPALIMAYTA S7 

from their mothers' wombs, that no memory might be left 
of these miserable Huallas. 

Having done this Manco Ccapac advanced, and came 
within a mile of Cuzco to the S.E., where a Sinchi named 
Copalimayta came out to oppose him. We have mentioned 
this chief before and that, although he was a late comer, he 
settled with the consent of the natives of the valley, and 
had been incorporated in the nation of Sauaseray Panaca, 
natives of the site of Santo Domingo at Cuzco. Having seen 
the strangers invading their lands and tyrannizing over 
them, and knowing the cruelties inflicted on the Huallas, 
they had chosen Copalimayta as their Sinchi. He came 
forth to resist the invasion, saying that the strangers 
should not enter his lands or those of the natives. His 
resistance was such that Manco Ccapac and his com- 
panions were obliged to turn their backs. They returned 
to Huanay-pata, the land they had usurped from the 
Huallas. From the sowing they had made they derived 
a fine crop of maize, and for this reason they gave the 
place a name which means something precious*. 

After some months they returned to the attack on the 
natives of the valley, to tyrannize over them. They 
assaulted the settlement of the Sauaseras, and were so 
rapid in their attack that they captured Copalimayta, 



^ The origin of the Inca dynasty derived from Manco Ccapac and 
his brethren issuing from the window at Paccari-tampu may be called 
the Paccari-tampu myth. It was universally received and believed. 
Garcilasso de la Vega gives the meanings of the names of the brothers. 
Ayar Cachi means salt or instruction in rational life, Ayar Uchu is 
pepper, meaning the delight experienced from such teaching, and Ayar 
Sauca means pleasure, or the joy they afterwards experienced from it. 
Balboa gives an account of the death of Ayar Cachi, but calls him Ayar 
Auca. He also describes the turning into stone at Huanacauri. 
Betanzos tells much the same story as Sarmiento ; as do Cieza de Leon 
and Montesinos, with some slight differences. Yamqui Pachacuti 
gives the names of the brothers, but only relates the Huanacauri part 
of the story. Montesinos and Garcilasso de la Vega call one of the 
brothers Ayar Sauca. Sarmiento, Betanzos and Balboa call him Ayar 
Auca. All agree in the names of the other brothers. 



58 SETTLEMENT AT CUZCO 

slaughtering many of the Sauaseras with great cruelty. 
Copalimayta, finding himself a prisoner and fearing death, 
fled out of desperation, leaving his estates, and was never 
seen again after he escaped. Mama Huaco and Manco 
Ccapac usurped his houses, lands and people. In this way 
Manco Ccapac, Mama Huaco, Sinchi Rocca, and 
Manco Sapaca settled on the site between the two 
rivers, and erected the House of the Sun, which they 
called Ynti-cancha. They divided all that position, 
from Santo Domingo to the junction of the rivers into four 
neighbourhoods or quarters which they call cancha. They 
called one QuiNTl-CANCHA, the second Chumpi-cancha, 
the third Savri-CANCHA, and the fourth Yarampuy- 
CANCHA. They divided the sites among themselves, and 
thus the city was peopled, and, from the heap of stones 
of Ayar Auca it was called CUZCO'. 



XIV. 

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MANCO CCAPAC AND 
THE ALCABISAS, RESPECTING THE ARABLE LAND. 

It has been said that one of the natural tribes of this 
valley of Cuzco was the Alcabisas. At the time when 
Manco Ccapac settled at Ynti-cancha and seized the goods 
of the Sauaseras and Huallas, the Alcabisas were settled 
half an arquebus shot from Ynti-canchi, towards the 
part where Santa Clara now stands. Manco Ccapac had 
a plan to spread out his forces that his tyrannical 



^ Garcilasso de la Vega gives the most detailed description of the 
city of CuzQo and its suburbs, ii. p. 235, but he does not mention these 
four divisions. The space from Santo Domingo to the junction of the 
rivers only covers a few acres ; and was devoted to the gardens of the 
Sun. 



TROUBLE WITH THE ALCABISAS 59 

intentions might not be impeded, so he sent his people, 
as if loosely and idly, making free with the land He took 
the lands without distinction, to support his companies. 
As he had taken those of the Huallas and Sauaseras, 
he wished also to take those of the Alcabisas. As these 
Alcabisas had given up some, Manco Ccapac wished and 
intended to take all or nearly all. When the Alcabisas saw 
that the new comers even entered their houses, they said : 
** These are men who are bellicose and unreasonable ! they 
take our lands ! Let us set up landmarks on the fields 
they have left to us." This they did, but Mama Huaco 
said to Manco Ccapac, ** let us take all the water from 
the Alcabisas, and then they will be obliged to give us 
the rest of their land." This was done and they took 
away the water. Over this there were disputes ; but as 
the followers of Manco Ccapac were more and more 
masterful, they forced the Alcabisas to give up their 
lands which they wanted, and to serve them as their 
lords, although the Alcabisas never voluntarily served 
Manco Ccapac nor looked upon him as their lord. On 
the contrary they always went about saying with loud 
voices ^o those of Manco Ccapac — " Away ! away ! out of 
our territory." For this Manco Ccapac was more hard 
upon them, and oppressed them tyrannically. 

Besides the Alcabisas there were other tribes, as we 
have mentioned before. These Manco Ccapac and Mama 
Huaco totally destroyed, and more especially one which 
lived near Ynti-cancha. in the nearest land, called Humana- 
mean, between Ynti-cancha and Cayocachi', where there 
also lived another native Sinchi named Culunchima. 
Manco Ccapac entered the houses and lands of all the 

^ Garcilasso de la Vega describes Cayau-cachi as a small village of 
about 300 inhabitants in his time. It was about 1000 paces west of 
the nearest house of the city in 1 560 ; but he had been told that, at the 
time of his writing in 1602, the houses had been extended so as to 
include it. 



6o DEATH OF MANCO CCAPAC 

natives, especially of the Alcabisas, condemned their Sinchi 
to perpetual imprisonment, sending the others to banish- 
ment in Cayocachi, and forcing them to pay tribute. But 
they were always trying to free themselves from the 
tyranny, as the Alcabisas did later\ 

Having completed the yoke over the natives, their 
goods and persons, Manco Ccapac was now very old. 
Feeling the approach of death, and fearing that in leaving 
the sovereignty to his son, Sinchi Rocca, he and his suc- 
cessors might not be able to retain it owing to the bad 
things he had done and to the tyranny he had established, 
he ordered that the ten lineages or companies that had 
come with him from Tampu-tocco should form themselves 
into a garrison or guard, to be always on the watch over 
the persons of his son and of his other descendants to keep 
them safe. They were to elect the successor when he had 
been nominated by his father, or succeeded on the death 
of his father. For he would not trust the natives to 
nominate or elect, knowing the evil he had done, and 
the force he had used towards them. Manco Ccapac being 
now on the point of death, he left the bird indi enclosed 
in its cage, the tupac-yauri^ or sceptre, the napa and the 
suntur-paucar^ the insignia of a prince, \though tyrant^ to 
his son Sinchi Rocca that he might take his place, [and this 
without t/ie cotisent or election of any of the natives]. 

Thus died Manco Ccapac, according to the accounts 
of those of his ayUu or lineage, at the age of 144 years, 
which were divided in the following manner. When he 
set out from Paccari-tampu or Tampu-tocco he was 36 
years of age. From that time until he arrived at the 

^ Cieza de Leon and Balboa corroborate the story of Sarmiento 
that the Alcabisas (Cieza calls them Alcavic^uizas, Balboa has Allcay- 
villcas) were hostile to the Incas, Cieza, li. p. 105, Balboa, p. 25. 
Yamqui Pachacuti mentions them as Allcayviesas, p. 76. 

* Tupac-yaurL The sceptre of the sovereign. Molina, pp. 25, 40, 
41. Yamqui Pachacuti, p. 92. 



THE INCA AYLLUS 6 1 

valley of Cuzco, during which interval he was seeking for 
fertile lands, there were eight years. For in one place 
he stayed one, in another two years, in others more or 
less until he reached Cuzco, where he lived all the rest 
of the time, which was lOO years, as Ccapac or supreme 
and rich sovereign. 

They say that he was a man of good stature, thin, 
rustic, cruel though frank, and that in dying he was 
converted into a stone of a height of a vara and a half. 
The stone was preserved with much veneration in the 
Ynti-cancha until the year 1559 when, the licentiate Polo 
Ond^^rdo being Corr^idor of Cuzco, found it and took 
it away from where it was adored and venerated by all 
the Incas, in the village of Bimbilla near Cuzco. 

From this Manco Ccapac were originated the ten ayllus 
mentioned above. From his time b^an the idols huauquiSy 
which was an idol or demon chosen by each Inca for 
his companion and oracle which gave him answers'. That 
of Manco Ccapac was the bird indi already mentioned. 
This Manco Ccapac ordered, for the preservation of his 
memory, the following: His eldest son by his legitimate 
wife, who was his sister, was to succeed to the sovereignty. 
If there was a second son his duty was to be to help 
all the other children and relations. They were to recognize 
him as the head in all their necessities, and he was to take 
charge of their interests, and for this duty estates were set 
aside. This party or lineage was called ayllu. If there 
was no second son, or if there was one who was incapable, 
the duty was to be passed on to the nearest and ablest re- 
lation. And that those to come might have a precedent or 
example, Manco Ccapac made the first ayllu and called 

^ Sarmiento says that every sovereign Inca had a familiar demon 
or idol which he oj^^guauquiy and that ^tguauqui of Manco Ccapac 
was the itidi or bird already mentioned. This is corroborated by Polo 
de Ondegardo. The word seems to be the same as Hua-uqui^ a 
brother. 



62 THE INCA AYLLUS 

it C/tiffta Panaca Ayllu, which means the lineage descend- 
ing from Chima, because the first to whom he left his ayllu 
or lineage in charge was named Chima, and Panaca means 
"to descend." It is to be noted that the members of this 
ayllu always adored the statue of Manco Ccapac, and not 
those of the other Incas, but the ayllus of the other Incas 
always worshipped that statue and the others also. It is 
not known what was done with the body, for there was 
only the statue. They carried it in their wars, thinking 
that it secured the victories they won. They also took it 
to Huanacauri, when they celebrated the huarachicos of the 
Incas. Huayna Ccapac took it with him to Quito and 
Cayambis, and afterwards it was brought back to Cuzco 
with the dead body of that Inca. There are still those of 
this ayllu in Cuzco who preserve the memory of the deeds 
of Manco Ccapac. The principal heads of the ayllu are 
now Don Diego Chaco, and Don Juan Huarhua Chima. 
They are Hurin-cuzcos. Manco Ccapac died in the year 
665 of the nativity of Christ our Lord, Loyba the Goth 
reigfning in Spain, Constantine IV being Emperor. He 
lived in the Ynti-cancha, House of the Sun. 



XV. 

COMMENCES THE LIFE OF SINCHI ROCCA, 
THE SECOND. INCA. 

It has been said that Manco Ccapac, the first Inca, who 
tyrannized over the natives of the valley of Cuzco, only 
subjugated the Huallas, Alcabisas, Sauaseras, Culunchima, 
Copalimayta and the others mentioned above, who were 
all within the circuit of what is now the city of Cuzco. 

To this Manco Ccapac succeeded his son Sinchi Rocca, 



SINCHI ROCCA 63 

son also of Mama Occlo,his mother and aunt^ He succeeded 
by nomination of his father, under the care of the ayllus 
who then all lived together, but not by election of the 
people, they were all either in flight, prisoners, wounded or 
banished, and were all his mortal enemies owing to the 
cruelties and robberies exercised upon them by his father 
Manco Ccapac. Sinchi Rocca was not a warlike person, 
and no feats of arms are recorded of him, nor did he sally 
forth from Cuzco, either himself or by his captains'. He 
added nothing to what his father had subjugated, only 
holding by his ayllus those whom his father had crushed. 
He had for a wife Mama Cuca of the town of Saflo by 
whom he had a son named Lloqui Yupanqui. Lloqui 
means left-handed, because he was so. He left his ayllu 
called Raura Panaca Ayllu of the Hurin-cuzco side. There 
are some of this ayllu living, the chiefs being Don Alonso 
Puscon and Don Diego Quispi. These have the duty of 
knowing and maintaining the things and memories of 
Sinchi Rocca. He lived in Ynti-cancha, the House of the 
Sun, and all his years were 127. He succeeded when 108, 
and reigned 19 years. He died in the year of the nativity of 
our Lord Jesus Christ 675, Wamba being King of Spain, 
Leo IV Emperor, and Donus Pope. He left an idol of stone 
shaped like a fish called Huanachiri Amaru, which during 
life was his idol or guauqui. Polo, being Corregidor of 
Cuzco, found this idol, with the body of Sinchi Rocca, in 
the village of Bimbilla, among some bars of copper. The 
idol had attendants and cultivated lands for its service. 



^ All the authorities concur that Sinchi Rocca was the second 
sovereign of the Inca dynasty, except Montesinos, who makes him the 
first and calls him I nca Rocca. Acostahas Inguarroca, and Betanzos 
Chincheroca. 

* Cieza de Leon and Garcilasso de la Vega also say that Sinchi 
Rocca waged no wars. The latter tells us that, by peaceful means, he 
extended his dominions over the Canchis, as far as Chuncara. 



64 LLOQUI YUPANQUI 



XVI. 

THE LIFE OF LLOQUI YUPANQUI, THE THIRD INCA. 

On the death of Sinchi Rocca the Incaship was occupied 
by Lloqui Yupanqui, son of Sinchi Rocca by Mama Cuca 
his wife. It is to be noted that, although Manco Ccapac 
had ordered that the eldest son should succeed, this Inca 
broke the rule of his grandfather, for he had an elder 
brother named Manco Sapaca\ as it is said, who did not 
consent, and the Indians do not declare whether he was 
nominated by his father. From this I think that Lloqui 
Yupanqui was not nominated, but Manco Sapaca as the 
eldest, for so little regard for the natives or their approval 
was shown. This being so, it was tyranny against the 
natives and infidelity to relations with connivance of the 
ayllus legionaries; and with the Inca's favour they could 
do what they liked, by supporting him. So Lloqui 
Yupanqui lived in Ynti-cancha like his father". He never 
left Cuzco on a warlike expedition nor performed any 
memorable deed, but merely lived like his father, having 
communication with some provinces and chiefs. These 
were Huaman Samo, chief of Huaro, Pachaculla Viracocha, 
the Ayamarcas of Tampu-cunca, and the Quilliscachis*. 



^ Manco Sapaca, the eldest son of Sinchi Rocca, is also mentioned 
by Balboa, pp. 14, 20, 22. 

^ All the authorities concur in making Lloqui Yupanqui the third 
Inca, except Acosta, who has laguarhuaque. Herrera spells it Lloki 
Yupanqui, Fernandez has LIoccuco Panque, merely corrupt spellings. 
Cieza de Leon also represents this reign to have been peaceftil, but 
Garcilasso de la Vega makes Lloqui Yupanqui conquer the Collao. 

' Huaro or Guaro is a village south of Cuzco in the valley of the 
Vilcamayu (Balboa, p. no). Huaman Samo was the chief of Huaro. 
Balboa mentions Pachachalla Viracocha as a chief of great prudence 
and ability who submitted to Lloqui Yupanqui, pp. 21, 22. The 
Ayamarcas formed a powerful tribe about 12 miles south of Cuzco. 
The Quilliscachis formed one of the original tribes in the valley 
of Cuzco (Yamqui Pachacuti, p. 1 10). Tampu-cunca only occurs here. 



THE LIFE OF LLOQUI YUPANQUI, THE THIRD INCA 6$ 

One day Lloqui Yupanqui being very sad and afflicted, 
the Sun appeared to him in the form of a person and 
consoled him by saying— "Do not be sorrowful, Lloqui 
Yupanqui, for from you shall descend great Lords," also, 
that he might hold it for certain that he would have male 
issue. For Lloqui Yupanqui was then very old, and 
neither had a son nor expected to have one. This having 
been made known, and what the Sun had announced to 
Lloqui Yupanqui having been published to the people, 
his relations determined to seek a wife for him. His 
brother Manco Sapaca, understanding the fraternal dis- 
position, sought for a woman who was suitable for it. He 
found her in a town called Oma, two leagues from Cuzco, 
asked for her from her guardians, and, with their consent, 
brought her to Cuzco. She was then married to Lloqui 
Yupanqui. Her name was Mama Cava, and by her the 
Inca had a son named Mayta Ccapac. 

This Lloqui did nothing worthy of remembrance. He 
carried with him an idol, which was his guauqui called 
Apu Mayta. His ayllu is Avayni Panaca Ayllu^ because 
the first who had the charge of this ayllu was named 
Avayni. This Inca lived and died in Ynti-cancha. He was 
132 years of age, having succeeded at the age of 21, so that 
he was sovereign or " ccapac " for 1 11 years. He died in 
786, Alfonso el Casto being King of Spain and Leo IV 
Supreme Pontiff. Some of this ayllu still live at Cuzco. 
The chiefs are Putisuc Titu Avcaylli, Titu Rimachi, Don 
Felipe Titu Cunti Mayta, Don Agustin Cunti Mayta, 
Juan Bautista Quispi Cunti Mayta. They are Hurin- 
cuzcos. The Licentiate Polo found the body of this Inca 
with the rest. 



M. s. 



66 THE LIFE OF MAYTA CCAPAC, THE FOURTH INCA 



XVII. 

THE LIFE OF MAYTA CCAPAC, THE FOURTH INCA*. 

Mayta Ccapac, the fourth Inca, son of Lloqui Yupanqui 
and his wife Mama Cava, is to those Indians what Hercules 
is to us, as r^ards his birth and acts, for they relate strange 
things of him. At the very first the Indians of his lineage, 
and all the others in general, say that his father, when he 
was begotten, was so old and weak that every one believed 
he was useless, so that they thought the conception was a 
miracle. The second wonder was that his mother bore 
him three months after conception, and that he was born 
strong and with teeth. All affirm this, and that he grew at 
such a rate that in one year he had as much strength and 
was as big as a boy of eight years or more. At two years 
he fought with very big boys, knocked them about and hurt 
them seriously. This all looks as if it might be counted 
with the other fables, but I write what the natives believe 
respecting their ancestors, and they hold this to be so true 
that they would kill anyone who asserted the contrary. 

They say of this Mayta that when he was of very 
tender years, he was playing with some boys of the Alcabisas 
and Culunchimas, natives of Cuzco, when he hurt many of 
them and killed some. And one day, drinking or taking 
water from a fountain, he broke the leg of the son of 
a Sinchi of the Alcabisas, and hunted the rest until they 



* All authorities agree that Mayta Ccapac was the fourth Inca, 
except Acosta and Betanzos. Acosta has Viracocha. Betanzos places 
Mayta Ccapac after Ccapac Yupanqui, whom other authorities make 
his son. His reign was peaceful except that he encountered and 
finally vanquished the Alcabisas. But Garcilasso de la Vega makes 
him the conaueror of the region south of lake Titicaca, as well as 
provinces to tne westward, including the settlement of Arequipa. All 
this is doubtless a mistake on the part of Garcilasso. 



THE LIFE OF MAYTA CCAPAC, THE FOURTH INCA 6y 

shut themselves up in their houses, where the Alcabisas 
lived without injuring the Incas. 

But now the Alcabisas, unable to endure longer the 
naughtiness of Mayta Ccapac, which he practised under the 
protection of Lloqui Yupanqui, and the ayllus who watched 
over him, determined to regain their liberty and to venture 
their lives for it. So they selected ten resolute Indians to 
go to the House of the Sun where Lloqui Yupanqui and 
his son Mayta Ccapac lived, and enter it with the intention 
of killing them. At the time Mayta Ccapac was in the 
court yard of the house, playing at ball with some other 
boys. When he saw enemies entering the house with arms, 
he threw one of the balls he was playing with, and killed 
one. He did the same to another, and, attacking the rest, 
they all fled. Though the rest escaped, they had received 
many wounds, and in this state they went back to their 
Sinchis of Calunchima and Alcabasa. 

The Chiefs, considering the harm Mayta Ccapac had 
done to the natives when a child, feared that when he was 
grown up he would destroy them all, and for this reason 
they resolved to die for their liberty. All the inhabitants 
of the valley of Cuzco, that had been spared by Manco 
Ccapac, united to make war on the Incas. This very 
seriously alarmed Lloqui Yupanqui. He thought he was 
lost, and reprehended his son Mayta Ccapac, saying, " Son ! 
why hast thou been so harmful to the natives of this valley, 
so that in my old age I shall die at the hands of our 
enemies?" As the ayllus^ who were in garrison with the 
Incas, rejoiced more in rapine and disturbances than in 
quiet, they took the part of Mayta Ccapac and told the old 
Inca to hold his peace, leaving the matter to his son, so 
Lloqui Yupanqui took no further steps in reprehending 
Mayta Ccapac. The Alcabisas and Culunchimas as- 
sembled their forces and Mayta Ccapac marshalled his 
ayllus. There was a battle between the two armies and 

5—2 



68 THE LIFE OF MAYTA CCAPAC, THE FOURTH INCA 

although it was doubtful for some time, both sides fighting 
desperately for victory, the Alcabisas and Calunchimas 
were finally defeated by the troops of Mayta Ccapac. 

But not for this did the Alcabisas give up the attempt 
to free themselves and avenge their wrongs. Again they 
challenged Mayta Ccapac to battle, which he accepted. As 
they advanced they say that such a hail storm fell over the 
Alcabisas that they were defeated a third time, and entirely 
broken up. Mayta Ccapac imprisoned their Sinchi for the 
remainder of his life. 

Mayta Ccapac married Mama Tacucaray, native of the 
town of Tacucaray, and by her he had a legitimate son 
named Ccapac Yupanqui, besides four others named Tarco 
Huaman, Apu Cunti Mayta, Queco Avcaylli, and Rocca 
Yupanqui. 

This Mayta Ccapac was warlike, and the Inca who first 
distinguished himself in arms after the time of Mama 
Huaco and Manco Ccapac. They relate of him that he 
dared to open the hamper containing the bird indu This 
bird, brought by Manco Ccapac from Tampu-tocco, had 
been inherited by his successors, the predecessors of Mayta 
Ccapac, who had always kept it shut up in a hamper or box 
of straw, such was the fear they had of it But Mayta 
Ccapac was bolder than any of them. Desirous of seeing 
what his predecessors had guarded so carefully, he opened 
the hamper, saw the bird indi and had some conversation 
with it. They say that it gave him oracles, and that after 
the interview with the bird he was wiser, and knew better 
what he should do, and what would happen. 

With all this he did not go forth from the valley of 
Cuzco, although chiefs from some distant nations came to 
visit him. He lived in Ynti-cancha, the House of the 
Sun. He left a lineage called Usca Mayta Panaca Ayllu^ 
and some members of it are still living in Cuzco. The 
heads are named Don Juan Tambo Usca Mayta, and Don 



• THE LIFE OF MAYTA CCAPAC, THE FOURTH INCA 69 

Baltasar Quiso Mayta. They are Hurin-cuzcos. Mayta 
Ccapac died at the age of 1 12 years, in the year 890 of the 
nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ The Licentiate Polo 
found his body and idol guauqui with the rest. 



XVIIL 

THE LIFE OF CCAPAC YUPANQUI, THE FIFTH INCA». 

At the time of his death, Mayta Ccapac named Ccapac 
Yupanqui as his successor, his son by his wife Mama 
Tacucaray. This Ccapac Yupanqui, as soon as he succeeded 
to the Incaship, made his brothers swear allegiance to him, 
and that they desired that he should be Ccapac. They 
complied from fear, for he was proud and cruel. At first 
he lived very quietly in the Ynti-cancha. It is to be noted 
that although Ccapac Yupanqui succeeded his father, he 
was not the eldest son. Cunti Mayta, who was older, had 
an ugly face. His father had, therefore, disinherited him and 
named Ccapac Yupanqui as successor to the sovereignty, 
and Cunti Mayta as high priest. For this reason Ccapac 
Yupanqui was not the legitimate heir, although he tyran- 
nically forced his brothers to swear allegiance to him. 

This Inca, it is said, was the first to make conquests 
beyond the valley of Cuzco. He forcibly subjugated the 
people of Cuyumarca and Ancasmarca, four leagues from 
Cuzco. A wealthy Sinchi of Ayamarca, from fear, 
presented his daughter, named Ccuri-hilpay to the Inca. 
Others say that she was a native of Cuzco. The Inca 
received her as his wife, and had a son by her named Inca 
Rocca, besides five other sons by various women. These 
sons were named Apu Calla, Humpi, Apu Saca, Apu 

^ All authorities are agreed that Ccapac Yupanqui was the fifth 
Inca, except Betanzos, who puts him in his father's place. Garcilasso 
attributes extensive conquests to him, both to south and west. 



70 THE LIFE OF CCAPAC YUPANQUI, THE FIFTH INCA 

Chima-chaui, and Uchun-cuna-ascalla-rando ^ Apu Saca 
had a son named Apu Mayta, a very valiant and famous 
captain, who greatly distinguished himself in the time of 
IncaRocca and Viracocha Inca,in company with Vicaquirau» 
another esteemed captain. Besides these Ccapac Yupanqui 
had another son named Apu Urco Huaranca*. This Ccapac 
Yupanqui lived 104 years, and was Ccapac for 89 years. He 
succeeded at the age of 15, and died in the year 980 of the 
nativity of our redeemer Jesus Christ His ayllu or lineage 
was and is called Apu Mayta Panaca Ayllu. Several of 
this lineage are now living, the principal heads being four 
in number, namely, Don Cristobal Cusi-hualpa, Don Antonio 
Pi9uy, Don Francisco Cocasaca, and Don Alonso Rupaca. 
They are Hurin-cuzcos. The Licentiate Polo found the idol 
ox guaoqui of this Inca with the] body. They were hidden 
with the rest, to conceal the idolatrous ceremonies of 
heathen times. 



XIX. 

THE LIFE OF INCA ROCCA, THE SIXTH INCA» 

When Ccapac Yupanqui died, Inca Rocca, his son by his 
wife Ccuri-hilpay, succeeded by nomination of his father 
and the guardian aylliis. This Inca Rocca showed force 
and valour at the beginning of his Incaship, for he con- 



^ Calla means a distaff. Numpi means perspiration. Saca is 
a game bird, also a comet. Chima-chaui is a proper name with 
no meaning. The name of the fifth son is rather unmanageable. 
Uchun-cuna-ascalla-rando. Uchun-cuna would mean the Peruvian 
pepper with the plural particle. Ascalla would be a small potata 
Rando is a corrupt form of runtu, an eg%. This little Inca seems to 
have done the marketing. 

* Urco, the male gender. Huaranca, a thousand. 

' All authorities are agreed respecting Inca Rocca as the sixth 
Inca. Garcilasso makes him extend the Inca dominion beyond the 
Apurimac, and into the country of the Chancos. 



THE LIFE OF INCA ROCCA, THE SIXTH INCA 7 1 

quered the territories of Muyna* and Pinahua with great 
violence and cruelty. They are rather more than four 
leagues to the south-south-east of Cuzco. He killed their 
Sinchis Muyna Pancu, and Huaman-tupac, though some 
say that Huaman-tupac fled and was never more seen. He 
did this by the help of Apu Mayta his nephew, and grand- 
son of Ccapac Yupanqui. He also conquered Caytomarca, 
four leagues from Cuzco. He discovered the waters of 
Hurin-chacan and those of Hanan-chacan, which is as much 
as to say the upper and lower waters of Cuzco, and led them 
in conduits; so that to this day they irrigate fields; and his 
sons and descendants have benefited by them to this day. 

Inca Rocca gave himself up to pleasures and banquets, 
preferring to live in idleness. He loved his children to that 
extent, that for them he forgot duties to his people and 
even to his own person. He married a great lady of the 
town of Pata-huayllacan, daughter of the Sinchi of that 
territory, named Soma Inca. Her name was Mama Micay. 
From this marriage came the wars between Tocay Ccapac 
and the Cuzcos as we shall presently relate. By this wife 
Inca Rocca had a son named Titu Cusi Hualpa', and by 
another name Yahuar-huaccac, and besides this eldest 
legitimate son he had four other famous sons named Inca 
Paucar, Huaman Taysi Inca, and Vicaquirau Inca" The 
latter was a great warrior, companion in arms with Apu 
Mayta. These two captains won great victories and sub- 
dued many provinces for Viracocha Inca and Inca Yupanqui. 
They were the founders of the great power to which the 
Incas afterwards attained. 

As the events which happened in the reign of Inca 
Rocca touching the Ayamarcas will be narrated in the 

* Muyna is a district with a lake, 14 miles S.S.W. of Cuzco. 
Pinahua is mentioned by Garcilasso as a chief to the westward, i. p. 71. 

* Titu means august or magnanimous. Cusi joyful. Hualpa a 
game bird. Paucar means beautiful or bright coloured. Huaman a 
ralcon. Vica may be uilca sacred. Quirau a cradle. 



72 THE LIFE OF INCA ROCCA, THE SIXTH INCA 

life of his son, we will not say more of this Inca, except 
that, while his ancestors had always lived in the lower part 
of Cuzco, and were therefore called Hurin-cuzcos, he ordered 
that those who sprang from him should form another party, 
and be called Hanan-cuzcos, which means the Cuzcos of 
the upper part So that from this Inca began the party of 
upper or Hanan-cuzcos, for presently he and his successors 
left their residence at the House of the Sun, and established 
themselves away from it, building palaces where they lived, 
in the upper part of the town. It is to be noted that each 
Inca had a special palace in which he lived, the son not 
wishing to reside in the palace where his father had lived. 
It was left in the same state as it was in when the father 
died, with servants, relations, ayllus or heirs that they might 
maintain it, and keep the edifices in repair. The Incas and 
their ayllus were, and still are Hanan-cuzco; although 
afterwards, in the time of Pachacuti, these ayllus were 
reformed by him. Some say that then were established 
the two parties which have been so celebrated in these 
parts. 

Inca Rocca named his son Vicaquirao as the head of his 
lineage, and it is still called after him the Vicaquirao Panaca 
Ayllu. There are now some of this lineage living in Cuzco, 
the principal heads who protect and maintain it being the 
following: Don Francisco Huaman Rimachi Hachacoma, 
and Don Antonio Huaman Mayta. They are Hanan- 
cuzcos. Inca Rocca lived 103 years, and died in the year 
1088 of the nativity of our Lord. The Licentiate Polo found 
his body in the town called Rarapa, kept there with much 
care and veneration according to their rites. 



THE LIFE OF TITU CUSI HUALPA 73 



XX. 

THE LIFE OF TITU CUSI HUALPA, VULGARLY 
CALLED YAHUARHUACCAC. 

Titu Cusi Hualpa Inca, eldest son of Inca Rocca and 
his wife Mama Micay, had a strange adventure in his child- 
hood \ These natives therefore relate his life from his 
childhood, and in the course of it they tell some things 
of his father, and of some who were strangers in Cuzco, as 
follows. It has been related how the Inca Rocca married 
Mama Micay by the rites of their religion. But it must be 
understood that those of Huayllacan had already promised 
to give Mama Micay, who was their countrywoman and very 
beautiful, in marriage to Tocay Ccapac, Sinchi of the Aya- 
marcas their neighbours. When the Ayamarcas* saw that 
the Huayllacans had broken their word, they were furious 
and declared war, considering them as enemies. War was 
carried on, the Huayllacans defending themselves and also 
attacking the Ayamarcas, both sides committing cruelties, 
inflicting deaths and losses, and causing great injury to each 
other. While this war was being waged, Mama Micay gave 
birth to her son Titu Cusi Hualpa. The war continued for 
some years after his birth, when both sides saw that they 
were destroying each other, and agreed to come to terms, 
to avoid further injury. The Ayamarcas, who were the 
most powerful, requested those of Huayllacan to deliver 



* The very interesting story of the kidnapping of the heir of Inca 
Rocca, is well told by Sarmiento. 

■ The Ayarmarcas seem to have occupied the country about 15 
miles S.S.W. of Cuzco, near Muyna. The word Ayar is the same as 
that in the names of the brethren of Manco Ccapac. But others 
omit the r, and make it Ayamarca, Cieza de Leon, pp. 114, 115, 
Garcilasso, i. p. 80, Yamqui Pachacuti, p. 90. The month of October 
was called Ayamarca- Raymi. Molina says that it was because the 
Ayamarca tribe celebrated the feast of Huarachicu in that month. 



74 THE LIFE OF TITU CUSI HUALPA, 

the child Titu Cusi Hualpa into their hands, to do what 
they liked with him. On this condition they would desist 
from further hostilities, but if it was not complied with, 
they announced that they would continue a mortal war to 
the end. The Huayllacans, fearing this, and knowing their 
inability for further resistance, accepted the condition, 
although they were uncles and relations of the child. In 
order to comply it was necessary for them to deceive the 
Inca. There was, in the town of Paulo, a brother of Inca 
Rocca^and uncle of Titu Cusi Hualpa named Inca Paucan 
He went or sent messengers to ask Inca Rocca to think 
well of sending his nephew Titu Cusi Hualpa to his town 
of Paulo in order that, while still a child, he might learn to 
know and care for his relations on his mother's side, while 
they wanted to make him the heir of their estates. 
Believing in these words the Inca Rocca consented that 
his son should be taken to Paulo, or the town of Micocancha, 
As soon as they had the child in their town the Huayllacans 
made great feasts in honour of Titu Cusi Hualpa, who was 
then eight years old, a little more or less. His father had 
sent some Incas to guard him. When the festivities were 
over, the Huayllacans sent to give notice to the Ayamarcas 
that, while they were occupied in ploughing certain lands 
which they call chacaraSy they might come down on the 
town and carry off the child, doing with him what they 
chose, in accordance with the agreement. The Ayamarcas, 
being informed, came at the time and to the place notified 
and, finding the child Titu Cusi Hualpa alone, they carried 
it off. 

Others say that this treason was carried out in another 
way. While the uncle was giving the child many presents, 
his cousins, the sons of Inca Paucar, became jealous and 
treated with Tocay Ccapac to deliver the child into his 
hands. Owing to this notice Tocay Ccapac came. Inca 
Paucar had gone out to deliver to his nephew a certain 



VULGARLY CALLED YAHUAR-HUACCAC 75 

estate and a flock of llamas. Tocay Ccapac, the enemy of 
Inca Rocca was told by those who had charge of the boy. 
He who carried him fled, and the boy was seized and carried 
off by Tocay Ccapac. 

Be it the one way or the other, the result was that the 
Ayamarcas took Titu Cusi Hualpa from the custody of 
Inca Paucar in the town of Paulo, while Inca Paucar and 
the Huayllacans sent the news to Inca Rocca by one party, 
and with another took up arms against the Ayamarcas. 



XXI. 

WHAT HAPPENED AFTER THE AYAMARCAS HAD 
STOLEN TITU CUSI HUALPA. 

When the Ayamarcas and their Sinchi Tocay Ccapac 
stole the son of Inca Rocca, they marched off with him. 
The Huayllacans of Paulopampa, under their Sinchi Paucar 
Inca, marched in pursuit, coming up to them at a place 
called Amaro, on the territory of the Ayamarcas. There 
was an encounter between them, one side to recover the 
child, and the other to keep their capture. But Paucar was 
only making a demonstration so as to have an excuse ready. 
Consequently the Ayamarcas were victorious, while the 
Huayllacans broke and fled. It is said that in this 
encounter, and when the child was stolen, all the orejones 
who had come as a guard from Cuzco, were slain. The 
Ayamarcas then took the child to the chief place of their 
province called Ahuayro-cancha. 

Many say that Tocay Ccapac was not personally in this 
raid but that he sent his Ayamarcas, who, when they 
arrived at Ahuayro-cancha, presented the child Titu Cusi 
Hualpa to him, saying, " Look here, Tocay Ccapac, at the 
prisoner we have brought you." The Sinchi received his 
prize with great satisfaction, asking in a loud voice if this 



76 WHAT HAPPENED AFTER THE AYAMARCAS 

was the child of Mama Micay, who ought to have been his wife. 
Titu Cusi Hualpa, though but a child, replied boldly that he 
was the son of Mama Micay and of the Inca Rocca Tocay 
was indignant when he had heard those words, and ordered 
those who brought the child as a prisoner to take him out 
and kill him. The boy, when he heard such a sentence 
passed upon him, was so filled with sadness and fright, that 
he began to weep from fear of death. He began to shed 
tears of blood and with indignation beyond his years, in the 
form of a malediction he said to Tocay and the Ayamarcas, 
** I tell you that as sure as you murder me there will come 
such a curse on you and your descendants that you will all 
come to an end, without any memory being left of your 
nation." 

The Ayamarcas and Tocay attentively considered this 
curse of the child together with the tears of blood. They 
thought there was some great mystery that so young a 
child should utter such weighty words, and that the fear of 
death should make such an impression on him that he 
should shed tears of blood. They were in suspense divining 
what it portended, whether that the child would become a 
great man. They revoked the sentence of death, calling 
the child Yahuar-htmccac^ which means " weeper of blood," 
in allusion to what had taken place. 

But although they did not wish to kill him then and 
with their own hands, they ordered that he should lead such 
a life as that he would die of hunger. Before this they all 
said to the child that he should turn his face to Cuzco and 
weep over it, because those curses he had pronounced, 
would fall on the inhabitants of Cuzco, and so it happened. 

This done they delivered him to the most valiant 
Indians, and ordered them to take him to certain farms 
where flocks were kept, giving him to eat by rule, and so 
sparingly that he would be consumed with hunger before 
he died. He was there for a year without leaving the place, 



HAD STOLEN TITU CUSI HUALPA JJ 

SO that they did not know at Cuzco, or anywhere else, 
whether he was dead or alive. During this time Inca 
Rocca, being without certain knowledge of his son, did 
not wish to make war on the Ayamarcas because, if he was 
alive, they might kill him. So he did no more than prepare 
his men of war and keep ready, while he enquired for his 
son in all the ways that were possible. 



XXII. 

HOW IT BECAME KNOWN THAT YAHUAR-HUACCAC 
WAS ALIVE. 

As the child Yahuar-huaccac was a year among the 
shepherds without leaving their huts, which served as a 
prison, no one knew where he was, because he could not 
come forth, being well watched by the shepherds and other 
guards. But it so happened that there was a woman in the 
place called Chimpu Orma, native of the town of Anta, 
three leagues from Cuzco. She was a concubine of the 
Sinchi Tocay Ccapac, and for this reason she had leave to 
walk about and go into all parts as she pleased. She was 
the daughter of the Sinchi of Anta, and having given an 
account of the treatment of the child to her father, brothers, 
and relations, she persuaded them to help in his liberation. 
They came on a certain day and, with the pass given them 
by Chimpu Orma, the father and relations arranged the 
escape of Yahuar-huaccac. They stationed themselves 
behind a hill. Yahuar-huaccac was to run in a race with 
some other boys, to see which could get to the top of the 
hill first. When the prince reached the top, the men of 
Anta, who were hidden there, took him in their arms and 
ran swiftly with him to Anta. When the other boys saw 
this they quickly gave notice to the valiant guards, who ran 
after the men of Anta. They overtook them at the lake of 



78 HOW IT BECAME KNOWN THAT 

Huaypon, where there was a fierce battle. Finally the 
Ayamarcas got the worst of it, for they were nearly all 
killed or wounded. The men of Anta continued their journey 
to their town, where they gave many presents to Yahuar- 
huaccac and much service, having freed him from the 
mortal imprisonment in which Tocay Ccapac held him. In 
this town of Anta the boy remained a year, being served 
with much love, but so secretly that his father Inca Rocca 
did not know that he had escaped, during all that time. 
At the end of a year those of Anta agreed to send 
messengers to Inca Rocca to let him know of the safety 
of his son and heir, because they desired to know and serve 
him. The messengers went to Inca Rocca and, having 
delivered their message, received the reply that the Inca 
only knew that the Ayamarcas had stolen his son. They 
were asked about it again and again, and at last Inca Rocca 
came down from his throne and closely examined the 
messengers, that they might tell him more, for not without 
cause had he asked them so often. The messengers, being 
so persistently questioned by Inca Rocca, related what had 
passed, and that his son was free in Anta, served and 
regaled by the chief who had liberated him. Inca Rocca 
rejoiced, promised favours, and dismissed the messengers 
with thanks. Inca Rocca then celebrated the event with 
feasts and rejoicings. 

But not feeling quite certain of the truth of what he 
had been told, he sent a poor man seeking charity to make 
enquiries at Anta, whether it was all true. The poor man 
went, ascertained that the child was certainly liberated, and 
returned with the news to Inca Rocca ; which gave rise to 
further rejoicings in Cuzco. Presently the Inca sent many 
principal people of Cuzco with presents of gold, silver, and 
cloth to the Antas, asking them to receive them and to 
send back his son. The Antas replied that they did not 
want his presents which they returned, that they cared 



YAHUAR-HUACCAC WAS ALIVE 79 

nore that Yahuar-huaccac should remain with them, that 
th^y might serve him and his father also, for they felt 
mi ch love for the boy. Yet if Inca Rocca wanted his son, 
he should be returned on condition that, from that time 
for\/ards, the Antas should be called relations of the 
vrgones. When Inca Rocca was made acquainted with 
the. condition, he went to Anta and conceded what they 
asked for, to the Sinchi and his people. For this reason 
the Antas were called relations of the Cuzcos from that 
time. 

Inca Rocca brought his son Yahuar-huaccac to Cuzco 
and nominated him successor to the Incaship, the ayllus 
and ore/ones receiving him as such. At the end of two 
years Inca Rocca died, and Yahuar-huaccac, whose former 
name was Titu Cusi Hualpa, remained sole Inca. Before 
Inca Rocca died he made friends with Tocay Ccapac, 
through the mediation of Mama Chicya, daughter of Tocay 
Ccapac, who married Yahuar-huaccac, and Inca Rocca gave 
his daughter Ccuri-Occllo in marriage to Tocay Ccapac. 



XXIII. 

YAHUAR-HUACCAC INCA YUPANQUI COMMENCES HIS 
REIGN ALONE, AFTER THE DEATH OF HIS FATHERS 

When Yahuar-huaccac found himself in possession of 
the sole sovereignty, he remembered the treason with 
which he had been betrayed by the Huayllacans who sold 
him and delivered him up to his enemies the Ayamarcas ; 

* Yahuar means blood. HuaccatU to weep. Yahuar-huaccac 
succeeded to Inca Rocca according to Garcilasso de la Vega, 
Montesinos, Betanzos, Balboa, Yamqui Pachacuti and Sarmiento. 
Cieza de Leon and Herrera have Inca Yupanqui. Garcilasso makes 
this Inca banish his son Viracocha, who returns in consequence of 
a dream, and defeats the Chancas. This all seems to be a mistake. 
It was Viracocha who fled, and his son Inca Yupanqui, sumamed 
Pachacuti, who defeated the Chancas and dethroned his father. 



8o YAHUAR-HUACCAC INCA YUPANQUI COMMENCES HIS 

and he proposed to inflict an exemplary punishment d 
them. When the Huayllacans knew this, they humblsd 
themselves before Yahuar-huaccac, entreating him to 
forgive the evil deeds they had committed against hta. 
Yahuar-huaccac, taking into consideration that they vicre 
relations, forgave them. Then he sent a force, under *e 
command of his brother Vicaquirau, against Mohina ind 
Pinahua, four leagues from Cuzco, who subdued ttese 
places. He committed great cruelties, for no other reison 
than that they did not come to obey his will. This would 
be about 23 years after the time when he rested in Cuzco. 
Son>e years afterwards the town of Mollaca, near Cuzco» 
was conquered and subjugated by force of arms. 

Yahuar-huaccac had, by his wife Mama Chicya, three 
legitimate sons. The eldest was Paucar Ayllu. The 
second, Pahuac Hualpa Mayta\ was chosen to succeed his 
father, though he was not the eldest The third was 
named Viracocha, who was afterwards Inca through the 
death of his brother. Besides these he had three other 
illegitimate sons named Vicchu Tupac because he subdued 
the town of Vicchu, Marca-yutu, and Rocca Inca. As the 
Huayllacans wanted Marca-yutu to succeed Yahuar-huaccac, 
because he was their relation, they determined to kill 
Pahuac Hualpa Mayta, who was nominated to succeed. 
With this object they asked his father to let him go to 
Paulo. Forgetting their former treason, he sent the child 
to its grandfather Soma Inca with forty orejones of the 
ayllus of Cuzco as his guard. When he came to their 
town they killed him, for which the Inca, his father, 
inflicted a great punishment on the Huayllacans, killing 
some and banishing others until very few were left 

The Inca then went to the conquest of Pillauya, three 
leagues from Cuzco in the valley of Pisac, and to Choyca, 

* Or Pahuac Mayta Inca (Garcilasso de la Vega, i. p. 23) so named 
from his swiftness. Pahuani^ to run. 



REIGN ALONE, AFTER THE DEATH OF HIS FATHER 8l 

an adjacent place, and to Yuco. After that he oppressed 
by force and with cruelties, the towns of Chillincay, 
Taocamarca, and the Caviflas, making them pay tribute. 
The Inca conquered ten places himself or through his son 
and captains. Some attribute all the conquests to his son 
Viracocha. 

This Inca was a man of gentle disposition and very 
handsome face. He lived 115 years. He succeeded his 
father at the age of 19, and was sovereign for 96 years. 
He left an ayllu named Aucaylli Panaca, and some are 
still living at Cuzco. The principal chiefs who maintain 
it are Don Juan Concha Yupanqui, Don Martin Titu 
Yupanqui, and Don Gonzalo Paucar Aucaylli. They are 
Hanan-cuzcos. The body of this Inca has not been 
discovered ^ It is believed that those of the town of Paulo 
have it, with the Inca's giiauquL 

XXIV. 

LIFE OF VIRACOCHA THE EIGHTH INCA*. 
As the Huayllacans murdered Pahuac Hualpa Mayta 
who should have succeeded his father Yahuar-huaccac, 
the second son Viracocha Inca was nominated for the 
succession, whose name when a child was Hatun Tupac 
Inca, younger legitimate son of Yahuar-huaccac and 
Mama Chicya. He was married to Mama Runtucaya, 
a native of Anta. Once when this Hatun Tupac Inca was 
in Urcos, a town which is a little more than five leagues 
S.S.E. of Cuzco, where there was a sumptuous huaca in 
honour of Tied Viracocha, the deity appeared to him in 
the night. Next morning he assembled his orejones^ 
among them his tutor Hualpa Rimachi, and told them 
how Viracocha had appeared to him that night, and had 

* In the margin of the MS., " The witnesses said that they believed 
that die licentiate Polo found it." Navamuel. 

* All authorities agree respecting Viracocha as the eighth Inca. 

M. s. 6 



82 LIFE OF VIRACOCHA THE EIGHTH INCA 

announced great good fortune to him and his descendants. 
In congratulating him Hualpa Rimachi saluted him, "O 
Viracocha Inca." The rest followed his example and 
celebrated this name, and the Inca retained it all the rest 
of his life. Others say that he took this name, because, 
when he was armed as a knight and had his ears bored, 
he took Ticci Viracocha as the godfather of his knighthood. 
Be it as it may, all that is certain is that when a child, 
before he succeeded his father, he was named Hatun Tupac 
Inca, and afterwards, for the rest of his life, Viracocha Inca. 
After he saw the apparition in Urcos, the Inca came 
to Cuzco, and conceived the plan of conquering and 
tyrannizing over all the country that surrounds Cuzco. 
For it is to be understood that, although his father and 
grandfather had conquered and robbed in these directions, 
as their only object was rapine and bloodshed, they did 
not place garrisons in the places they subdued, so that 
when the Inca, who had conquered these people, died, they 
rose in arms and regained their liberty. This is the reason 
that we repeat several times that a place was conquered, 
for it was by different Incas. For instance Mohina and 
Pinahua, although first overrun by Inca Rocca, were also 
invaded by Yahuar-huaccac, and then by Viracocha. and 
his son Inca Yupanqui. Each town fought so hard for 
its liberty, both under their Sinchis and without them, that 
one succeeded in subjugating one and another defeated 
another. This was especially the case in the time of the 
Incas. Even in Cuzco itself those of one suburb, called 
Carmenca, made war on another suburb called Cayocachi. 
So it is to be understood that, in the time of the seven 
Incas preceding Viracocha, although owing to the power 
they possessed in the ayllus, they terrorized those of Cuzco 
and the immediate neighbourhood, the subjection only 
lasted while the lance was over the vanquished, and that 
the moment they had a chance they took up arms for their 



LIFE OF VIRACOCHA THE EIGHTH INCA 83 

liberty. They did this at great risk to themselves, and 
sustained much loss of life, even those in Cuzco itself, until 
the time of Viracocha Inca. 

This Inca had resolved to subjugate all the tribes he 
possibly could by force and cruelty. He selected as his 
captains two valiant orejones, the one named Apu Mayta 
and the other Vicaquirau, of the lineage of Inca Rocca. 
With these captains, who were cruel and impious, he began 
to subjugate, before all things, the inhabitants of Cuzco 
who were not Incas orejones, practising on them great 
cruelties and putting many to death. At this time many 
towns and provinces were up in arms. Those in the 
neighbourhood of Cuzco had risen to defend themselves 
from the orejones Incas of Cuzco who had made war to 
tyrannize over them. Others were in arms with the same 
motives as the Incas, which was to subdue them if their 
forces would suffice. Thus it was that though many Sinchis 
were elected, their proceedings were confused and without 
concert, so that each force was small, and they were all 
weak and without help from each other. This being 
known to Viracocha, it encouraged him to commence his 
policy of conquest beyond Cuzco. 

Before coming to treat of the nations which Viracocha 
Inca conquered, we will tell of the sons he had. By Mama 
Runtucaya, his l^itimate wife, he had four sons, the first 
and eldest Inca Rocca, the second Tupac Yupanqui, the 
third Inca Yupanqui, and the fourth Ccapac Yupanqui. 
By another beautiful Indian named Ccuri-chulpa, of the 
Ayavilla nation in the valley of Cuzco he also had two 
sons, the one named Inca Urco, the other Inca Socso. 
The descendants of Inca Urco, however, say that he was 
legitimate, but all the rest say that he was a bastard ^ 

^ Urco is made by Cieza de Leon to succeed, and to have been 
dethroned by Inca Yupanqui owing to his flight from the Chancas. 
Yamqui Pachacuti records the death of Urco. Herrera, Fernandez, 
Yamqui Pachacuti also make Urco succeed Viracocha. 

6—2 



84 THE PROVINCES AND TOWNS CONQUERED BY 



XXV. 

THE PROVINCES AND TOWNS CONQUERED BY 
THE EIGHTH INCA VIRACOCHA. 

Viracocha, having named Apu Mayta and Vicaquirau 
as his captains, and mustered his forces, gave orders that 
they should advance to make conquests beyond the valley 
of Cuzco. They went to Pacaycacha, in the valley of 
Pisac, three leagues and a half from Cuzco. And because 
the besieged did not submit at once they assaulted the 
town, killing the inhabitants and their Sinchi named 
Acamaqui. Next the Inca marched against the towns of 
Mohina, Pinahua, Casacancha, and Runtucancha, five short 
leagues from Cuzco. They had made themselves free, 
although Yahuar-huaccac had sacked their towns. The 
captains of Viracocha attacked and killed most of the 
natives, and their Sinchis named Muyna Pancu and 
Huaman Tupac. The people of Mohina and Pinahua 
suffered from this war and subsequent cruelties because 
they said that they were free, and would not serve nor 
be vassals to the Incas. 

At this time the eldest son, Inca Rocca, was grown up 
and showed signs of being a courageous man. Viracocha^ 
therefore, made him captain-general with Apu Mayta and 
Vicaquirau as his colleagues. They also took with them 
Inca Yupanqui, who also gave hopes owing to the valour 
he had shown in the flower of his youth. With these 
captains the conquests were continued. Huaypar-marca 
was taken, the Ayamarcas were subdued, and Tocay 
Ccapac and Chihuay Ccapac, who had their seats near 
Cuzco, were slain. The Incas next subjugated MoUaca and 
ruined the town of Cayto, four leagues from Cuzco, killing 
its Sinchi named Ccapac Chani. They assaulted the towns 



THE EIGHTH INCA VIRACOCHA 85 

of Socma and Chiraques, killing their Sinchis named Puma 
Lloqui and lUacumbi, who were very warlike chiefs in 
that time, who had most valorously resisted the attacks 
of former Incas, that they might not come from Cuzco 
to subdue them. The Inca captains also conquered Calca 
and Caquia Xaquixahuana, three leagues from Cuzco, and 
the towns of Collocte and Camal. They subdued the 
people between Cuzco and Quiquisana with the surrounding 
country, the Papris and other neighbouring places; all 
within seven or eight leagues round Cuzco. [In thes^ 
conquests they committed very great cruelties, robberies, put 
many to death and destroyed towns, burtting and desolating 
along the road without leaving memory of anything,"] 

As Viracocha was now very old, he nominated as his 
successor his bastard son Inca Urco, without regard to 
the order of succession, because he was very fond of his 
mother. This Inca was bold, proud, and despised others, 
so that he aroused the indignation of the warriors, more 
especially of the legitimate sons, Inca Rocca, who was 
the eldest, and of the valiant captains Apu Mayta and 
Vicaquirau. These took order to prevent this succession to 
the Incaship, preferring one of the other brothers, the 
best conditioned, who would treat them well and honour- 
ably as they deserved. They secretly set their eyes on the 
third of the legitimate sons named Cusi, afterwards called 
Inca Yupanqui, because they believed that he was mild 
and affable, and, besides these qualities, he showed signs 
of high spirit and lofty ideas. Apu Mayta was more in 
favour of this plan than the others, as he desired to have 
some one to shield him from the fury of Viracocha Inca. 
Mayta thought that the Inca would kill him because he 
had seduced a woman named Cacchon Chicya, who was 
a wife of Viracocha. Apu Mayta had spoken of his plan 
and of his devotion to Cusi, to his colleague Vicaquirau. 
While they were consulting how it should be managed, 



86 FLIGHT OF VIRACOCHA 

the Chancas of Andahuaylas, thirty leagues from Cuzco, 
marched upon that city, as will be narrated in the life of 
Inca YupanquL Inca Viracocha, from fear of them, fled 
from Cuzco, and went to a place called Caquia Xaquixa- 
huana, where he shut himself up, being afraid of the 
Chancas. Here he died after some years, deprived of 
Cuzco of which his son Cusi had possession for several 
years before his father's death. Viracocha Inca was he 
who had made the most extensive conquests beyond Cuzco 
and, as we may say, he tyrannized anew even as regards 
Cuzco, as has been said above. 

Viracocha lived 1 19 years, succeeding at the age of 18. 
He was Ccapac loi years. He named the ayllu, which he 
left for the continuance of his lineage, Socso Panaca Ayllu^ 
and some are still living at Cuzco, the heads being Amaru 
Titu, Don Francisco Chalco Yupanqui, Don Francisco 
Anti Hualpa. They are Hanan-cuzcos. 

This Inca was industrious, and inventor of cloths and 
embroidered work called in their language Viracocha-tocapUy 
and amongst us brocade. He was rich \Jdr hi robbed mucA] 
and had vases of gold and silver. He was buried in 
Caquia Xaquixahuana and Gonzalo Pizarro, having heard 
that there was treasure with the body, discovered it and 
a large sum of gold. He burnt the body, and the natives 
collected the ashes and hid them in a vase. This, with the 
Inca's guauqui^ called Inca Amarti^ was found by the 
Licentiate Polo, when he was Corregidor of Cuzco. 



THE CHANCAS 87 



XXVI. 

THE LIFE OF INCA YUPANQUI OR PACHACUTP, 
THE NINTH INCA. 

It is related, in the life of Inca Viracocha, that he had 
four legitimate sons. Of these the third named Cusi, and 
as surname Inca Yupanqui, was raised to the Incaship by 
the famous captains Apu Mayta and Vicaquirau, and by 
the rest of the legitimate sons, and against the will of his 
father. In the course of their intrigues to carry this into 
effect, the times gave them the opportunity which they 
could not otherwise have found, in the march of the 
Chancas upon Cuzco. It happened in this way. 

Thirty leagues to the west of Cuzco there is a province 
called Andahuaylas, the names of the natives of it being 
Chancas. In this province there were two Sinchis, [robbers 
and cruel fyrants] named Uscovilca and Ancoviica who, 
coming on an expedition from near Huamanca with some 
companies of robbers, had settled in the valley of Anda- 
huaylas, and had there formed a state. They were brothers. 
Uscovilca being the elder and principal one, instituted 
a tribe which he called Hanan-chancas or upper Chancas. 
Ancoviica formed another tribe called Hurin-chancas or 
lower Chancas. These chiefs, after death, were embalmed, 
and because they were feared for their cruelties in life, were 
kept by their people. The Hanan-chancas carried the 
statue of Uscovilca with them, in their raids and wars. 
Although they had other Sinchis, they always attributed 
their success to the statue of Uscovilca, which they called 
Ancoallo. 



^ Inca Yupanqui suniamed Pachacuti was the ninth Inca. All 
the authorities agree that he dethroned either his father Viracocha, or 
his half brother Drco, after his victory over the Chancas, and that he 
had a long and glorious reign. 



88 THE LIFE OF INCA YUPANQUI OR PACHACUTI, 

The tribes and companies of Uscovtlca had multiph'ed 
prodigiously in the time of Viracocha. It seemed to them 
that they were so powerful that no one could equal them, 
so they resolved to march from Andahuaylas and conquer 
Cuzco. With this object they elected two Sinchis, one 
named Asto-huaraca, and the other Tomay-huaraca, one of 
the tribe of Hanan-chanca, the other of Hurin-chanca. 
These were to lead them in their enterprise. The Chancas 
and their Sinchis were proud and insolent Setting out 
from Andahuaylas they marched on the way to Cuzco 
until they reached a place called Ichu-pampa, five leagues 
west of that city, where they halted for some days, terrify- 
ing the neighbourhood and preparing for an advance. 

The news spread terror among the orejones of Cuzco, 
for jthey doubted the powers of Inca Viracocha, who was 
now very old and weak. Thinking that the position of 
Cuzco was insecure, Viracocha called a Council of his sons 
and captains Apu Mayta and Vicaquirau. These captains 
said to him — ^^ Inca Viracocha! we have understood what 
you have proposed to us touching this matter, and how 
you ought to meet the difficulty. After careful considera- 
tion it appears to us that as you are old and infirm owing 
to what you have undergone in former wars, it will not be 
well that you should attempt so great a business, dangerous 
and with victory doubtful, such as that which now presents 
itself before your eyes. The wisest counsel respecting the 
course you should adopt is that you should leave Cuzco, 
and proceed to the place of Chita, and thence to Caquia 
Xaquixahuana, which is a strong fort, whence you may 
treat for an agreement with the Chancas." They gave this 
advice to Viracocha to get him out of Cuzco and give 
them a good opportunity to put their designs into execution, 
which were to raise Cusi Inca Yupanqui to the throne. In 
whatever manner it was done, it is certain that this advice 
was taken by the Inca Viracocha. He determined to leave 



THE NINTH INCA 89 

Cuzco and proceed to Chita, in accordance with their 
proposal. But when Cusi Inca Yupanqui found that his 
father was determined to leave Cuzco, they say that he 
thus addressed him, *' How father can it fit into your heart 
to accept such infamous advice as to leave Cuzco, city of 
the Sun and of Viracocha, whose name you have taken, 
whose promise you hold that you shall be a great lord, you 
and your descendants." Though a boy, he said this with 
the animated daring of a man high in honour. The father 
answered that he was a boy and that he spoke like one, in 
talking without consideration, and that such words were of 
no value. Inca Yupanqui replied that he would remain 
where they would be remembered, that he would not leave 
Cuzco nor abandon the House of the Sun. They say that 
all this was planned by the said captains of Viracocha, 
Apu Mayta and Vicaquirau, to throw those off their guard 
who might conceive suspicion respecting the remaining of 
Inca Yupanqui in Cuzco. So Viracocha left Cuzco and 
went to Chita, taking with him his two illegitimate sons 
Inca Urco and Inca Socso. His son Inca Yupanqui 
remained at Cuzco, resolved to defend the city or die in 
its defence. Seven chiefs remained with him ; Inca Rocca 
his elder and legitimate brother, Apu Mayta, Vicaquirau, 
Quillis-cacha, Urco Huaranca, Chima Chaui Pata Yupanqui, 
Viracocha Inca Paucar, and Mircoy-mana the tutor of Inca 
Yupanqui. 



XXVII. 

COMING OF THE CHANCAS AGAINST CUZCO. 

At the time when Inca Viracocha left Cuzco, Asto- 
huaraca and Tomay-huaraca set out for Ichu-pampa, first 
making sacrifices and blowing out the lungs of an animal, 
which they call calpa. This they did not well understand. 



go COMING OF THE CHANCAS AGAINST CUZCO 

from what happened afterwards. Marching on towards 
Cuzco, they arrived at a place called Conchacalla, where 
they took a prisoner. From him they learnt what was 
happening at Cuzco, and he offered to guide them there 
secretly. Thus he conducted them half way. But then 
his conscience cried out to him touching the evil he was 
doing. So he fled to Cuzco, and gave the news that the 
Chancas were resolutely advancing. The news of this 
Indian, who was a Quillis-cachi of Cuzco, made Viracocha 
hasten his flight to Chita, whither the Chancas sent their 
messengers summoning him to surrender, and threatening 
war if he refused. Others say that these were not messengers 
but scouts and that Inca Viracocha, knowing this, told 
them that he knew they were spies of the Chancas, that he 
did not want to kill them, but that they might return and 
tell their people that if they wanted anything he was 
there. So they departed and at the mouth of a channel 
of water some of them fell and were killed. At this the 
Chancas were muchtinnoyed. They said that the messengers 
had been ordered to go to Inca Viracocha, and that they 
were killed by his captain Quequo Mayta. 

While this was proceeding with the messengers of the 
Chancas, the Chanca army was coming nearer to Cuzca 
Inca Yupanqui made great praying to Viracocha and to 
the Sun to protect the city. One day he was at Susur- 
puquio in great affliction, thinking over the best plan for 
opposing his enemies, when there appeared a person in the 
air like the Sun, consoling him and animating him for the 
battle. This being held up to him a mirror in which the 
provinces he would subdue were shown, and told him that 
he would be greater than any of his ancestors : he was to 
have no doubt, but to return to the city, because he would 
conquer the Chancas who were marching on Cuzco. With 
these words the vision animated Inca Yupanqui. He took 
the mirror, which he carried with him ever afterwards, in 



COMING OF THE CHANCAS AGAINST CUZCO 9 1 

peace or war, and returned to the city, where he began to 
encourage those he had left there, and some who came 
from afar\ The latter came to look on, not daring to 
declare for either party, fearing the rage of the conqueror 
if they should join the conquered side. Inca Yupanqui, 
though only a lad of 20 or 22 years, provided for everything 
as one who was about to fight for his life. 

While the Inca Yupanqui was thus engaged theChancas 
had been marching, and reached a place very near Cuzco 
called Cusi-pampa, there being nothing between it and 
Cuzco but a low hill. Here the Quillis-cachi was en- 
countered again. He said that he had been to spy, and 
that he rejoiced to meet them. This deceiver went from 
one side to the other, always keeping friends with both, to 
secure the favour of the side which eventually conquered. 
The Chancas resumed the march, expecting that there 
would be no defence. But the Quillis-cachi, mourning over 
the destruction of his country, disappeared from among the 
Chancas and went to Cuzco to give the alarm. " To arms! 
to arms!" he shouted, " Inca Yupanqui. The Chancas are 
upon you." 

At these words the Inca, who was not off his guard, 
mustered and got his troops in order, but he found very 
few willing to go forth with him to oppose the enemy, 
almost all took to the hills to watch the event. With 
those who were willing to follow, though few in number, 
chiefly the men of the seven Sinchis, brothers and captains, 
named above, he formed a small force and came forth 
to receive the enemy who advanced in fury and without 
order. The opposing forces advanced towards each other, 
the Chancas attacking the city in four directions. The 

* Susurpuquio seems to have been a fountain or spring on the road 
to Xaquixahuana. Molina relates the story of the vision somewhat 
differently, p. 12. Mrs Zelia Nuttall thinks that the description of the 
vision bears such a very strong resemblance to a bas relief found in 
Guatemala that they must have a common origin. 



92 COMING OF THE CHANCAS AGAINST CUZCO 

Inca Yupanqui sent all the succour he could to the 
assailed points, while he and his friends advanced towards 
the statue and standard of Uscovilca, with Asto-huaraca 
and Tomay-huaraca defending them. Here there was a 
bloody and desperate battle, one side striving to enter the 
city, and the other opposing its advance. Those who 
entered by a suburb called Chocos-chacona were valiantly 
repulsed by the inhabitants. They say that a woman 
named Chaflan-ccuri-coca here fought like a man, and 
so valiantly opposed the Chancas that they were obliged to 
retire. This was the cause that all the Chancas who saw 
it were dismayed. The Inca Yupanqui meanwhile was so 
quick and dexterous with his weapon, that those who 
carried the statue of Uscovilca became alarmed, and their 
fear was increased when they saw great numbers of men 
coming down from the hills. They say that these were 
sent by Viracocha, the creator, as succour for the Inca. 
The Chancas began to give way, leaving the statue of 
Uscovilca, and they say even that of Ancovilca. Attacking 
on two sides, Inca Rocca, Apu Mayta, and Vicaquirau 
made great havock among the Chancas. Seeing that their 
only safety was in flight, they turned their backs, and their 
quickness in running exceeded their fierceness in advancing. 
The men of Cuzco continued the pursuit, killing and 
wounding, for more than two leagues, when they desisted. 
The Chancas returned to Ichu-pampa, and the orejones to 
Cuzco, having won a great victory and taken a vast amount 
of plunder which remained in their hands. The Cuzcos 
rejoiced at this victory won with so little expectation or 
hope. They honoured Inca Yupanqui with many epithets, 
especially calling him Pachacuti, which means "over- 
turner of the earth," alluding to the land and farms which 
they looked upon as lost by the coming of the Chancas. 
For he had made them free and safe again. From that 
time he was called Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui. 



COMING OF THE CHANCAS AGAINST CUZCO 93 

As soon as the victory was secure, Inca Yupanqui did 
not wish to enjoy the triumph although many tried to 
persuade him. He wished to give his father the glory of 
such a great victory. So he collected the most precious 
spoils, and took them to his father who was in Chita, with 
a principal orejon named Quillis-cachi Urco Huaranca. 
By him he sent to ask his father to enjoy that triumph and 
tread on those spoils of the enemy, a custom they have as 
a sign of victory. When Quillts-cachi Urco Huaranca 
arrived before Viracocha Inca, he placed those spoils of the 
Chancas at his feet with great reverence, saying, " Inca 
Viracocha! thy son Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, to whom 
the Sun has given such a great victory, vanquishing the 
powerful Chancas, sends me to salute you, and says that, 
as a good and humble son he wishes you to triumph over 
your victory and to tread upon these spoils of your 
enemies, conquered by your hands." Inca Viracocha did 
not wish to tread on them, but said that his son Inca Urco 
should do so, as he was to succeed to the Incaship. 
Hearing this the messenger rose and gave utterance to 
furious words, saying that he did not come for cowards to 
triumph by the deeds of Pachacuti. He added that if 
Viracocha did not wish to receive this recognition from so 
valiant a son, it would be better that Pachachuti should 
enjoy the glory for which he had worked. With this he 
returned to Cuzco, and told Pachacuti what had happened 
with his father. 



94 THE SECOND VICTORY OF PACHACUTI 

XXVIIL 

THE SECOND VICTORY OF PACHACUTI INCA 
YUPANQUl OVER THE CHANCAS. 

While Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui was sending the spoil 
to his father, the Chancas were recruiting and assembling 
more men at Ichu-pampa, whence they marched on Cuzco 
the first time. The Sinchis Tomay-huaraca and Astoy- 
huaraca began to boast, declaring that they would return 
to Cuzco and leave nothing undestroyed. This news came 
to Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui. He received it with courage 
and, assembling his men, he marched in search of the 
Chancas. When they heard that the Incas were coming, 
they resolved to march out and encounter them, but the 
advance of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui was so rapid that he 
found the Chancas still at Ichu-pampa. 

As soon as the two forces came in sight of each other, 
Asto-huaraca, full of arrogance, sent to Inca Yupanqui to 
tell him that he could see the power of the Chancas and 
the position they now held. They were not like him 
coming from the poverty stricken Cuzco, and if. he did not 
repent the past and become a tributary and vassal to the 
Chancas, Asto-huaraca would dye his lance in an Inca's 
blood. But Inca Yupanqui was not terrified by the embassy. 
He answered in this way to the messenger. "Go back 
brother and say to Asto-huaraca, your Sinchi, that Inca 
Yupanqui is a child of the Sun and guardian of Cuzco, the 
city of Ticci Viracocha Pachayachachi, by whose order I am 
here guarding it. For this city is not mine but his ; and if 
your Sinchi should wish to own obedience to Ticci Viracocha, 
or to me in His name, he will be honourably received. If 
your Sinchi should see things in another light, show him that 
I am here with our friends, and if he should conquer us he 
can call himself Lord and Inca. But let him understand 



INCA YUPANQUI OVER THE CHANCAS 95 

that no more time can be wasted in demands and replies. 
God (Ticci Viracocha) will give the victory to whom he 
pleases." 

With this reply the Chancas felt that they had profited 
little by their boasting. They ran to their arms because 
they saw Pachacuti closely following the bearer of hia 
reply. The two armies approached each other in Ichu- 
pampa, encountered, and mixed together, the Chancas 
thrusting with long lances, the Incas using slings, clubs, axes 
and arrows, each one defending himself and attacking his 
adversary. The battle raged for a long time, without 
advantage on either side. At last Pachacuti made a way 
to where Asto-huaraca was fighting, attacked him and 
delivered a blow with his hatchet which cut off the Chanca's 
head. Tomay-huaraca was already killed. The Inca caused 
the heads of these two captains to be set on the points of 
lances, and raised on high to be seen by their followers. The 
Chancas, on seeing the heads, despaired of victory without 
leaders. They gave up the contest and sought safety in 
flight Inca Yupanqui and his army followed in pursuit, 
wounding and killing until there was nothing more to do. 

This great victory yielded such rich and plentiful spoils, 
that Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui proposed to go to where his 
father was, report to him the story of the battle and the 
victory, and to offer him obedience that he might triumph as 
if the victory was his own. Loaded with spoil and Chanca 
prisoners he went to visit his father. Some say that it was 
at a place called Caquia Xaquixahuana, four leagues from 
Cuzco, others that it was at Marco, three leagues from 
Cuzco. Wherever it was, there was a great ceremony, 
presents being given, called muchanaco^. When Pachacuti 
had given his father a full report, he ordered the spoils of 
the enemy to be placed at his feet, and asked his father to 



* Muchani^ I worship. Nacu is a particle giving a reciprocal or 
mutual meaning, "joint worship." 



96 TROUBLE WITH INCA URCO 

tread on them and triumph over the victory. But Viracocha 
Inca, still intent upon having Inca Urco for his successor, 
desired that the honour offered to him should be enjoyed 
by his favourite son. He, therefore, did not wish to accept 
the honours for himself. Yet not wishing to offend the Inca 
Yupanqui Pachacuti on such a crucial point, he said that 
he would tread on the spoils and prisoners, and did so. He 
excused himself from going to triumph at Cuzco owing to 
his great age, which made him prefer to rest at Caquia 
Xaquixahuana« 

With this reply Pachacuti departed for Cuzco with a 
great following of people and riches. The Inca Urco also 
came to accompany him, and on the road there was a 
quarrel in the rear guard between the men of Urco and 
those of Pachacuti. Others say that it was an ambush laid 
for his brother by Urco and that they fought. The Inca 
Pachacuti took no notice of it, and continued his journey to 
Cuzco, where he was received with much applause and in 
triumph. Soon afterwards, as one who thought of assuming 
authority over the whole land and taking away esteem 
from his father, as he presently did, he began to distribute 
the spoils, and confer many favours with gifts and speeches. 
With the fame of these grand doings, people came to Cuzco 
from all directions and many of those who were at Caquia 
Xaquixahuana left it and came to the new Inca at Cuzco. 

XXIX. 

THE INCA YUPANQUI ASSUMES THE SOVEREIGNTY 
AND TAKES THE FRINGE, WITHOUT THE CON- 
SENT OF HIS FATHER. 

When the Inca Yupanqui found himself .so strong and 
that he had been joined by so many people, he determined 
not to wait for the nomination of his father, much less 
for his death, before he rose with the people of Cuzco with 



CORONATION OF PACHACUTI 97 

the further intention of obtaining the assent of those 
without. With this object he caused a grand sacrifice 
to be offered to the Sun in the Inti-cancha or House of 
the Sun, and then went to ask the image of the Sun who 
should be Inca. The oracle of the devil, or perhaps some 
Indian who was behind to give the answer, replied that 
Inca Yupanqui Pachacuti was chosen and should be Inca, 
On this answer being given, all who were present at the 
sacrifice, prostrated themselves before Pachacuti, crying 
out " Ccapac Inca Intip Churin," which means " Sovereign 
Lord Child of the Sun." 

Presently they prepared a very rich fringe of gold and 
emeralds wherewith to crown him. Next day they took 
Pachacuti Inca Yypanqui to the House of the Sun, and 
when they came to the image of the Sun, which was of 
gold and the size of a man, they found it with the fringe, 
as if offering it of its own will. First making his sacrifices, 
according to their custom, he came to the image, and the 
High Priest called out in his language " Intip Apu," which 
means " Governor of things pertaining to the Sun." With 
much ceremony and great reverence the fringe was taken 
from the image and placed, with much pomp, on the 
forehead of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui. Then all called 
his name and hailed him " Intip Churin Inca Pachacuti," 
or "Child of the Sun Lord, overturner of the earth." 
From that time he was called Pachacuti besides his first 
name which was Inca Yupanqui. Then the Inca presented 
many gifts and celebrated the event with feasts. [He 
was sovereigfi Inca without the consent of his father or of the 
people^ but by those he had gained over to his side by gifts, 1 



M. S. 



98 PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI 

XXX. 

PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI REBUILDS THE CITY 
OF CUZCO. 

As soon as the festivities were over, the Inca laid out 
the city of Cuzco on a better plan ; and formed the 
principal streets as they were when the Spaniards came. 
He divided the land for communal, public, and private edi- 
fices, causing them to be built with very excellent masonry. 
It is such that we who have seen it. and know that they 
did not possess instruments of iron or steel to work with, 
are struck with admiration on beholding the equality 
and precision with which the stones are laid, as well as the 
closeness of the points of junction. With the rough stones 
it is even more interesting to examine the work and its 
composition. As the sight alone satisfies the curious, I 
will not waste time in a more detailed description. 

Besides this, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, considering 
the small extent of land round Cuzco suited for cultivation, 
supplied by art what was wanting in nature. Along the 
skirts of the hills near villages, and also in other parts, he 
constructed very long terraces of 200 paces more or less, 
and 20 to 30 wide, faced with masonry, and filled with 
earth, much of it brought from a distance. We call these 
terraces andeneSy the native name being sucres. He ordered 
that they should be sown, and in this way he made a vast 
increase in the cultivated land, and in provision for sus- 
taining the companies and garrisons. 

In order that the precise time of sowing and 
harvesting might be known, and that nothing might be 
lost, the Inca caused four poles to be set up on a high 
mountain to the east of Cuzco, about two varas apart, 
on the heads of which there were holes, by which the 
sun entered, in the manner of a watch or astrolabe. 



REBUILDS THE CITY OF CUZCO 99 

Observing where the sun struck the ground through these 
holes, at the time of sowing and harvest, marks were made 
on the ground. Other pol«< were set up in the part 
corresponding to the west of Cuzco, for the time of ^ 
harvesting the maize. Having fixed the positions exactly 
by these poles, they built columns of stone for perpetuity 
in their places, of the height of the poles and with holes in 
like places. All round it was ordered that the ground 
should be paved ; and on the stones certain lines were 
drawn, conforming to the movements of the sun entering 
through the holes in the columns. Thus the whole became 
an instrument serving for an annual time-piece, by which 
the times of sowing and harvesting were regulated. Persons 
were appointed to observe these watches, and to notify 
to the people the times they indicated \ 

Besides this, as he was curious about the things of 
antiquity, and wished to perpetuate his name, the Inca 
went personally to the hill of Tampu-tocco or Paccari- 
tampu, names for the same thing, and entered the cave 
whence it is held for certain that Manco Ccapac and his 
brethren came when they marched to Cuzco for the first 
time, as has already been narrated. After he had made 

* The pillars at Cuzco to determine the time of the solstices were 
called Sucanca. The two pillars denoting the beginning of winter, 
whence the year was measured, were called Pucuy Sucanca. Those 
notifying the beginning of spring were Chirac Sucanca. Suca means 
a ridge or furrow and sucani to make ridges : hence sucanca^ the 
alternate light and shadow, appearing like furrows. Acosta says there 
was a pillar for each month. Garcilasso de la Vega tells us that there 
were eight on the east, and eight on the west side of Cuzco (i. p. 177) 
in double rows, four and four, two small between two high ones, 
20 feet apart. Cieza de Leon says that they were in the Carmenca •, 
suburb (i. p. 325). 

To ascertain the time of the equinoxes there was a stone column in 
the open space before the temple of the Sun in the centre of a large 
circle. This was the Inti-huatana. A line was drawn across from 
east to west and they watched when the shadow of the pillar was on 
the line from sunrise to sunset and there was no shadow at noon. 
There is another Inti-huatana at Pisac, and another at Hatun- 
colla. Inii^ the Sun God, huataniy to seize, to tie round, Inti-huatana^ 
a sun circle. 

7—2 



lOO ENRICHMENT OF THE TEMPLE 

a thorough inspection, he venerated the locality and 
showed his feeling by festivals and sacrifices. He placed 
doors of gold on the window Ccapac-tocco, and ordered 
that from that time forward the locality, should be 
venerated by all, making it a prayer place and huacuy 
whither to go to pray for oracles and to sacrifice. 

Having done this the Inca returned to Cuzco. He 
ordered the year to be divided into twelve months, almost 
like our year. I say almost, because there is some 
difference, though slight, as will be explained in its place. 

He called a general assembly of the oldest and wisest 
men of Cuzco and other parts, who with much diligence 
scrutinized and examined the histories and antiquities of 
the land, principally of the Incas and their forefathers.. 
He ordered the events to be painted and preserved in 
order, as I explained when I spoke of the method adopted 
in preparing this history. 



XXXI. 

PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI REBUILDS THE HOUSE. 
OF THE SUN AND ESTABLISHES NEW IDOLS IN IT. 

Having adorned the city of Cuzco with edifices, streets, 
and the other things that have been mentioned, Pachacuti 
Inca Yupanqui reflected that since the time of Manco- 
Ccapac, none of his predecessors had done anything for the 
House of the Sun. He, therefore, resolved to enrich it 
with more oracles and edifices to appal ignorant people 
and produce astonishment, that they might help in the 
conquest of the whole land which he intended to subdue,, 
and in fact he commenced and achieved the subjugation of 
a large portion of it. He disinterred the bodies of the 
seven deceased Incas, from Manco Ccapac to Yahuar- 



ROYAL MUMMIES AND IMAGES lOI 

huaccac, which were all in the House of the Sun, enrich- 
ing them with masks, head-dresses called chuco, medals, 
bracelets, sceptres called yauri or chamfn}, and other 
ornaments of gdld. He then placed them, in the order of 
their seniority, on a bench with a back, richly adorned 
with gold, and ordered great festivals to be celebrated with 
representations of the lives of each Inca. These festivals, 
which are called purucaya\ were continued for more than 
four months. Great and sumptuous sacrifices were made 
to each Inca, at the conclusion of the representation of his 
acts and life. This gave them such authority that it made 
all strangers adore them, and worship them as gods. 
These strangers, when they beheld such majesty, humbled 
themselves, and put up their hands to worship or mucka as 
they say. The corpses were held in great respect and 
veneration until the Spaniards came to this land of Peru. 
Besides these corpses, Pachacuti made two images of 
gold. He called one of them Viracocha Pachayachachi. 
It represented the creator, and was placed on the right 
of the image of the Sun. The other was called Chtiquiylla^ 
representing lightning, placed on the left of the Sun. 
This image was most highly venerated by all. Inca 
Yupanqui adopted this idol for his guauqui^y because 'he 
said that it had appeared and spoken in a desert place and 
had given him a serpent with two heads, to carry about 
with him always, saying that while he had it with him, 
nothing sinister could happen in his affairs. To these 
idols the Inca gave the use of lands, flocks, and servants, 
especially of certain women who lived in the same House 
of the Sun, in the manner of nuns. These all came as 

1 Champi means a one-handed battle axe (Garcilasso de la Vega, I. 
lib. ix. cap. 31). Novices received it at the festival of Huarachicu, 
with the word Auccacunapac^ for traitors. 

' According to y^o%%\ pumccayan was the general mourning on the 
death of the Inca. 

3 Huauqui^ brother. 



I02 THE GREAT CHAIN 

vii^ins but few remained without having had connexion 
with the Inca. At least he was so vicious in this respect, 
that he had access to all whose looks gave him pleasure, 
and had many sons. 

Besides this House, there were some haacas in the 
surrounding country. These were that of Huanacauri, and 
others called Anahuarqui, Yauira, Cinga, Picol, Pachatopan^ 
[to many they made the accursed sacrifices^ which tliey called 
Ccapac Cocha, burying children^ aged $ or 6, alive as 
offerings to the devil, with many offerings of vases of gold 
and silver]. 

The Inca, they relate, also caused to be made a great 
woollen chain of many colours, garnished with gold plates, 
and two red fringes at the end. It was 150 fathoms in 
length, more or less. This was used in their public 
festivals, of which there were four principal ones in the 
year. The first was called Raymi or CCAPAC Raymi, 
which was when they opened the ears of knights at a 
ceremony called huarachico. The second was called 
SiTUA resembling our lights of St John*. They all ran 

* Anahuarqui was the name of the wife of Tupac Inca Yupanqui. 
Yauira may be for Yauirca, a fabulous creature described by Yamqui" 
Pachacuti. Cmga and Picol do not occur elsewhere. Pachatopan is 
no doubt Facha tupaCy beautiful land. 

' The months and the festivals which took place in each month are 
given by several authorities. The most correct are those of Polo 
de Ondegardo and Calancha who agree throughout. Calancha gives 
the months as received by the first Council of Lima. 
22 June— 22 July. INTIP RAYMI {Sun Festival). 
22 July— 22 Aug. CHAHUAR HUARQUIZ— Ploughing month. 
22 Aug.— 22 Sept. YAPAQUIZ (SITUA or Moon Festival)^ 

Sowing month. 
22 Sept.— 22 Oct. CCOYA RAYMI— Expiatory feast. Molina a 

month behind. 
22 Oct.— 22 Nov. UMA RAYMI — Month of brewing chicha. 
22 Nov. — 22 Dec. AYAMARCA — Commemoration of the dead. 
22 Dec— 22 Jan. CCAPAC RAYMI (HUARACHICU/«//Vfl/). 
22 Jan. — 22 Feb. CAMAY — Month of exercises. 
22 Feb.— 22 March. HATUN POCCOY (great ripening). 
22 March— 22 April. PACHA POCCOY (MOSOC N I N A /^j/iV/rt/). 
22 April— 22 May. AYRIHUA (Harvest). 
22 May— 22 June. AYMURAY (Harvest home). 



DEPOPULATION IO3 

at midnight with torches to bathe, saying that they were 
thus left clean of all diseases. The third was called Ynti 
Raymi, being the feast of the Sun, known as aymuray. 
In these feasts they took the chain out of the House of the 
Sun and all the principal Indians, very richly dressed, 
came with it, in order, singing, from the House of the 
Sun to the Great Square which they encircled with the 
chain. This was called moroy urco^. 



XXXII. 

PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI DEPOPULATES TWO 
LEAGUES OF COUNTRY NEAR CUZCO. 

After Pachacuti had done what has been described 
in the city, he turned his attention to the people. Seeing 
that there were not sufficient lands for sowing, so as to 
sustain them, he went round the city at a distance of four 
leagues from it, considering the valleys, situation, and 
villages. He depopulated all that were within two leagues 
of the city. The lands of depopulated villages were given 
to the city and its inhabitants, and the deprived people 
were settled in other parts. The citizens of Cuzco were 
well satisfied with the arrangement, for they were given 
/" what cost little, and thus he made friends by presents 
taken from others, and took as his own the valley of 
Tambo [which was not his]. 

The news of the enlargement of this city went far and 
wide, and reached the ears of Viracocha Inca, retired in 



* The great chain, used at festivals, is called by Sarmiento Muru- 
urco. See also Molina. Muru means a coloured spot, or a thing 
of variegated colours. Molina says that it was the house where the 
chain was kept that was called Muru-urco, as well as the cable. 
Huasca is another name for a cable (See G. de la Vega, ii. p. 422). 



i04 INCA URCO 

Caquia Xaquixahuana^ He was moved to go and see 
Cuzco. The Inca Yupanqui went for him, and brought 
him to Cuzco with much rejoicing. He went to the House 
of the Sun, worshipped at Huanacauri and saw all the 
improvements that had been made. Having seen every- 
thing he returned to his place at Caquia Xaquixahuana, 
where he resided until his death, never again visiting Cuzco, 
nor seeing his son Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui. 



XXXIII. 

PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI KILLS HIS ELDER 
BROTHER NAMED INCA URCO. 

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui found himself so powerful 
with the companies he had got together by liberal presents 
to all, that he proposed to subjugate by their means all 
the territories he could reach. For this he mustered all 
the troops that were in Cuzco, and provided them with 
arms, and all that was necessary for war. Affairs being in 
this state Pachacuti heard that his brother Urco was in 
a valley called Yucay, four leagues from Cuzco, and that 
he had assembled some people. Fearing that the move- 
ment was intended against him the Inca marched there 
with his army. His brother Inca Rocca went with 
him, who had the reputation of being a great necro- 
mancer. Arriving at a place called Paca in the said 
valley, the Inca went out against his brother Urco, and 
there was a battle between them. Inca Rocca hurled a 
stone which hit Urco on the throat. The blow was so 



^ This great plain to the north-west of Cuzco, called Xaquixa- 
huana, and Sacsahuana, is now known as Surita. Most of the early 
writers call it Sacsahuana. Sarmiento always places the word Caquia 
before the name. Capuchini is to provide, capuchic a purveyor. 
Hence Capuquey means "my goods," abbreviated to Caquey^ "my 
property.** The meaning is " my estate of Xaquixahuana." 



DEATH OF INCA URCO lOS 

great that Urco fell into the river flowing down the ravine 
where they were fighting. Urco exerted himself and fled, 
swimming down the river, with his axe in his hand. In 
this way he reached a rock called Chupellusca, a league 
below Tampu, where his brothers overtook him and killed 
him. 

From thence the Inca Pachacuti Yupanqui, with his 
brother Inca Rocca marched with their troops to Caquia 
Xaquixahuana to see his father who refused ever to speak 
with or see him, owing to the rage he felt at the death of 
Inca Urco. But Inca Rocca went in, where Viracocha 
was and said, " Father ! it is not reasonable that you should 
grieve so much at the death of Urco, for I. killed him in 
self defence, he having come to kill me. You are not to be 
so heavy at the death of one, when you have so many sons. 
Think no more of it, for my brother Pachacuti Yupanqui 
is to be Inca, and I hold that you should favour him and 
be as a father to him." Seeing the resolution of his son 
Inca Rocca, Viracocha did not dare to reply or to* con- 
tradict him. He dismissed him by saying that that was 
what he wished, and that he would be guided by him in 
everything. With this the Inca Yupanqui and his brother 
Inca Rocca returned to Cuzco, and entered the city 
triumphing over the past victories and over this one. 

The triumph was after this manner. The warriors 
marched in order, in their companies, dressed in the best 
manner possible, with songs and dances, and the captives, 
their eyes on the ground, dressed in long robes with many 
tassels. They entered by the streets of the city, which 
were very well adorned to receive them. They went on, 
enacting their battles and victories, on account of which 
they triumphed. On reaching the House of the Sun, the 
spoils and prisoners were thrown on the ground, and the 
Inca walked over them, trampling on them and saying — 
** I tread on my enemies." The prisoners were silent with- 



I06 SUBJUGATION OF THE AYAMARCAS 

out raising their eyes. This order was used in all their 
triumphs. At the end of a short time Inca Viracocha died 
of grief at the death of Inca Urco, deprived and despoiled 
of all honour and property. They buried his body in 
Caquia Xaquixahuana. 



XXXIV. 

THE NATIONS WHICH PACHACUTI INCA SUBJUGATED 
AND THE TOWNS HE TOOK: AND FIRST OF TOCAY 
CCAPAC, SINCHI OF THE AYAMARCAS, AND THE 
DESTRUCTION OF THE CUYOS. 

Near Cuzco there is a nation of Indians called Aya- 
marcas who had a proud and wealthy Sinchi named Tocay 
Ccapac. Neither he nor his people wished to come and do re- 
verence to the Inca. On the contrary, he mustered his forces 
to attack the Inca if his country was invaded. This being 
known to Inca Yupanqui, he assembled his ayllus and 
other troops. He formed them into two parties, afterwards 
called Hanan-cu7xos and Hurin-cuzcos, forming them into 
a corps, that united no one might be able to prevail 
against them. This done he consulted over what should be 
undertaken. It was resolved that all should unite for the 
conquest of all neighbouring nations. Those who would 
not submit were to be utterly destroyed; and first Tocay 
Ccapac, chief of the Ayamarcas, was to be dealt with, being 
powerful and not having come to do homage at Cuzco. 
Having united his forces, the Inca marched against the 
Ayamarcas and their Sinchi, and there was a battle at 
Huanancancha. Inca Yupanqui was victorious, assaulting 
the villages and killing nearly all the Ayamarcas. He 
took Tocay Ccapac as a prisoner to Cuzco, where he re- 
mained in prison until his death. 

After this Inca Yupanqui took to wife a native of 



DESTRUCTION OF CUYO IO7 

Choco named Mama Afiahuarqui. For greater pleasure 
and enjoyment, away from business, he went to the town 
of the Cuyos, chief place of the province of Cuyo-suyu. 
Being one day at a great entertainment, a potter, servant 
of the Sinchi, without apparent reason, threw a stone or, as 
some say, one of the jars which they call «///, at the Inca's 
head and wounded him. The delinquent, who was a 
stranger to the district, was seized and tortured to confess 
who had ordered him to do it. He stated that all the 
Sinchis of Cuyo-suyu, who were Cuyo Ccapac, Ayan-quila- 
lama, and Apu Cunaraqui, had conspired to kill the Inca 
and rebel. This was false, for it had been extorted from 
fear of the torture or, as some say, he said it because he 
belonged to a hostile tribe and wished to do them harm. 
But the Inca, having heard what the potter said, ordered 
all the Sinchis to be killed with great cruelty. After their 
deaths he slaughtered the people, leaving none alive except 
some children and old women. Thus was that nation 
destroyed, and its towns are desolate to this day. 



XXXV. 

THE OTHER NATIONS CONQUERED BY INCA YU- 
PANQUI, EITHER IN PERSON OR THROUGH HIS 
BROTHER INCA ROCCA. 

Inca Yupanqui and his brother Inca Rocca, who was 
very cruel, had determined to oppress and subdue all the 
nations who wished to be independent and would not 
submit to them. They knew that there were two Sinchis 
in a town called Ollantay-tampu, six leagues from Cuzco, 
the one named Paucar-Ancho and the other Tocori Tupac, 
who ruled over the Ollantay-tampus, but would not come 
to do homage, nor did their people wish to do so. The 
Inca marched against them with a large army and gave 



I08 OTHER CONQUESTS 

them battle. Inca Rocca was severely wounded, but at 
last the Ollantay-tampus were conquered. [All were kiUed^ 
the place was destroyed so that no memory was left of iV]* 
and the Inca returned to Cuzco. 

There was another Sinchi named Illacumpi, chief of 
two towns four leagues from Cuzco, called Cugma and 
Huata. Inca Yupanqui and Inca Rocca sent to him to do 
homage, but he replied that he was as good as they were 
and free, and that if they wanted anything, they must get 
it with their lances. For this answer the Inca made war 
upon the said Sinchi. He united his forces with those of 
two other Sinchis, his companions, named Paucar Tupac 
and Puma Lloqui, and went forth to fight the Inca. But 
they were defeated and killed, with nearly all their people. 
The Inca desolated that town with fire and sword, and 
with very great cruelty. He then returned to Cuzco and 
triumphed for that victory. 

The Inca received information, after this, that there 
was a town called Huancara, 1 1 leagues from Cuzco, ruled 
by Sinchis named Ascascahuana and Urcu-cuna. So a 
message was sent to them, calling upon them to give 
reverence and obedience to the Inca and to pay tribute. 
They replied that they were not women to come and serve, 
that they were in their native place, and that if any one came 
to seek them they would defend themselves. Moved to anger 
by this reply, Inca Yupanqui and Inca Rocca made war, 
killed the Sinchis and most of their people and brought 
the rest prisoners to Cuzco, to force them into obedience. 

Next they marched to another town called Toguaro, 
six leagues from Huancara, killing the Sinchi, named 
Alca-parihuana, and all the people, not sparing any but 
the children, that they might grow and repeople that land. 



^ This is untrue. The splendid ruins remain to this day. The 
place was long held against the Spaniards by Inca Manco. 



OTHER CONQUESTS IO9 

With similar cruelties in all the towns, the Inca reduced 
to pay tribute the Cotabambas, Cotaneras, Umasayus, 
and Aymaraes, being the principal provinces of Cunti- 
suyu. 

The Inca then attacked the province of the Soras, 
40 leagues from Cuzco. The natives came forth to resist, 
asking why the invaders sought their lands, telling them to 
depart or they would be driven out by force. Over this 
question there was a battle, and two towns of the Soras 
were subdued at that time, the one called Chalco, the other 
Soras. The Sinchi of Chalco was named Chalco-pusaycu, 
that of Soras Huacralla. They were taken prisoners to 
Cuzco, and there was a triumph over them. 

There was another place called Acos, 10 or 11 leagues 
from Cuzco. The two Sinchis of it were named Ocacique 
and Utu-huasi. These were strongly opposed to the 
demands of the Inca and made a very strenuous resist- 
ance. The Inca marched against them with a great army. 
But he met with serious difficulty in this conquest, for 
the Acos defended themselves most bravely and wounded 
Pachacuti on the head with a stone. He would not desist, 
but it was not until after a long time that they were 
conquered. He killed nearly all the natives of Acos, and 
those who were pardoned and survived after that cruel 
slaughter, were banished to the neighbourhood of Huamanca, 
to a place now called Acos^ 

In all these campaigns which have been described, Inca 
Rocca was the companion in arms, and participator in the 
triumphs of Inca Yupanqui. It is to be noted that in all 
the subdued provinces chiefs were placed, superseding or 
killing the native Sinchis. Those who were appointed, 
acted as guards or captains of the conquered places, hold- 
ing office in the Inca's name and during his pleasure. In 

^ Acobamba, the present capital of the province of Angaraes. 



no FEEDING THE IMAGE OF THE SUN 

this way the conquered provinces were oppressed and 
tyrannized over by the yoke of servitude, A superior 
was appointed over all the others who were nominated to 
each town, as general or governor. In their language this 
officer was called Tucuyrico^, which means " he who knows 
and oversees all." 

Thus in the first campaign undertaken by Pachacuti 
Inca Yupanqui, after the defeat of the Chancas, he sub- 
dued the country as far as the Soras, 40 leagues to the 
west of Cuzco. The other nations, and some in Cunti-suyu, 
from fear at seeing the cruelties committed on the con- 
quered, came in to submit, to avoid destruction. [But they 
ever submitted against their willsi] 

XXXVI. 

PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI ENDOWS THE HOUSE 
OF THE SUN WITH GREAT WEALTH. 

After Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui had conquered the 
lands and nations mentioned above, and had triumphed 
over them, he came to visit the House of the Sun and the 
Mama-cunas or nuns who were there. He assisted one 
day, to see how the Mama-cunas served the dinner of the 
Sun. This was to offer much richly cooked food to the 
image or idol of the Sun, and then to put it into a great 
fire on an altar. The same order was taken with the 
liquor. The chief of the Mama-cunas saluted the Sun 
with a small vase, and the rest was thrown on the fire. 
Besides this many jars full of that liquor were poured into 
a trough which had a drain, all being offerings to the Sun. 
This service was performed with vessels of clay. As 



' Tucuyricuc^ he who sees all. Tucuy means all. Ricini to 
see. Garcilasso de la Vega, I. lib. ii. cap. 14. Balboa, p. 115. 
Montesinos, p. 55. Santillana, p. 17. 



CONQUEST OF THE COLLAO III 

Pachacuti considered that the material of the vases was too 
poor, he presented very complete sets of vases of gold 
and silver for all the service that was necessary. To adorn ^ 
the house more richly he caused a plate of fine gold to be 
made, two palmas broad and the length of the court-yard. 
He ordered this to be nailed high up on the wall in the 
manner of a cornice, passing all round the court-yard. 
This border or cornice of gold remained there down to 
the time of the Spaniards. 



XXXVII. 

PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI CONQUERS THE 
PROVINCE OF COLLA-SUYU. 

To the south of Cuzco there was a province called 
CoUa-suyu or Collao, consisting of plain country, which 
was very populous. At the time that Pachacuti Inca 
Yupanqui was at Cuzco after having conquered the pro- 
vinces already mentioned, the Sinchi of Collao was named 
Chuchi Ccapac or Colla Ccapac, which is all one. This 
Chuchi Ccapac increased so much in power and wealth 
among those nations of Colla-suyu, that he was respected 
by all the Collas, who called him Inca Ccapac. 

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui determined to conquer him 
from a motive of jealousy, together with all the provinces of 
the Collao. With this object he assembled his army and 
marched on the route to the Collao in order to attack 
Chuchi Ccapac who waited for him at Hatun-Colla, a town 
of the Collao where he resided, 40 leagues from Cuzco, 
without having taken further notice of the coming nor of 
the forces of Inca Yupanqui. When he came near to 
Hatun Colla, the Inca sent a message to Chuchi Colla, 
requesting him to serve and obey him or else to prepare 
for battle, when they would try their fortunes. This 



112 CONQUEST OF THE COLLAO 

message caused much heaviness to Chuchi Colla, but he 
replied proudly that he waited for the Inca to come and do 
homage to him like the other nations that had been 
conquered by him, and that if the Inca did not choose 
to do so, he would prepare his head, with which he in- 
tended to drink in his triumph after the victory which he 
would win if they should come to a battle. 

After this reply Inca Yupanqui ordered his army to 
approach that of Chuchi Ccapac the next day, which was 
drawn up ready to fight Soon after they came in sights 
the two forces attacked each other, and the battle con- 
tinued for a long time without either side gaining any 
advantage. Inca Yupanqui, who was very dexterous in 
fighting, was assisting in every part, giving orders, com- 
bating, and animating his troops. Seeing that the Collas 
resisted so resolutely, and stood so firmly in the battle^ 
he turned his face to his men saying in a loud voice: 
" O Incas of Cuzxo ! conquerors of all the land ! Are you 
not ashamed that people so inferior to you, and unequal 
in weapons, should be equal to you and resist for so long 
a time.^" With this he returned to the fight, and the 
troops, touched by this rebuke, pressed upon their enemies 
in such sort that they were broken and defeated. Inca 
Yupanqui, being an experienced warrior, knew that the 
completion of the victory consisted in the capture of 
Chuchi Ccapac. Although he was fighting, he looked out 
for his enemy in all directions and, seeing him in the midst 
of his people, the Inca attacked them at the head of his 
guards, took him prisoner, and delivered him to a soldier 
with orders to take him to the camp and keep him safe. 
The Inca and his army then completed the victory and 
engaged in the pursuit, until all the Sinchis and captains 
that could be found were captured. Pachacuti went to 
Hatun-colla, the residence and seat of government of 
Chuchi Ccapac, where he remained until all the provinces 



TREATMENT OF PRISONERS II3 

which obeyed Chuchi Ccapac, were reduced to obedience, 
and brought many rich presents of gold, silver, cloths, and 
other precious things. 

Leaving a garrison and a governor in the Collao to rule 
in his name, the Inca returned to Cuzco, taking Chuchi 
Ccapac as a prisoner with the others. He entered Cuzco, 
where a solemn triumph was prepared. Chuchi Colla and 
the other Colla prisoners were placed before the Inca's litter 
dressed in long robes covered with tassels in derision and 
that they might be known. Having arrived at the House 
of the Sun, the captives and spoils were offered to the 
image of the Sun, and the Inca, or the priest for him, trod 
on all the spoils and captives that Pachacuti had taken in 
the Collao, which was great honour to the Inca. When 
the triumph was over, to give it a good finish, the Inca 
caused the head of Chuchi Ccapac to be cut off, and put in 
the house called Llasa-huasi^, with those of the other Sinchis "^ 
he had killed. He caused the other Sinchis and captains 
of Chuchi Ccapac to be given to the wild beasts, kept shut 
up for the purpose, in a house called Samca-huasi'^, ^'' 

In these conquests Pachacuti was very cruel to the 
vanquished, and people were so terrified at the cruelties 
that they submitted and obeyed from fear of being made 
food for wild beasts, or burnt, or otherwise cruelly tor- 
mented rather than resist in arms. It was thus with 
the people of Cunti-suyu who, seeing the cruelty and 
power of Inca Yupanqui, humiliated themselves and pro- 
mised obedience. It was for the cause and reason stated, 
and because they were threatened with destruction if they 
did not come to serve and obey. 



* Llasa-huasi. Uasa means weight, from llasani to weigh. Huasi 
a house. 

* Samgaguacy. This should be Samca-huasiy a prison for grave 
offences. Serpents and toads were put into the prison with the 
delinquents. Mossi, p. 233. 

M. S. 8 



114 EXTENT OF THE COLLA CONQUESTS 

Chuchi Ccapac had subjugated a region more than i6o 
leagues from north to south, over which he was Sinchi or, 
as he called himself, Ccapac or Colla-Ccapac, from within 
20 leagues of Cuzco as far as the Chichas, with all the 
bounds of Arequipa and the sea-coast to Atacama, and the 
forests of the Musus. For at this time, seeing the violence 
and power with which the Inca of Cuzco came down upon 
those who opposed him, without pardoning anyone, many 
Sinchis followed his example, and wanted to do the same 
in other parts, w^ere each one lived, so that all was con- 
fusion and tyranny in this kingdom, no one being secure of 
his own property. We shall relate in their places, as the 
occasion oflTers, the stories of the Sinchis, tyrants, besides 
those of the Incas who, from the time of Inca Yupanqui, 
began to get provinces into their power, and tyrannize 
over the inhabitants. 

Inca Yupanqui, as has already been narrated, had given 
the House of the Sun all things necessary for its services, 
besides which, after he came from Colla-suyu, he presented 
many things brought from there for the image of the Sun, 
and for the mummies of his ancestors which were kept in 
the House of the Sun. He also gave them servants and 
lands. He ordered that the huacas of Cuzco should be 
adopted and venerated in all the conquered provinces, 
ordaining new ceremonies for their worship and abolishing 
the ancient rites. He chained his eldest legitimate son, 
named Amaru Tupac Inca, with the duty of abolishing the 
huacas which were not held to be Intimate, and to see 
that the others were maintained and received the sacrifices 
ordered by the Inca. Huay^a Yamqui Yupanqui, another 
son of Inca Yupanqui, was associated with the heir in 
this duty. 



INVASION OF CHINCHAY-SUYU II5 

XXXVIII. 

PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI SENDS AN ARMY TO 
CONQUER THE PROVINCE OF CHINCHAY-SUYU. 

When Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui returned from the 
conquest of Colla-suyu and the neighbouring provinces, 
as has been narrated in the preceding chapter, he was well 
stricken in years, though not tired of wars, nor was his 
thirst for dominion satisfied. Owing to his age he chose to 
remain at Cuzco, as the seat of his government, to establish 
the lands he had subdued, in the way which he well knew 
how to establish. In order to lose no time in extending his 
conquests, he assembled his people, from among whom he 
chose 70,000 provided with arms and all things necessary 
for a military campaign. He nominated his brother, Ccapac 
Yupanqui, to be Captain-General, giving him for colleagues 
another of his brothers named Huayna Yupanqui, and one 
of his sons named Apu Yamqui Yupanqui. Among the 
other special captains in this army was one named Anco 
Ayllo of the Chanca nation, who had remained a prisoner 
in Cuzco from the time that the Inca conquered the 
Chancas at Cuzco and at Ichu-pampa. He had ever since 
been sad and brooding, thinking of a way of escape. But 
he dissimulated so well that the Inca treated him as a 
brother and trusted him. Hence the Inca nominated him 
as commander of all the Chancas in the army. For to each 
nation the Inca gave a captain from among their own people, 
because he would understand how to rule them and they 
would obey him better. This Anco Ayllo, seeing there 
was an opportunity for fulfilling his desire, showed satisfac- 
tion at receiving this commission from the Inca, and 
promised to do valuable service, as he knew those nations 
whose conquest was about to be undertaken. When the 
army was ready to march, the Inca gave the Captain- 

8—2 



Il6 ORDERS FOR THE INCA GENERAL 

General his own arms of gold, and to the other captains he 
gave arms with which to enter the battles. He made a 
speech to them, exhorting them to achieve success, showing 
them the honourable reward they would obtain, and the 
favours he, as a friend, would show them, if they served in 
that war. He gave special orders to Ccapac Yupanqui that 
he should advance with his conquering army as far as a 
province called Yana-mayu, the boundary of the nation of 
the Hatun-huayllas, and that there he should set up the 
Inca's boundary pillars, and he was on no account to 
advance further. He was to conquer up to that point and 
then return to Cuzco, leaving sufficient garrisons in the 
subjugated lands. He was also to establish posts at every 
half league, which they call chasquiSy by means of which 
the Inca would be daily informed of what had happened 
and was being done^ 

Ccapac Yupanqui set out from Cuzco with these orders, 
and desolated all the provinces which did not submit On 
arriving at a fortress called Urco-collac, near Parcos, in the 
country of Huamanca, he met with valorous resistance from 
the inhabitants. Finally he conquered them. In the battle 
the Chancas distinguished themselves so that they gained 
more honour than the Cuzcos orejones and the other 
nations. 

This news came to the Inca, who was much annoyed 
that the Chancas should have distinguished themselves 
more, and had gained more honour than the Incas. He 
imagined that it would make them proud, so he proposed 
to have them killed. He sent a messenger ordering Ccapac 
Yupanqui to lay a plan for killing all the Chancas in the 
best way he could devise, and if he did not kill them, the 
Inca would kill him. The runner of the Inca reached 

* For accounts of the chasquis or Inca couriers see Garcilasso de 
la Vega, ii. pp. 49> 60, 119, 120, 121. Balboa, p. 248. Polo de 
Ondegardo, p. 169. 



FLIGHT OF THE CHANCAS II7 

Ccapac Yupanqui with this order, but it could not be kept 
a secret. It became known to a wife of Ccapac Yupanqui, 
who was a sister of Anco Ayllo, the captain of the Chancas. 
This woman told her brother, who always longed for his 
liberty, and now was urgently minded to save his life. He 
secretly addressed his Chanca soldiers, putting before them 
the cruel order of the Inca, and the acquisition of their liberty 
if they would follow him. They all agreed to his proposal. 
When they came to Huarac-tambo, in the neighbourhood of 
the city of Huanuco, all the Chancas fled with their captain 
Anco Ayllo, and besides the Chancas other tribes followed 
this chief. Passing by the province of Huayllas they 
pillaged it, and, continuing their route in flight from the 
Incas, they agreed to seek a rugged and mountainous land 
where the Incas, even if they sought them, would not be 
able to find them. So they entered the forests between 
Chachapoyas and Huanuco, and went on to the province of 
Ruparupa. These are the people who are settled on the 
river Pacay and, according to the received report, thence 
to the eastward by the river called Cocama which falls into 
the great river Marafton. They were met with by the 
captain Gomez d' Arias, who entered by Huanuco, in the 
time of the Marquis of Caftete, in the year 1556. Though 
Ccapac Yupanqui went in chase of the Chancas, they were 
so rapid in their flight that he was unable to overtake 
them*. 

In going after them Ccapac Yupanqui went as far as 
Caxamarca, beyond the line he was ordered not to pass by 
the Inca. Although he had the order in his mind, yet 
when he saw that province of Caxamarca, how populous it 
was and rich in gold and silver, by reason of the great 
Sinchi, named Gusmanco Ccapac, who ruled there and was 



' Garcilasso de la Vega also gives an account of the flight of the 
Chancas under Anco-ayllu or Hanco-hualla, ii. pp. 82, 329. 



Il8 CONQUEST OF CAXAMARCA 

a great tyrant, having robbed many provinces round 
Caxamarca, Ccapac Yupanqui resolved to conquer it, al- 
though he had no commission from his brother for under- 
taking such an enterprise. On commencing to enter the 
land of Caxamarca, it became known to Gusmanco Ccapac. 
That chief summoned his people, and called upon another 
Sinchi, his tributary, named Chimu Ccapac, chief of the 
territory where now stands the city of Truxillo on the 
coast of Peru. Their combined forces marched against 
Ccapac Yupanqui, who by a certain ambush, and other 
stratagems, defeated, routed and captured the two Sinchis 
Gusmanco Ccapac and Chimu Ccapac, taking vast treasure 
of gold, silver and other precious things, such as gems, and 
coloured shells, which these natives value more than silver 
or gold. 

Ccapac Yupanqui collected all the treasure in the square 
of Caxamarca, where he then was ; and when he saw such 
immense wealth he became proud and vainglorious, saying 
that he had gained and acquired more than his brother the 
Inca. His arrogance and boasting came to the ears of his 
sovereign, who, although he felt it deeply and desired 
an opportunity to kill him, dissimulated for a time and 
waited until the return to Cuzco. Inca Yupanqui feared 
that his brother would rebel, and for this reason he 
appeared to be pleased before the envoys sent by Ccapac 
Yupanqui. He sent them back with orders that Ccapac 
Yupanqui should return to Cuzco with the treasure that 
had been taken in the war, as well as the principal men of 
the subdued provinces, and the sons of Gusmanco Ccapac 
and Chimu Ccapac. The great chiefs themselves were to 
remain in their territories with a sufficient garrison to keep 
those lands obedient to the Inca. On receiving this order 
Ccapac Yupanqui set out for Cuzco with all the treasure, 
and marched to the capital full of pride and arrogance. 
Inca Yupanqui, who himself subdued so many lands and 



MITIMAES OR COLONISTS II9 

gained so much honour, became jealous, as some say afraid, 
and sought excuses for killing his brother. When he knew 
thatCcapac Yupanqui had reached Limatambo, eight leagues 
from Cuzco, he ordered his lieutenant-governor named 
Inca Capon, to go there and cut off the head of Ccapac 
Yupanqui. The reasons given were that he had allowed 
Anco Ayllo to escape, and had gone beyond the line 
prescribed. The governor went and, in obedience to his 
orders, he killed the Inca's two brothers Ccapac Yupanqui 
and Huayna Yupanqui. The Inca ordered the rest to enter 
Cuzco, triumphing over their victories. This was done, the 
Inca treading on the spoils, and granting rewards. They 
say that he regretted that his brother had gained so much 
honour, and that he wished that he had sent his son who 
was to be his successor, named Tupac Inca Yupanqui, that 
he might have enjoyed such honour, and that this jealousy 
led him to kill his brother. 

XXXIX. 

PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI PLANTS MITIMAES 
IN ALL THE LANDS HE HAD CONQUERED. 

As all the conquests made by this Inca were attended 
with such violence and cruelties, with such spoliation and 
force, and the people who became his subjects by acquisi- 
tion, or to speak more correctly by rapine, were numerous, 
they obeyed so long as they felt the force compelling them, 
and, as soon as they were a little free from that fear, they 
presently rebelled and resumed their liberty. Then the 
Inca was obliged to conquer them again. Turning many 
things in his mind, and seeking for remedies, how he could 
settle once for all the numerous provinces he had conquered, 
at last he hit upon a plan which, although adapted to the 
object he sought to attain, and coloured with some appear- 
ance of generosity, was really the worst tyranny he per- 



120 PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI PLANTS MITIMAES 

petrated. He ordered visitors to go through ali the subdued 
provinces, with orders to measure and survey them, and to 
bring him models of the natural features in clay. This was 
done. The models and reports were brought before the 
Inca. He examined them and considered the mountainous 
fastnesses and the plains. He ordered the visitors to look 
well to what he would do. He then began to demolish the 
fastnesses and to have their inhabitants moved to plain 
country, and those of the plains were moved to mountainous 
regions, so far from each other, and each so far from their 
native country-, that they could not return to it. Next the 
Inca ordered the visitors to go and do with the people what 
they had seen him do with the models. They went and 
did so. 

He gave orders to others to go to the same districts, 
and, jointly with the tucuricos, to take some young men, 
with their wives, from each district. This was done and 
they were brought to Cuzco from all the provinces, from 
one 30, from another 100, more or less according to the 
population of each district. These selected people were 
presented before the Inca, who ordered that they should be 
taken to people various parts. Those of Chinchay-suyu 
were sent to Anti-suyu, those of Cunti-suyu to Colla-suyu, 
so far from their native country that they could not com- 
municate with their relations or countrymen. He ordered 
that they should be settled in valleys similar to those in their 
native land, and that they should have seeds from those 
lands that they might be preserved and not perish, giving 
them land to sow without stint, and removing the natives. 

The Incas called these colonists mitimaes^y which 



* The system of mitimaes was a very important part of the Inca 
polity. It is frequently referred to by Cieza de Leon, and described by 
Garcilasso de la Vega, ii. p. 2 1 5. See also Balboa, pp. 78, ! 14, 143, 249. 
Molina, pp. 4, 22, 23. Yamqui Pachacuti, pp. 95, 97. Polo de 
Ondegardo, p. 161. 



IN ALL THE LANDS HE HAD CONQUERED 121 

means "transported" or^" moved." He ordered them to 
learn the language of the country to which they were 
removed, but not to forget the general language, which 
was the Quichua, and which he had ordered that all his 
subjects in all the conquered provinces must learn and 
know. With it conversation and business could be carried 
on, for it was the clearest and richest of the dialects. The 
Inca gave the colonists authority and power to enter the 
houses of the natives at all hours, night or day, to see what 
they said, did or arranged, with orders to report all to the 
nearest governor, so that it might be known if anything was 
plotted against the government of the Inca, who, knowing 
the evil he had done, feared all in general, and knew that 
no one serv^ed him voluntarily, but only by force. Besides 
this the Inca put garrisons into all the fortresses of import- 
ance, composed of natives of Cuzco or the neighbourhood, 
which garrisons were called michecrima^. 



XL. 



THE COLLAS, SONS OF CHUCHI CCAPAC, REBEL 
AGAINST INCA YUFANQUI TO OBTAIN THEIR 
FREEDOM. 

After Inca Yupanqui had celebrated the triumphs and 
festivities consequent on the conquest of Chinchay-suyu, 
and arranged the system of initimaes, he dismissed the 
troops. He himself went to Yucay, where he built the 
edifices, the ruins of which may still be seen. These being 
finished, he went down the valley of Yucay to a place 
which is now called Tambo, eight leagues from Cuzco, 
where he erected some magnificent buildings. The sons of 
Chuchi Ccapac, the great Sinchi of the Collao, had to labour 



* Michec a shepherd, hence a governor. Rimay to speak. 



122 INSURRECTION IN THE COLLAO 

as captives at the masonry and other work. Their father, 
as has already been narrated, was conquered in the Collao 
and killed by the Inca. These sons of Chuchi Ccapac, 
feeling that they were being vilely treated, and remember- 
ing that they were the sons of so great a man as their 
father, also seeing that the Inca had disbanded his army, 
agreed to risk their lives in obtaining their freedom. One 
night they fled, with all the people who were there, and 
made such speed that, although the Inca sent after them, 
they could not be overtaken. Along the route they took, 
they kept raising the inhabitants against the Inca. Much 
persuasion was not needed, because, as they were obeying 
by force, they only sought the first opportunity to rise. On 
this favourable chance, many nations readily rebelled, even 
those who were very near Cuzco, but principally the Collao 
and all its provinces. 

The Inca. seeing this, ordered a great army to be 
assembled, and sought the favour of auxiliaries from 
Gusmanco Ccapac and Chimu Ccapac. He collected a 
great number of men, made sacrifices calpa^^ and buried 
some children alive, which is called capa cocha^ to induce 
their idols to favour them in that war. All being ready, the 
Inca nominated two of his sons as captains of the army, 
valorous men, named the one Tupac Ayar Manco, the other 
Apu Paucar Usnu. The Inca left Cuzco with more than 
200,000 warriors, and marched against the sons of Chuchi 
Ccapac, who also had a great power of men and arms, and 
were anxious to meet the Incas and fight for their lives 
against the men of Cuzco. 

As both were seeking each other, they soon met, and 
joined in a stubborn and bloody battle, in which there was 
great slaughter, because one side fought for life and liberty 
and the other for honour. As those of Cuzco were better 



Calpa means force, vigour ; also an army. 



CHOICE OF AN HEIR 1 23 

disciplined and drilled, and more numerous than their 
adversaries, they had the advantage. But the CoUas 
preferred to die fighting rather than to become captives 
to one so cruel and inhuman as the Inca, So they opposed 
themselves to the arms of the orejones^ who, with great 
cruelties, killed as many of the Collas as opposed their 
advance. The sons of the Inca did great things in the 
battle, with their own hands, on that day. 

The Collas were defeated, most of them being killed or 
taken prisoners. Those who fled were followed to a place 
called Lampa. There the wounded were cared for, and the 
squadrons refreshed. The Inca ordered his two sons, Tupac 
Ayar Manco and Apu Paucar Usnu, to press onward, con- 
quering the country as far as the Chichas, where they were 
to set up their cairns and return. The Inca then returned 
to Cuzco, for a triumph over the victory he had gained. 

The Inca arrived at Cuzco, triumphed and celebrated 
the victory with festivities. And because he found that a 
son had been born to him, he raised him before the Sun, 
offered him, and gave him the name of Tupac Inca 
Yupanqui. In his name he offered treasures of gold and 
silver to the Sun, and to the other oracles and huacas^ 
and also made the sacrifice of capa cocha. Besides this 
he made the most solemn and costly festivals that had ever 
been known, throughout the land. This was done because 
Inca Yupanqui wished that this Tupac Inca should succeed 
him, although he had other older and legitimate sons by 
his wife and sister Mama Anahuarqui. For, although the 
custom of these tyrants was that the eldest legitimate son 
should succeed, it was seldom observed, the Inca preferring 
the one he liked best, or whose mother he loved most, or he 
who was the ablest among the brothers. 



124 SUBJUGATION OK THE COLLAS 



XLI. 

AMARU TUPAC INCA AND APU PAUCAR USNU CON- 
TINUE THE CONQUEST OF THE COLLAO AND 
AGAIN SUBDUE THE COLLAS. 

As soon as the Inca returned to Cuzco, leaving his two 
sons Tupac Amaru and Apu Paucar Usnu* in the Callao, 
those captains set out from Lampa, advancing to Hatun- 
Colla, where they knew that the Collas had rallied their 
troops to fight the Cuzcos once more, and that they had 
raised one of the sons of Chuchi Ccapac to be Inca. The 
Incas came to the place where the Collas were awaiting 
them in arms. They met and fought valorously, many 
being killed on both sides. At the end of the battle 
the Collas were defeated and their new Inca was taken 
prisoner. Thus for a third time were the Collas conquered 
by the Cuzcos. By order of the Inca, his sons, generals 
of the war, left the new Inca of the Collas at Hatun-Colla, 
as a prisoner well guarded and re-captured. The other . 
captains went on, continuing their conquests, as the Inca 
had ordered, to the confines of Charcas and the Chichas. 
While his sons prosecuted the war, Pachacuti their 
father, finished the edifices at Tambo, and constructed the 
ponds and pleasure houses of Yucay. He erected, on a 
hill near Cuzco, called Patallata, .some sumptuous houses, 
and many others in the neighbourhood of the capital. He 
,/' also made many channels of water both for use and for 
pleasure ; and ordered all the governors of provinces who 
were under his sway, to build pleasure houses on the most 
convenient sites, ready for him when he should visit their 
commands. 



* Tupac Amaru. Tupac means royal, and cunartt a serpent. Apu 
a chief, paucar beautiful and usnu a judgment seat. 



FINAL VICTORY IN CHICHAS 1 25 

While Inca Yupanqui proceeded with these measures, 
his sons had completed the conquest of the Collao. When 
they arrived in the vicinity of Charcas, the natives of Paria, 
Tapacari, Cochabambas, Poconas and Charcas retreated to 
the country of the Chichas and Chuyes, in order to make 
a combined resistance to the Incas, who arrived where their 
adversaries were assembled, awaiting the attack. The Inca 
army was in three divisions. A squadron of 5000 men 
went by the mountains, another of 20,000 by the side of 
the sea, and the rest by the direct road. They arrived at 
the strong position held by the Charcas and their allies, 
and fought with them. The Incas were victorious, and 
took great spoils of silver extracted by those natives from 
the mines of Porco. It is to be noted that nothing was 
ever known of the 5000 orejones who entered by the 
mountains or what became of them. Leaving all these 
provinces conquered, and subdued, Amaru Tupac Inca and 
Apu Paucar Usnu returned to Cuzco where they triumphed 
over their victories, Pachacuti granting them many favours, 
and rejoicing with many festivals and sacrifices to idols. 



XLII. 

PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI NOMINATES HIS SON 
TUPAC INCA YUPANQUI AS HIS SUCCESSOR. 

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui was now very old ; and he 
determined to nominate a successor to take his place after 
his death. He called together the Incas his relations, of 
the ayllus of Hanan-cuzco and Hurin-cuzco and said, " My 
friends and relations ! I am now, as you see, very old, and 
I desire to leave you, when my days are over, one who 
will govern and defend you from your enemies. Some 
propose that I should name Amaru Tupac Inca, but it 
does not appear to me that he has the qualifications to 



126 TUPAC INCA DECLARED THE HEIR 

govern so great a lordship as that which I have acquired. 
I, therefore, desire to nominate another with whom you 
will be more content" The relations, in their reply, gave 
thanks to the Inca, and declared that they would derive 
great benefit from his nomination. He then said that he 
named his son Tupac Inca, and ordered him to come forth 
from the house. He had been there for 15 or 1 6 years to 
be brought up, without any one seeing him except very 
rarely and as a great favour. He was now shown to the 
people, and the Inca presently ordered a fringe of gold to 
be placed in the hand of the image of the Sun, with the 
head-dress called /nllaca-Uaytu\ After Tupac Inca had 
made his obeisance to his father, the Inca and the rest rose 
and went before the image of the Sun where they made 
their sacrifices and offered capa cocha to that deity. Then 
they offered the new Inca Tupac Yupanqui, beseeching 
the Sun to protect and foster him, and to make him so that 
all should hold and judge him to be a child of the Sun and 
father of his people. This done the oldest and principal 
orejones took Tupac Inca to the Sun, and the priests took 
the fringe from the hands of the image, which they call 
mascapaycha, and placed it over the head of Tupac Inca 
Yupanqui until it rested on his forehead. He was declared 
Inca Ccapac and seated in front of the Sun on a seat of gold, 
called duho^y garnished with emeralds and other precious 
stones. Seated there, they clothed him in the ccapac hongo\ 
placed the suntur paucar in his hand, gave him the other 
insignia of Inca, and the priests raised him on their shoulders. 
When these ceremonies were completed, Pachacuti Inca 
Yupanqui ordered that his son Tupac Inca should remain 
shut up in the House of the Sun, performing the fasts which 

^ PiUaca-llatu is a cloth or cloak woven of two colours, black and 
brown. 

* This word is corrupt. Tiana is the word for a seat. 
^ Ccapac uncu. The word uncu means a tunic. 



INAUGURATION OF TUPAC INCA 12/ 

it is the custom to go through before receiving the order of 
chivalry; which ceremony consisted in opening the ears. 
The Inca ordered that what had been done should not be 
made public until he gave the command to publish it. 

XLIII. 

HOW PACHACUTI ARMED HIS SON TUPAC INCA. 

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui found happiness in leaving 
memory of himself. With this object he did extraordinary 
things as compared with those of his ancestors, in building 
edifices, celebrating triumphs, not allowing himself to be 
seen except as a great favour shown to the people, for as 
such it was considered, on the day that he appeared. Then 
he ordered that no one should come to behold him without 
worshipping and bringing something in his hand to offer 
him. This custom was continued by all his descendants, 
and was observed inviolably. [TAus, from the time of this 
Pachacuti began an unheard of and inhuman tyranny in 
addition to the tyrannies of his ancestors^ As he was now 
old and desirous of perpetuating his name, it appeared to 
him that he would obtain his desire by giving authority 
to his son and successor named Tupac Inca. So the boy 
was brought up, confined in the House of the Sun for more 
than 1 6 years, seeing no one but his tutors and masters 
until he was brought and presented to the Sun, to be 
nominated as has already been explained. To invest him 
at the huarachicOf the Inca ordered a new way of giving 
the order of chivalry. For this he built round the city four 
other houses for prayer to the Sun, with much apparatus of 
gold idols, huacas and service, for his son to perambulate 
these stations after he had been armed as a knight. 

Affairs being in this state, there came to the Inca 
Pachacuti, his son Amaru Tupac Inca, who had been 



128 HOW PACHACUTI ARMED HIS SON TUPAC INCA 

named by his father as his successor some years before, 
because he was the eldest legitimate son. He said, "Father 
Inca ! I understand that you have a son in the House of 
the Sun whom you have ordered to be your successor after 
your own days. Order that he may be shown to me." 
The Inca, looking upon this as boldness on the part of 
Amaru Tupac, replied, " It is true, and I desire that you 
and your wife shall be his vassals, and that you shall serve 
and obey him as your Lord and Inca." Amaru replied 
that he wished to do so, and that, for this reason, he desired 
to see him and offer sacrifice to him, and that orders should 
be given to take him where his brother was. The Inca 
gave permission for this, Amaru Tupac Inca taking what 
was necessary for the ceremony, and being brought to 
where Tupac Inca was fasting. When Amaru saw him 
in such majesty of wealth and surroundings, he fell on his 
face to the earth, adoring, offering sacrifices and obedience. 
On learning that it was his brother, Tupac Inca raised him 
and saluted him in the face. 

Presently Inca Yupanqui caused the necessary pre- 
parations to be made for investing his son with the order 
of chivalry. When all was ready, the Inca, accompanied 
by all his principal relations and courtiers, went to the 
House of the Sun, where they brought out Tupac Inca 
with great solemnity and pomp. For they carried with 
him all the idols of the Sun, Viracocha, the other huacasy 
the figures of the former Incas, and the great chain called 
morO'Urco, All being placed in order with such pomp 
as had never been seen before, they all went to the great 
square of the city, in the centre of which a bonfire was 
made. All the relations and friends then killed many 
animals, offering them as sacrifices by throwing them into 
the flames. They worshipped the heir, offering him rich 
gifts, the first that brought a gift being his father. Following 
the example all the rest adored, seeing that his father had 



HOW PACHACUTI ARMED HIS SON TUPAC INCA I2g 

shown him reverence. Thus did the orejones Incas and 
all the rest who were present, seeing that for this they had 
been called and invited, to bring their gifts and offer them 
to their new Inca. 

This being done, the festival called Ccapac Raytni 
was commenced, being the feast of kings, and consequently 
the most solemn festival kept by these people. When the 
ceremonies had been performed, they bored the ears of 
Tupac Inca Yupanqui, which is their mode of investiture 
into the order of chivalry and nobility. He was then 
taken to the stations of the Houses of the Sun, giving him 
the weapons and other insignia of war. This being finished 
his father the Inca Yupanqui gave him, for his wife, one 
of his sisters named Mama Oclio, who was a very beautiful 
woman with much ability and wisdom. 

XLIV. 

PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI SENDS HIS SON TUPAC 
INCA YUPANQUI TO CONQUER CHINCHAY-SUYU. 

The Inca Yupanqui desired that his son should be 
employed on some service that would bring him fame, 
as soon as he had been proclaimed his successor, and 
armed as a knight. He had information that Chinchay- 
suyu was a region where name and treasure might be 
acquired, especially from a Sinchi named Chuqui-Sota in 
Chachapoyas. He, therefore, ordered all preparations to 
be made for the conquest of Chinchay-suyu. He gave the 
prince for his tutors, captains, and captains-general of his 
army, two of his brothers, the one named Auqui Yupanqui 
and the other Tilca Yupanqui. The army being assembled 
and the preparations made, they set out from Cuzco. 

Tupac went in such pomp and majesty that, where 
he passed, no one dared to look him in the face, in such 
M. s. 9 



I30 ADVANCE OF TUPAC INCA 

veneration was he held. The people left the roads along 
which he had to pass and, ascending the hills on either side, 
worshipped and adored. They pulled out their eyebrows 
and eyelashes, and blowing on them, they made oflTering 
to the Inca. Others oflTered handfuls of a very precious 
herb called coca. When he arrived at the villages, he put 
on the dress and head-gear of that district, for all were 
different in their dress and head-gear as they are now. 
For Inca Yupanqui, so as to know each nation he had 
conquered, ordered that each one should have a special 
dress and head -gear, which they call pillu^ llaytu and 
chuco^ different one from the other, so as to be easily dis- 
tinguished and recognized. Seating himself, Tupac Inca 
made a solemn sacrifice of animals and birds, burning them 
in a fire which was kindled in his presence ; and in this 
way they worshipped the sun, which they believed to be 
God. 

In this manner Tupac Inca began to repeat the 
conquests and tyranny of all his ancestors and his father. 
For, although many nations were conquered by his father, 
almost all were again with arms in their hands to regain 
their liberty, and the rest to defend themselves. As Tupac 
Inca advanced with such power, force and pride, he not 
only claimed the subjection of the people, but also usurped 
the veneration they gave to their gods or devils, for truly 
he and his father made them worship all with more 
veneration than the Sun. 

Tupac Inca finally marched out of Cuzco and began 
to proceed with measures for subduing the people in the 
near vicinity. In the province of the Quichuas^ he con- 
quered and occupied the fortresses of Tohara, Cayara, and 
Curamba, and in the province of Angaraes the fortresses 



^ The province of the Quichuas was in the valley of the Pachachaca^ 
above Abancay. 



AND RETURN TO CUZCO I3I 

of Urco-colla and Huaylla-pucara, taking its Sinchi named 
Chuquis Huaman prisoner. In the province of Xauxa he 
took Sisiquilla Pucara, and in the province of Huayllas 
the fortresses of Chuncu-marca and Pillahua-marca. In 
Chachapoyas the fortress of Piajajalca fell before him, and 
he took prisoner a very rich chief named Chuqui Sota. 
He conquered the province of the Paltas, and the valleys 
of Pacasmayu and Chimu, which is now Truxillo. He 
destroyed it as Chimu Ccapac had been subdued before. 
He also conquered the province of the Caftaris, and those 
who resisted were totally destroyed. The Caftaris submitted 
from fear, and he took their Sinchis, named Pisar Ccapac, 
Caftar Ccapac and Chica Ccapac, and built an impregnable 
fortress there called Quinchi-caxa. 

Tupac Inca Yupanqui then returned to Cuzco with 
much treasure and many prisoners. He was well received 
by his father with a most sumptuous triumph, and with 
the applause of all the orejones of Cuzco. They had 
many feasts and sacrifices, and to please the people they 
celebrated the festival called Inti Raymi with feasts and 
dances, a time of great rejoicing. The Inca granted many 
favours for the sake of his son Tupac Inca, that he might 
have the support of his subjects, which was what he desired. 
For as he was very old and unable to move about, feeling 
the approach of death, his aim was to leave his son in the 
possession of the confidence of his army. 

XLV. 

HOW PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI VISITED THE 
PROVINCES CONQUERED FOR HIM BY HIS CAPTAINS. 

It has been related how the Inca Yupanqui placed 
garrisons of Cuzco soldiers, and a governor called 
tucuyrico in all the provinces he conquered and op- 

9—2 



132 VISITATION OF THE EMPIRE 

pressed. It must be known that owing to his absorbing 
occupations in conquering other provinces, training warriors, 
and placing his son in command for the conquest of 
Chinchay-suyu, he had not been able to put his final 
intentions and will into execution, which was to make 
those he oppressed submissive subjects and tributaries. 
Seeing that the people were in greater fear at beholding 
the valour of Tupac Inca, he determined to have a 
visitation of the land, and nominated i6 visitors, four for 
each of the four suyus or divisions of the empire, which 
are Cunti-suyu from Cuzco south and west as far as the 
South Sea, Chinchay-suyu from. Cuzco to the north and 
west, Anti'Suyu from Cuzco to the east, and Colla-suyu 
from Cuzco to the south, south-west, and south-east 

These visitors each went to the part to which he was 
appointed, and inspected, before all things, the work of the 
tucuyricos and the methods of their government They 
caused irrigating channels to be constructed for the crops, 
broke up land where this had been neglected, built andenes 
or cultivated terraces, and took up pastures for the Sun, 
the Inca, and Cuzco. Above all they imposed very heavy 
tribute on all the produce, \so that they all ivent about to rob 
and desolate property andpersons\ The visitations occupied 
two years. When they were completed the visitors returned 
to Cuzco, bringing with them certain cloths descriptive of 
the provinces they had visited. They reported fully to the 
Inca all that they had found and done. 

Besides these, the Inca also despatched other orejones 
as overseers to make roads and hospices on the routes 
of the Inca, ready for the use of his soldiers. These 
overseers set out, and made roads, now called "of the 
Inca," over the mountains and along the sea coast Those 
on the sea coast are all provided, at the sides, with high 
walls of adobe, wherever it was possible to build them, 
except in the deserts where there are no building materials. 



INVASION OF QUITO 1 35 

These roads go from Quito to Chile, and into the forests 
of the Andes. Although the Inca did not complete all, 
suffice it that he made a great part of the roads, which 
were finished by his sons and grandsons. 



XLVI. 

TUPAC INCA YUPANQUI SETS OUT, A SECOND TIME, 
BY ORDER OF HIS FATHER, TO CONQUER WHAT 
REMAINED UNSUBDUED IN CHINCHAY-SUYU. 

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui knew from the report made 
by his son when he returned from the conquest of Chinchay- 
suyu, that there were other great and rich nations and 
provinces beyond the furthest point reached by I'upac 
Inca. That no place might be left to conquer, the Inca 
ordered his son to return with a view to the subjugation 
of the parts of Quito. He assembled the troops and gave 
his son the same two brothers as his colleagues, Tilca 
Yupanqui and Anqui Yupanqui, who had gone with him 
on the former expedition. [Tupac inflicted unheard of 
cruelties and deaths on those who defended themselves and 
did not wish to give him obedience^ 

In this way he arrived at Tumipampa, within the 
territory of Quito, whose Sinchi, named Pisar Ccapac, was 
confederated with Pilla-huaso, Sinchi of the provinces and 
site of Quito. These two chiefs had a great army and 
were determined to fight Tupac Inca for their country and 
lives. Tupac sent messengers to them, demanding that 
they should lay down their arms and give him obedience. 
They replied that they were in their own native country, 
that they were free, and did not wish to serve any one nor 
be tributaries. 

Tupac and his colleagues rejoiced at this answer, 
because their wish was to find a pretext • to encounter 



134 CONQUEST OF QUITO 

them with blows and to rob them, which was the principal 
object of the war. They say that the Inca army numbered 
more than 250,000 experienced soldiers. Tupac ordered 
them to march against the men of Quito and the Caftans. 
They encountered each other, both sides fighting with 
resolution and skill. The victory was for a long time 
doubtful because the Quitos and Caftaris pressed stubbornly 
against their enemies. When the Inca saw this he got out 
of the litter in which he travelled, animated his people, and 
made signs for the 50,000 men who were kept in reserve 
for the last necessity. When these fresh troops appeared 
the Quitos and Caftaris were defeated and fled, the pursuit 
being continued with much bloodshed and cruelty, the 
victors shouting, "Ccapac Inca Yupanqui! Cuzco! Cuzco ! " 
All the chiefs were killed. They captured Pilla-huaso in 
the vanguard. No quarter was given, in order to strike 
terror into those who heard of it. 

Thence Inca Tupac marched to the place where now 
stands the city of San Francisco de Quito, where they 
halted to cure the wounded and give much needed rest 
to the others. So this great province remained subject, 
and Tupac sent a report of his proceedings to his father. 
Pachacuti rejoiced at the success of his son, and celebrated 
many festivals and sacrifices on receiving the tidings. 

After Tupac Inca had rested at Cuzco, re-organized 
his army, and cured the wounded he went to Tumipampa, 
where his wife and sister bore him a son, to whom he gave 
the name of Titu Cusi Hualpa, afterwards known as 
Huayna Ccapac. After the Inca Tupac had rejoiced and 
celebrated the birthday festivals, although the four years 
were passed that his father had given him to complete the 
conquests, he heard that there was a great nation towards 
the South Sea, composed of Indians called Huancavelicas. 
So he determined to go down to conquer. At the head 
of the mountains above them he built the fortress of 



NEWS OF THE ISLANDS I3S 

Huachalla, and then went down against the Huancavelicas. 
Tupac divided his army into three parts, and took one 
by the most rugged mountains, making war on the 
Huancavelica mountaineers. He penetrated so far into 
the mountains that for a long time nothing was known 
of him, whether he was dead or alive. He conquered the 
Huancavelicas although they were very warlike, fighting 
on land and at sea in balsas^ from Tumbez to Huafiapi, 
Huamo, Manta, Turuca and Quisin. 

Marching and conquering on the coast of Manta, and 
the island of Puna, and Tumbez, there arrived at Tumbez 
some merchants who had come by sea from the west, 
navigating in balsas with sails. They gave information 
of the land whence they came, which consisted of some 
islands called Avachumbi and Ninachumbi, where there 
were many people and much gold. Tupac Inca was a 
man of lofty and ambitious ideas, and was not satisfied 
with the regions he had already conquered. So he 
determined to challenge a happy fortune, and see if it 
would favour him by sea. Yet he did not lightly believe 
the navigating merchants, for such men, being great talkers, 
ought not to be credited too readily. In order to obtain 
fuller information, and as it was not a business of which 
news could easily be got, he called a man, who accompanied 
him in his conquests, named Antarqui who, they all declare, 
was a great necromancer and could even fly through the 
air. Tupac Inca asked him whether what the merchant 
mariners said was true. Antarqui answered, after having 
thought the matter well out, that what they said was true, 
and that he would go there first. They say that he 
accomplished this by his arts, traversed the route, saw the 
islands, their people and riches, and, returning, gave certain 
information of all to Tupac Inca. 

The Inca, having this certainty, determined to go there. 
He caused an immense number of balsas to be constructed, 



136 EXPEDITION TO THE ISLANDS 

in which he embarked more than 20,000 chosen men ; 
taking with him as captains Huaman Achachi, Cunti 
Yupanqui, Quihual Tupac (all Hanan-cuzcos), Yancan 
Mayta, Quisu Mayta, Cachimapaca Macus Yupanqui, 
Llimpita Usca Mayta (Hurin-cuzcos); his brother Tilca 
Yupanqui being general of the whole fleet. Apu Yupanqui 
was left in command of the army which remained on land. 

Tupac Inca navigated and sailed on until he discovered 
the islands of Avachumbi and Ninachumbi, and returned, 
bringing back with him black people, gold, a chair of 
brass, and a skin and jaw bone of a horse. These trophies 
were preserved in the fortress of Cuzco until the Spaniards 
came. An Inca now living had chaise of this skin and jaw 
bone of a horse. He gave this account, and the rest who 
were present corroborated it. His name is Urco Huaranca. 
I am particular about this because to those who know 
anything of the Indies it will appear a strange thing and 
difficult to believe. The duration of this expedition under- 
taken by Tupac Inca was nine months, others say a year, 
and, as he was so long absent, every one believed he was 
dead. But to deceive them and make them think that 
news of Tupac Inca had come, Apu Yupanqui, his general 
of the land army, made rejoicings. This was afterwards 
commented upon to his disadvantage, and it was said that 
he rejoiced because he was pleased that Tupac Inca 
Yupanqui did not appear. It cost him his life. 

These are the islands which I discovered in the South 
Sea on the 30th of November, 1 567, 200 and more leagues 
to the westward, being the great discovery of which I gave 
notice to the Licentiate Governor Castro. But Alvaro de 
Mendafta, General of the Fleet, did not wish to occupy 
them\ 



* This story of the navigation of Tupac Inca to the islands of 
Ninachumpi and Avachumpi or Hahua chumpi is told by Balboa 
as well as by Sanniento. They were no doubt two of the Galapagos 
Islands. Nina chumpi means fire island, and Hahua chumpi 



RETURN OF TUPAC INCA TO CUZCO 1 37 

After Tupac Inca disembarked from the discovery of 
the islands, he proceeded to Tumipampa, to visit his wife 
and son and to hurry preparations for the return to Cuzco 
to see his father, who was reported to be ill. On the way 
back he sent troops along the coast to Truxillo, then called 
Chimu, where they found immense wealth of gold and 
silver worked into wands, and into beams of the house 
of Chimu Ccapac, with all which they joined the main 
army at Caxamarca. Thence Tupac Inca took the 
route to Cuzco, where he arrived after an absence of six 
years since he set out on this campaign. 

Tupac Inca Yupanqui entered Cuzco with the greatest, 
the richest, and the most solemn triumph with which any 
Inca had ever reached the House of the Sun, bringing with 
him people of many different races, strange animals, in- 
numerable quantities of riches. But behold the evil^ 
condition of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui and his avarice, 
for though Tupac Inca was his son whose promotion he 
had procured, he felt such jealousy that his son should 
have gained such honour and fame in those conquests, that 
he publicly showed annoyance that it was not himself who 
triumphed, and that all was not due to him. So he 
determined to kill his sons Tilca Yupanqui and Auqui 
Yupanqui who had gone with Tupac Inca, their crime 
being that they had disobeyed his orders by delaying 
longer than the time he had fixed, and that they had taken 
his son to such a distance that he thought he would never 
return to Cuzco. They say that he killed them, though 
some say that he only killed Tilca Yupanqui. At this 
Tupac inca Yupanqui felt much aggrieved, that his father 
should have slain one who had worked so well for him. 
The death was concealed by many feasts in honour of the 
victories of Tupac Inca, which were continued for a year. 

outer island. See my introduction to the Voyages ofSarmiento^ p. xiii ; 
and Las Islas de Galapagos by Marco Jimenes de fa Espada. 



138 DEATH OF PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI 



XLVII. 

DEATH OF PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI. 

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui derived much comfort from 
his grandson, the son of Tupac Inca. He always had the 
child with him, and caused him to be brought up and 
cherished in his residence and dormitory. He would not 
let him out of his sight 

Being in the highest prosperity and sovereignty of his 
life, he fell ill of a grave infirmity, and, feeling that he was 
at the point of death, he sent for all his sons who were 
then in the city. In their presence he first divided all his 
jewels and contents of his wardrobe. Next he made them 
plough furrows in token that they were vassals of their 
brother, and that they had to eat by the sweat of their 
hands. He also gave them arms in token that they were to 
fight for their brother. He then dismissed them. 

He next sent for the Incas orejones of Cuzco, his 
relations, and for Tupac Inca his son to whom he spoke, 
with a few words, in this manner: — "Son! you now see 
how many great nations I leave to you, and you know 
what labour they have cost me. Mind that you are the 
man to keep and augment them. No one must raise his 
two eyes against you and live, even if he be your own 
brother. I leave you these our relations that they may be 
your councillors. Care for them and they shall serve you. 
When I am dead, take care of my body, and put it in my 
houses at Patallacta. Have my golden image in the House 
of the Sun, and make my subjects, in all the provinces, 
offer up solemn sacrifice, after which keep the feast of 
purucaya^ that I may go to rest with my father the Sun." 
Having finished his speech they say that he b^an to sing 



DEATH OF PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI 1 39 

in a low and sad voice with words of his own language. 
They are in Castilian as follows : 

'* I was bom as a flower of the field, 
As a flower I was cherished in my youth, 
1 came to my full age, I grew old, 
Now I am withered and die." 

Having uttered these words, he laid his head upon a pillow 
and expired, giving his soul to the devil, having lived 125 
years. For he succeeded, or rather he took the Incaship 
into his hands when he was 22, and he was sovereign 
103 years. 

. He had four legitimate sons by his wife Mama Ana- 
huarqui, and he had 100 sons and 50 daughters who 
were bastards. Being numerous they were called Hatun- 
aylluy which means a " great lineage." By another name 
this lineage is called Inaca Panaca Ayllu. Those who 
sustain this lineage at the present time are Don Diego 
Cayo, Don Felipa Inguil, Don Juan Quispi Cusi, Don 
Francisco Chaco Rimachi, and Don Juan Iliac. They live 
in Cuzco and are Hanan-cuzcos. 

Pachacuti was a man of good stature, robust, fierce, 
haughty, insatiably bent on tyrannizing over all the world, 
[and cruel above measure. All the ordinances he made for 
the people were directed to tyranny and his own interests\ 
His conduct was infamous for he often took some widow as 
a wife and if she had a daughter that he liked, he also took 
the daughter for wife or concubine. If there was some 
gallant and handsome youth in the town who was esteemed 
for something, he presently made some of his servants 
make friends with him, get him into the country, and kill 
him the best way they could. He took all his sisters as 
concubines, saying they could not have a better husband 
than their brother. 

This Inca died in the year 1191. He conquered more 
than 300 leagues, 40 more or less in person accompanied by 



I40 DEATH OF PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI 

his l^itimate brothers, the captains Apu Mayta and 
Vicaquirao, the rest by Amaru Tupac Inca his eldest son, 
Ccapac Yupanqui his brother, and Tupac Inca his son and 
successor, with other captains, his brothers and sons. 

This Inca arranged the parties and lineages of Cuzco in 
the order that they now are. The Licentiate Polo found 
the body of Pachacuti in Tococachi, where now is the 
parish of San Bias of the city of Cuzco, well preserved and 
guarded. He sent it to Lima by order of the Viceroy 
of this kingdom, the Marquis of Caflete. The guauqui or 
idol of this Inca was called Inti Illapa. It was of gold 
and very large, and was brought to Caxamarca in pieces. 
The Licentiate Polo found that this guauqui or idol had a 
house, estate, servants and women. 



XLVIII. 

THE LIFE OF TUPAC INCA YUPANQUI S 
THE TENTH INCA. 

When Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui died, two orejones 
were deputed to watch the body, and to allow no one to- 
enter or go out to spread the news of his death, until 
orders had been given. The other Incas and orejones 
went with Tupac Inca to the House of the Sun and then 
ordered the twelve captains of the ayllus of the Inca's 
guard to come. They came with 2200 men of the guard, 
under their command, fully armed, and surrounded the 
House of the Sun. The Incas again invested Tupac Inca 



* All authorities agree that Tupac Inca Yupanqui was the successor 
of Pachacuti except Betanzos, Santillana and Garcilasso de la Vega. 
Betanzos has a Yamqui Yupanqui. Garcilasso gives the reign of 
another Inca named Inca Yupanqui between Pachacuti and Tupac 
Inca. He was ignorant of the fact that Pachacuti and Inca 
Yupanqui were the same person. Santillana follows Garcilasso but 
calls Pachacuti's other self Ccapac Yupanqui. 



ACCESSION OF TUPAC INCA I4I 

Yupanqui with the fringe, and gave him the other insignia 
of sovereignty, as he had now inherited and succeeded his 
father. Taking him in the midst of themselves, and of the 
guards, they escorted him to the great square, where he 
was seated, in majesty, on a superb throne. All the people 
of the city were then ordered to come and make obeisance 
to the Inca on pain of death. 

Those who had come with the Inca, went to their 
houses to fetch presents to show reverence and do homage 
to the new Inca. He remained with his guards only, until 
they returned with presents, doing homage and adoring. 
The rest of the people did the same, and sacrifices were 
offered. [// is to be noted that only those of Cuzco did this^ 
and if any others were present w/io did so, th^ must have 
been forced or frightened by the armed men and the pro- 
clamation.'] 

This having been done, they approached the Inca and 
said, " O Sovereign Inca ! O Father ! now take rest" At 
these words Tupac Inca showed much sadness and covered 
his head with his mantle, which they call Uacolla, a 
square cloak. He next went, with all his company, to the 
place where the body of his father was laid, and there he 
put on mourning. All things were then arranged for the 
obsequies, and Tupac Inca Yupanqui did everything that 
his father had ordered at the point of death, touching the 
treatment of his body and other things. 



XLIX. 

TUPAC INCA YUPANQUI CONQUERS THE 
PROVINCE OF THE ANTIS. 

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui being dead, and Tupac Inca 
ruling alone, he caused all the Sinchis and principal men of 
the conquered provinces to be summoned. Those came 



142 INVASION OF THE EASTERN FORESTS 

who feared the fury of the Inca, and with them the Indians 
of the province of Anti-suyu, who are the dwellers in the 
forests to the eastward of Cuzco, who had been conquered 
in the time of Pachacuti his father. 

Tupac Inca ordered them all to do homage, adore, and 
offer sacrifices. The Antis were ordered to bring from 
their country several loads of lances of palm wood for the 
service of the .House of the Sun. The Antis, who did not 
serve voluntarily, looked upon this demand as a mark 
of servitude. They fled from Cuzco, returned to their 
country, and raised the land of the Antis in the name of 
freedom. 

Tupac Inca was indignant, and raised a powerful army 
which he divided into three parts. He led the first in 
person, entering the Anti-suyu by Ahua-tona. The second 
was entrusted to a captain named Uturuncu Achachi, who 
entered Anti-suyu by a town they call Amaru. The third, 
under a captain named Chalco Yupanqui, advanced by 
way of Pilcopata. All these routes were near each other, 
and the three divisions formed a junction three leagues 
ivithin the forest, at a place called Opatari, whence they 
commenced operations against the settlements of the Antis. 
The inhabitants of this region were Antis, called Opataris^ 
and were the first to be conquered. Chalco Yupanqui 
carried an image of the Sun. 

The forests were very dense and full of evil places ; so 
that they could not force their way through, nor did they 
know what direction to take in order to reach the settle- 
ments of the natives, which were well concealed in the 
thick vegetation. To find them the explorers climbed up the 
highest trees, and pointed out the places where they could 
see smoke rising. So they worked away at road making 
through the undergrowth until they lost that sign of 
inhabitants and found another. In this way the Inca 
made a road where it seemed impossible to make one. 



INVASION OF THE EASTERN FORESTS 1 43 

The Sinchi of the greater part of these provinces of the 
Antis was Condin Savana, of whom they say that he was a 
great wizard and enchanter, and they had the belief, and 
even now they affirm that he could turn himself into 
different shapes. 

Tupac Inca and his captains penetrated into this region 
of the Antis, which consists of the most terrible and fearful 
forests, with many rivers, where they endured immense 
toil, and the people who came from Peru suffered from 
the change of climate, for Peru is cold and dry, while the 
forests of Anti-suyu are warm and humid. The soldiers 
of Tupac Inca became sick, and many died. Tupac 
Inca himself, with a third of his men who came with him 
to conquer, were lost in the forests, and wandered for a 
long time, without knowing whether to go in one direction 
or another until he fell in with Uturuncu Achachi who 
put him on the route. 

On this occasion Tupac Inca and his captains conquered 
four great tribes. The first was that of the Indians called 
Opataris. The next was the Mano-suyu. The third tribe 
was called Maftaris or Yanasimis, which means those of the 
black mouth : and the province of Rio, and the province of 
the Chunchos. They went over much ground in descending 
the river Tono, and penetrated as far as the Chiponauas. 
The Inca sent another great captain, named Apu Ccuri- 
machi, by the route which they now call of Camata. This 
route was in the direction of the rising of the sun, and 
he advanced until he came to the river of which reports 
have but now been received, called Paytiti, where he set up 
the frontier pillars of Inca Tupac. During the campaign 
against these nations, Tupac Inca took prisoners the 
following Sinchis : Vinchincayua, Cantahuancuru, Nutan- 
huari^ 

^ This expedition of Tupac Inca Yupanqui into the mon tafia of 
Paucartambo^ and down the River Tono is important. Garciiasso de ia 



144 LAST REVOLT OF THE COLLAS 

During the campaign an Indian of the Collas, named 
Coaquiri, fled from his company, reached the Collao, and 
spread the report that Tupac Inca was dead. He said 
that there was no longer an Inca, that they should all rise 
and that he would be their leader. Presently he took the 
name of Pachacuti, the Collas rose, and chose him as their 
captain. This news reached Tupac Inca in Anti-suyu 
where he was in the career of conquest He resolved to 
march against the Collas and punish them. He left the 
forests, leaving Uturuncu Achachi to complete the conquest, 
with orders to return into Peru when that service was 
completed, but not to enter Cuzco triumphing until the 
Inca should come. 



TUPAC INCA YUPANQUI GOES TO SUBDUE 
AND PACIFY THE COLLAS. 

As the Collas were one of those nations which most 
desired their freedom, they entered upon attempts to 
obtain it whenever a chance offered, as has already been 
explained. Tupac Inca Yupanqui resolved to crush them 
once for all. Having returned from the Antis,he increased 
his army and nominated as captains Larico, the son of his 
cousinCcapac Yupanqui,his brother Chachi,Cunti Yupanqui, 

Vega describes it in chapters xiii., xiv., xv. and xvi. of Book vii. He says 
that five rivers unite to form the great Amaru-mayu or Serpent River, 
which he was inclined to think was a tributary of the Rio oe la Plata. 
He describes fierce battles with the Chunchos, who were reduced to 
obedience. After descending the River Tono, Garcilasso says that the 
Incas eventually reached the country of the Musus (Moxos) and 
opened friendly relations with them. Many Incas settled in the 
country of the Musus. Garcilasso then gives some account of Spanish 
expeditions into the montana, led by Diego Aleman, Gomez de 
Tordoya, and Juan Alvarez Maldonado. 

The account in the text agrees, in the main, with that of Garcilasso 
de la Vega. Sarmiento gives the names of ifour Indian tribes who 
were encountered, besides the Chunchos. 



CONQUEST OF CHILE 1 45 

and Quihual Tupac. With this army he advanced to the 
Coliao. The Collas had constructed four strong places at 
Llallaua, Asillo, Arapa, and Pucara. The Inca captured 
the chiefs and the leader of all, who was Chuca-chucay 
Pachacuti Coaquiri, he who, as we have said, fled from 
Anti-suyu. Afterwards these were the drummers* of Inca 
Tupac. Finally, owing to the great diligence of Inca 
Tupac, although the war occupied some years, the Incas 
conquered and subdued all [perpetrating great cruelties on 
tkeni]. 

Fpllowing up his victories, in pursuit of the vanquished, 
he got so far from Cuzco that he found himself in Charcas. 
So he determined to advance further, subduing every 
nation of which he received notice. He eventually prose- 
cuted his conquests so far that he entered Chile, where he 
defeated the great Sinchi Michimalongo, and Tangalongo, 
Sinchi of the Chilians as far as the river Maule. He came 
to Coquimbo in Chile and to the banks of the Maule, where 
he set up his frontier columns, or as others say a wall, 
to show the end of his conquests. From this campaign he 
returned with great riches in gold, having discovered many 
mines of gold and silver. He then returned to Cuzco. 

These spoils were joined with those of Uturuncu 
Achachi, who had returned from the forests of the Antis 
after a campaign of three years. He was at Paucar- 
tampu, awaiting the return of his brother, who entered 
Cuzco with a very great triumph. They made great feasts 
to commemorate the conquests, presenting gifts and 
granting many favours to the soldiers who had served 
with the Inca in these campaigns. As the provinces of 
the Chumpi-vilicas saw the power and greatness of Tupac 
Inca Yupanqui they came to submit with the rest of 
Cunti-suyu. 

* Le. their skins were made into drums. 
M. s. xo 



146 INTERNAL ORGANIZATION 

Besides this the Inca went to Chachapoyas, and crushed 
those who had been suspected, visiting many provinces on 
the road. 

On his return to Cuzco he made certain ordinances, 
as well for peace as for war time. He increased the 
mitimaes which his father had instituted, as has been ex- 
plained in the account of his life, giving more privileges 
and liberty. Besides, he caused a general visitation to be 
made of all the land from Quito to Chile, registering the 
whole population for more than a thousand leagues ; and 
imposed a tribute [so heai*y that no one could be owner of 
a mazorca of maize, which is their bread for food, nor of 
a pair of usutas, which are their shoes, nor fnarry, nor do 
a single thing without special licence from Tupac Inca. 
Such was the tyranny and oppression to which he subjected 
them]. He placed over the tucuricos a class of officers 
called Michu^ to collect the taxes and tributes. 

Tupac Inca saw that in the districts and provinces the 
Sinchis claimed to inherit by descent. He resolved to 
abolish this rule, and to put them all under his feet, both 
great and small. He, therefore, deposed the existing 
Sinchis, and introduced a class of ruler at his own will, 
who were selected in the following way. He appointed 
a ruler who should have charge of 10,000 men, and called 
him huanu, which means that number. He appointed 
another ruler over 1000, and called him huaranca, which 
is 1000. The next had charge of 500, called pichca- 
pachaca, or 500. To another called pachac he gave 
charge of lOO, and to another he gave charge of 10 men, 
called chunca curaca. All these had also the title of 
Curaca, which means "principal" or "superior," over the 
number of men of whom they had charge. These appoint- 



^ Michu should be Michec a shepherd, also a governor. Michisca 
the governed. 



THE YANACONAS I47 

ments depended solely on the will of the Inca, who 
appointed and dismissed them as he pleased, without 
considering inheritance, or succession. From that time 
forward they were called Curacas, which is the proper 
name of the chiefs of this land, and not Caciques, which 
is the term used by the vulgar among the Spaniards. 
That name of Cacique belongs to the islands of Santo 
Domingo and Cuba. From this place we will drop the 
name of Sinchi and only use that of Curaca. 



LI. 



TUPAC INCA MAKES THE YANACONAS. 

Among the brothers of the Inca there was one named 
Tupac Ccapac, a principal man, to whom Tupac Inca had 
given many servants to work on his farms, and serve on 
his estates. It is to be understood that Tupac Inca made 
his brother visitor-general of the whole empire that had 
been conquered up to that time. Tupac Ccapac, in making 
the visitation, came to the place where his brother had 
given him those servants. Under colour of this grant, he 
took those and also many more, saying that all were his 
yana-cunas^y which is the name they give to their servants. 
He persuaded them to rebel against his brother, saying 
that if they would help him he would show them great 
favours. He then marched to Cuzco, very rich and powerful, 
where he gave indications of his intentions. 

He intended his schemes to be kept secret, but Tupac 



* Garcilasso de la Vega says that the meaning of Yanacona is " a 
man who is under the obligation to perform the duties of a servant." 
Balboa, p. 129, tells the same story of the origin of the Yanaconas as 
in the text. The amnesty was granted on the banks of the river 
Yana-yacu, and here they were called Yana-yacu-cuna, corrupted into 
Yana-cona. The Spaniards adopted the word for all Indians in 
domestic service, as distinguished from mitayos or forced labourers. 

10 — 2 



148 THE YANACONAS 

Inca was informed of them and came to Cuzco. He had 
been away at the ceremony of arming one of his sons 
named Ayar Manco. Having convinced himself that his 
information was correct, he killed Tupac Ccapac with all 
his councillors and supporters. Finding that many tribes 
had been left out of the visitation by him, for this attempt, 
Tupac Inca went in person from Cuzco, to investigate the 
matter and finish the visitation. 

While doing this the Inca came to a place called Yana- 
yacu, which means " black water " because a stream of a 
very dark colour flows down that valley, and for that 
reason they call the river and valley Yana-yacu. Up to 
this point he had been inflicting very cruel punishment 
without pardoning any one who was found guilty either 
in word or deed. In this valley of Yana-yacu his sister 
and wife, Mama Ocllo, asked him not to continue such 
cruelties, which were more butchery and inhumanity than 
punishment, and not to kill any more but to pardon them,, 
asking for them as her servants. In consequence of this 
intercession, the Inca ceased the slaughter, and said that 
he would grant a general pardon. As the pardon was 
proclaimed in Yana-yacu, he ordered that all the pardoned 
should be called Yana-yacus. They were known as not 
being allowed to enter in the number of servants of the 
House of the Sun, nor those of the visitation. So they 
remained under the Curacas. This affair being finished,, 
the visitation made by Tupac Ccapac was considered to 
be of no effect. So the Inca returned to Cuzco with 
the intention of ordering another visitation to be made 
afresh. 



GENERAL VISITATION I49 



LIL 



TUPAC INCA YUPANQUI ORDERS A SECOND VISITA- 
TION OF THE LAND, AND DOES OTHER THINGS. 

As the visitation entrusted to Tupac Ccapac was not 
to his liking, the Inca revoked it, and nominated another 
brother named Apu Achachi to be visitor-general. The 
Inca ordered him not to include the Yana-yacus in the 
visitation, because they were unworthy to enter into the 
number of the rest, owing to what they had done. Apu 
Achachi set out and made his general visitation, reducing 
many of the Indians to live in villages and houses who 
had previously lived in caves and hills and on the banks 
of rivers, each one by himself. He sent those in strong 
fastnesses into plains, that they might have no site for 
a fortress, on the strength of which they might rebel. He 
reduced them into provinces, giving them their Curacas in 
the order already described. He did not make the son 
of the deceased a Curaca, but the man who had most 
ability and aptitude for the service. If the appointment 
did not please the Inca he, without more ado, dismissed 
him and appointed another, so that no Curaca, high or low, 
felt secure in his appointment. To these Curacas were 
given servants, women and estates, submitting an account 
of them, for, though they were Curacas, they could not take 
a thing of their own authority, without express leave from 
the Inca. 

In each province all those of the province made a great 
sowing of every kind of edible vegetable for the Inca, his 
overseers coming to the harvest Above all there was a 
Tucurico ApUj who was the governor-lieutenant of the 
Inca in that province. It is true that the first Inca who 
obliged the Indians of this land to pay tribute of every- 



ISO DIVISION OF LANDS 

thing, and in quantity, was Inca Yupanqui. But Tupac 
Inca imposed rules and fixed the tribute they must pay, 
and divided it according to what each province was to 
contribute as well for the general tax as those for Huacas, 
and Houses of the Sun. [In this way the people were so 
loaded with tributes and taxes, that they had to work per- 
petually night and day to pay them, and even then they could 
not comply, and had no time for sufficient labour to suffice for 
their own maintenance,"] 

Tupac Inca divided the estates throughout the whole 
empire, according to the measure which they call tupu. 

He divided the months of the year, with reference to 
labour in the fields, as follows. Three months in the year 
were allotted to the Indians for the work of their own fields, 
and the rest must be given up to the work of the Sun, of 
huacas, and of the Inca. In the three months that were 
given to themselves, one was for ploughing and sowing, 
one for reaping, and another in the summer for festivals, 
and for make and mend clothes days. The rest of their 
time was demanded for the service of the Sun and the 
Incas. 

This Inca ordered that there should be merchants who 
might profit by their industry in this manner. When any 
merchant brought gold, silver, precious stones, or other 
valuable things for sale, they were to be asked where they 
got them, and in this way they gave information respecting 
the mines and places whence the valuables had been taken. 
Thus a very great many mines of gold and silver, and of 
very fine colours, were discovered. 

This Inca had two Governors-General in the whole 
empire, called Suyuyoc Apu^\ one resided at Xauxa and 
the other at Tiahuanacu in Colla-suyu. 



^ Suyu a great division of the empire, or a province. Yoc a terminal 
particle denoting possession or office. 



FORTRESS OF CUZCO 151 

Tupac Inca ordered the seclusion of certain women in 
the manner of our professed nuns, maidens of 12 years 
and upwards, who were called acllasK From thence they 
were taken to be given in marriage to the Tucurico Apu^ 
or by order of the Inca who, when any captain returned 
with victory, distributed the acllas to captains, soldiers and 
other servants who had pleased him, as gracious gifts which 
were highly valued. As they took out some, they were 
replaced by others, for there must always be the number 
first ordained by the Inca. If any man takes one out, 
or is caught inside with one they are both hanged, tied 
t<^ether. 

This Inca made many ordinances, in his tyrannical 
mode of government, which will be given in a special 
volume. 



LIIL 

TUPAC INCA MAKES THE FORTRESS OF CUZCO. 

After Tupac Inca Yupanqui had visited all the empire 
and had come to Cuzco where he was served and adored, 
being for the time idle, he remembered that his father 
Pachacuti had called the city of Cuzco the lion city. He 
said that the tail was where the two rivers unite which flow 
through it', that the body was the great square and the 
houses round it, and that the head was wanting. It would 
be for some son of his to put it on. The Inca discussed this 
question with the orejaneSy who said that the best head 
would be to make a fortress on a high plateau to the north 
of the city. 

This being settled, the Inca sent to all the provinces, 

* Aclla means chosen, selected. 

* This district of Cuzco has always been called Pumafi chupan or 
tail of the puma. 



152 FORTRESS OF CUZCO 

to order the tucuricos to supply a large number of people 
for the work of the fortress. Having come, the workmen 
were divided into parties, each one having its duties and 
officers. Thus some brought stones, others worked them, 
others placed them. The diligence was such that in a few 
years, the great fortress of Cuzco was built, sumptuous, 
exceedingly strong, of rough stone, a thing most admirable 
to look upon. The buildings within it were of small worked 
stone, so beautiful that, if it had not been seen, it would 
not be believed how strong and beautiful it was. What 
makes it still more worthy of admiration is that they did 
not possess tools to work the stone, but could only work 
with other stones. This fortress was intact until the 
time of the differences between Pizarro and Almagro, after 
which they began to dismantle it, to build with its stones 
the houses of Spaniards in Cuzco, which are at the foot 
of the fortress. Great r^^ret is felt by those who see the 
ruins. When it was finished, the Inca made many store 
houses round Cuzco for provisions and clothing, against 
times of necessity and of war; which was a measure of 
great importance*. 



^ This fortress of Cuzco, on the Sacsahuaman Hill, was well de- 
scribed by Cieza de Leon and in greater detail by Garcilasso de la 
Vega, ii. pp. 305 — 318. Both ascribe it to Inca Yupanqui or his son 
Tupac Inca, as does Sarmiento. The extensive edifices, built of 
masonry of his period, were no doubt the work of Tupac Inca wR^ 
thus got credit for the whole. These later edifices were pulled down 
by the Spaniards, for material for building their houses in the city. 
But the wonderful cyclopean work that remains is certainly of much 
more ancient date, and must be assigned, like Tiahuanacu, to the far 
distant age of the monolithic empire. 



DEATH OF TUPAC INCA 153 



LIV. 

DEATH OF TUPAC INCA YUPANQUI. 

Having visited and divided the lands, and built the for- 
tress of Cuzco, besides edifices and houses without number, 
Tupac Inca Yupanqui went to Chinchero\ a town near 
Cuzco, where he had very rich things for his recreation ; 
and there he ordered extensive gardens to be constructed 
to supply his household. When the work was completed 
he fell ill of a grave infirmity, and did not wish to be visited 
by anyone. But as he became worse and felt the approach 
of death, he sent for the orejones of Cuzco, his relations, 
and when they had assembled in his presence he said : 
"My relations and friends! I would have you to know 
that the Sun my Father desires to take me to himself, and 
I wish to go and rest with him. I have called you to let 
you know who it is that I desire to succeed me as lord and 
sovereign, and who is to rule and govern you." They 
answered that they grieved much at his illness, that as the 
Sun his father had so willed it so must it be, that his will 
must be done, and they besought the Inca to nominate 
him who was to be sovereign in his place. Tupac Inca 
then replied : " I nominate for my successor my son Titu 
Cusi Hualpa, son of my. sister and wife, Mama OcUo." 
For this they offered many thanks, and afterwards the 
Inca sank down on his pillow and died, having lived 
85 years. 

Tupac Inca succeeded his father at the age of 18 years. 
He had two legitimate sons, 60 bastards, and 30 daughters. 



' Chinchero is a village near Cuzco, on the heights overlooking the 
lovely valley of Yucay, with magnificent mountains in the background. 
The remains of the Inca palace are still standing, not unlike those on 
the Colcampata at Cuzco. 



154 DEATH OF TUPAC INCA 

Some say that at the time of his death, or a short time 
before, he had nominated one of his illegitimate sons to 
succeed him named Ccapac Huari, son of a concubine 
whose name was Chuqui Ocllo. 

He left a lineage or ayllu called Ccapac Aylluy whose 
heads, who sustain it and are now living, are Don Andres 
Tupac Yupanqui, Don Cristobal Pisac Tupac, Don Garcia 
Vilcas, Don Felipe Tupac Yupanqui, Don Garcia Azache,. 
and Don Garcia Pilco. They are Hanan-cuzcos. 

The deceased Inca was frank, merciful in peace, cruel 
in war and punishments, a friend to the poor, a great man 
of indefatigable industry and a notable builder. \He was the 
greatest tyrant of all the Incas.] He died in the year 1258. 
Chalco Chima burnt his body in 1533, when he captured 
Huascar, as will be related in its place. The ashes, with 
his idol or guauqui called Cusi-churiy were found in Calis- 
puquiu where the Indians had concealed it, and offered to 
it many sacrifices. 



LV. 



THE LIFE OF HUAYNA CCAPAC, ELEVENTH INCA». 

As soon as Tupac Inca was dead, the orejoneSy who 
were with him at the time of his death, proceeded to Cuzco 
for the customary ceremonies. These were to raise the 
Inca his successor before the death of his father had be- 
come known to him, and to follow the same order as in the 
case of the death of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui. As the 
wives and sons of Tupac Inca also went to Cuzco, the 
matter could not be kept secret. A woman who had been 
a concubine of the late Inca, named Ccuri Ocllo, a kins- 



^ All authorities agree that Huayna Ccapac was the son and suc- 
cessor of Tupac Inca. 



DISPOSAL OF A PRETENDER ISS 

woman of Ccapac Huari, as soon as she arrived at Cuzco, 
spoke to her relations and to Ccapac Huari in these words. 
" Sirs and relations ! Know that Tupac Inca is dead and 
that, when in health, he had named Ccapac Huari for his 
successor, but at the end, being on the point of death, 
he said that Titu Cusi Hualpa, son of Mama Ocllo, should 
succeed him. You ought not to consent to this. Rather 
call together all your relations and friends, and raise Ccapac 
Huari, your elder brother, son of Chuqui Ocllo, to be Inca." 
This seemed well to all the relations of Ccapac Huari, 
and they sent to assemble all the other relations on his 
behalf 

While this was proceeding, the orejones of Cuzco, 
knowing nothing of it, were arranging how to give the 
fringe to Titu Cusi Hualpa. The plot of the party of 
Ccapac Huari became known to the late Inca's brother, 
Huaman Achachi. He assembled some friends, made 
them arm themselves, and they went to where Titu Cusi 
Hualpa was retired and concealed. They then proceeded 
to where the friends of Ccapac Huari had assembled, and 
killed many of them, including Ccapac Huari himself 
Others say that they did not kill Ccapac Huari at that 
time, but only took him. His mother Chuqui Ocllo was 
taken and, being a rebel as well as a witch who had killed 
her lord Tupac Inca, she was put to death. Ccapac Huari 
was banished to Chinchero, where he was given a main- 
tenance, but he was never allowed to enter Cuzco again 
until his death. They also killed the woman Ccuri Ocllo, 
who had advised the raising of Ccapac Huari to the 
Incaship. 



IS6 ACCESSION OF HUAYNA CCAPAC 

LVL 

THEY GIVE THE FRINGE OF INCA TO HUAYNA 
CCAPAC, THE ELEVENTH INCA. 

The city of Cuzco being pacified, Huaman Achachi 
went to Quispicancha, three leagues from Cuzco, where 
Titu Cusi Hualpa was concealed, and brought his nephew 
to Cuzco, to the House of the Sun. After the sacrifices 
and accustomed ceremonies, the image of the Sun delivered 
the fringe to Titu Cusi Hualpa. 

This being done, and the new Inca having been invested 
with all the insignia of Ccapac, and placed in a rich litter, 
they bore him to the huaca Huanacauri, where he offered 
a sacrifice. The orejones returned to Cuzco by the route 
taken by Manco Ccapac. 

Arrived at the first square, called Rimac-pampa, the 
accession was announced to the people, and they were 
ordered to come and do homage to the new Inca. When 
they all assembled, and saw how. young he was, never 
having seen him before, they all raised their voices and 
called him Huayna Ccapac which means "the boy chief" 
or "the boy sovereign." For this reason he was called 
Huayna Ccapac from that time, and the name Titu Cusi 
Hualpa was no longer used. They celebrated festivals, 
armed him as a knight, adored, and presented many gifts 
— as was customary. 

LVII. 

THE FIRST ACTS OF HUAYNA CCAPAC AFTER HE 
BECAME INCA. 

As Huayna Ccapac was very young when he succeeded, 
they appointed a tutor and coadjutor for him named 
Hualpaya, a son of Ccapac Yupanqui, brother of Inca 



FIRST ACTS OF HUAYNA CCAPAC 1 5/ 

Yupanqui. This prince made a plot to raise himself to 
the Incaship, but it became known to Huaman Achachi, 
then Governor of Chinchay-suyu. At the time he was in 
Cuzco, and he and his people killed Hualpaya and others 
who were culpable. 

Huaman Achachi assumed the government, but always 
had as a councillor his own brother Auqui Tupac Inca. 
In course of time Huayna Ccapac went to the House of 
the Sun, held a visitation, took account of the officials, 
and provided what was necessary for the service, and for 
that of the Mama-cunas, He took the chief custodianship 
of the Sun from him who then held it, and assumed the 
office himself with the title of "Shepherd of the Sun." 
He next visited the other huacas and oracles, and their 
estates. He also inspected the buildings of the city of 
Cuzco and the houses of the orejones, 

Huayna Ccapac ordered the body of his father Tupac 
Inca to be embalmed. After the sacrifices, the mourning, 
and other ceremonies, he placed the body in the late Inca s 
residence which was prepared for it, and gave his servants 
all that was necessary for their maintenance and services. 
The same Huayna Ccapac mourned for his father and for 
his mother who died nearly at the same time. 

LVIII. 

HUAYNA CCAPAC CONQUERS CHACHAPOYAS. 

After Huayna Ccapac had given orders respecting the 
things mentioned in the last chapter, it was reported to 
him that there were certain tribes near the territory of 
the Chachapoyas which might be conquered, and that on 
the way he might subdue the Chachapoyas who had 
rebelled. He gave orders to his orejones and assembled 
a large army. He set out from Cuzco, having first offered 



158 HUAYNA CCAPAC'S VISITATION 

sacrifices and observed the calpa^. On the route he 
took, he reformed many things. Arriving at the land of 
the Chachapoyas, they, with other neighbouring tribes, 
put themselves in a posture of defence. They were even- 
tually vanquished and treated with gfreat severity. The 
Inca then returned to Cuzco and triumphed at the victory 
gained over the Chachapoyas and other nations. 

While he was absent on this campaign, he left as 
Governor of Cuzco one of his illegitimate brothers named 
Sinchi Rocca, an eminent architect He built all the 
edifices at Yucay, and the houses of the Inca at Casana 
in the city of Cuzco. He afterwards built other edifices 
round Cuzco for Huayna Ccapac, on sites which appeared 
most convenient. 



LIX. 

HUAYNA CCAPAC MAKES A VISITATION OF THE 
WHOLE EMPIRE FROM QUITO TO CHILE. 

Huayna Ccapac having rested in Cuzco for a long 
time and, wishing to undertake something, considered 
that it was a long time since he had visited the empire. 
He determined that there should be a visitation, and 
named his uncle Huaman Achachi to conduct it in 
Chinchay-suyu as far as Quito, he himself undertaking 
the region of CoUa-suyu. 

Each one set out, Huayna Ccapac, in person, taking 
the route to the Collao, where he examined into the 
government of his tucuricos, placing and dismissing gover- 
nors and Curacas, opening lands and making bridges 
and irrigating channels. Constructing these works he 



* Caipa means force, power. Calpay work. Caiparicu " one who 
gives strength," used for a wizard. The Calpa was a ceremony con- 
nected with divination. 



OF THE EMPIRE 159 

arrived at Charcas and went thence to Chile, which his 
father had conquered, where he dismissed the governor, 
and appointed two native Curacas named Michimalongo 
and Antalongo, who had been vanquished by his father. 
Having renewed the garrison, he came to Coquimbo and 
Copiapo, also visiting Atacama and Arequipa. He next 
went to Anti-suyu and Alayda, by way of Collao and 
Charcas. He entered the valley of Cochabamba, and 
there made provinces of mitimaes in all parts, because 
the natives were few, and there was space for all, the 
land being fertile. Thence he went to Pocona to give 
orders on that frontier against the Chirihuanas, and to 
repair a fortress which had been built by his father. 

While engaged on these measures, he received news 
that the provinces of Quito, Cayambis, Carangues, Pastos, 
and Huancavilcas had rebelled. He, therefore, hurried 
his return and came to Tiahuanacu, where he prepared 
for war against the Quitos and Cayambis, and gave orders 
how the Urus^ were to live, granting them localities in 
which each tribe of them was to fish in the lake. He 
visited the Temple of the Sun and the huaca of Ticci 
Viracocha on the island of Titicaca, and sent orders that 
all those provinces should send troops to go to that war 
which he had proclaimed. 



LX. 

HUAYNA CCAPAC MAKES WAR ON THE QUITOS, PASTOS, 
CARANGUES, CAYAMBIS, HUANCAVILCAS. 

Knowing that the Pastos, Quitos, Carangues, Cayambis 
and Huancavilcas had rebelled, killed the tumricos, 
and strengthened their positions with strong forces, 

^ The Urus are a tribe of fishermen, with a peculiar language, 
living among the reed beds in the S.W. part of Lake Titicaca. 



l66 THE GREAT QUITO CAMPAIGN 

Huayna Ccapac, with great rapidity, collected a great 
army from all the districts of the four suyus. He nomi- 
nated Michi of the Hurin-cuzcos, and Auqui Tupac of 
the Hanan-cuzcos as captains, and left his uncle Huaman 
Achachi as governor of Cuzco. Others say that he left 
Apu Hilaquito and Auqui Tupac Inca in Cuzco, with 
his son who was to succeed named Tupac Cusi Hualpa 
Inti Illapa, and with him another of his sons named Titu 
Atanchi, who remained to perform the fasts before knight- 
hood. It is to be noted that Huayna Ccapac was married, 
in conformity with custom and with the prescribed 
ceremonies to Cusi Rimay Coya, by whom he had no 
male child. He, therefore, took his sister Araua Ocllo to 
wife, by whom he had a son Tupac Cusi Hualpa, vulgarly 
called Huascar. Preparing for the campaign he ordered 
that Atahualpa and Ninan Cuyoche, his ill^itimate sons, 
now grown men, should go with him. His other sons, 
also illegitimate, named Manco Inca and Paulu Tupac, 
were to remain with Huascar. 

These arrangements having been made, the Inca set 
out for Quito. On the way he came to Tumipampa 
. where he had himself been born. Here he erected great 
edifices where he placed, with great solemnity, the caul 
in which he was born. Marching onwards and reaching 
the boundary of the region where the Quitos were in 
arms, he marshalled his squadrons, and presently resolved 
to conquer the Pastos. For this service he selected two 
captains of the Collao, one named MoUo Cavana, the other 
MoUo Pucara, and two others of Cunti-suyu named Apu 
Cautar Canana and Cunti MoUo, under whose command 
he placed many men of their nations, and 2000 orejones 
as guards, under Auqui Tupac Inca, brother of Huayna 
Ccapac and Acollo Tupac of the lineage of Viracocha. 
They marched to the country of the Pastos who fell back 
on their chief place, leaving their old people, women and 



THE GREAT QUITO CAMPAIGN l6l 

children, with a few men, that the enemy might think 
there was no one else. The Incas easily conquered these 
and, thinking that was all, they gave themselves up to 
idleness and pleasure. One night, when they were engaged 
in a great rejoicing, eating and drinking freely, without 
sentries, the Pastos attacked them, and there was a great 
slaughter, especially among the Collas. Those who 
escaped, fled until they came to the main army of the 
Incas which was following them. They say that 
Atahualpa and Ninan Cuyoche brought up assistance, 
and that, with the confidence thus gained, Huayna Ccapac 
ordered the war to be waged most cruelly. So they 
entered the country of the Pastos a second time, burning 
and destroying the inhabited places and killing all the 
people great and small, men and women, young and old. 
That province having been subdued, a governor was 
appointed to it 

Huayna Ccapac then returned to Tumipampa, where 
he rested some days, before moving his camp for the 
conquest of the Carangues, a very warlike nation. In 
this campaign he subdued the Macas to the confines of 
the Cafiaris, those of Quisna, of Ancamarca, the province 
of Puruvay, the Indians of Nolitria, and other neighbouring 
nations. 

Thence he went down to Tumbez, a seaport, and then 
came to the fortresses of Carangui and Cochisque. In 
commencing to subdue those of Cochisque he met with a 
stubborn resistance by valiant men, and many were killed 
on both sides. At length the place was taken, and the 
men who escaped were received in the fortress of 
Carangui. The Incas decided that the country sur- 
rounding this fortress should first be subdued. They 
desolated the country as far as Ancasmayu and Otabalo, 
those who escaped from the fury of the Incas taking 
refuge in the fortress. Huayna Ccapac attacked it with 

M. S. II 



1 62 THE GREAT QUITO CAMPAIGN 

his whole force, but was repulsed by the garrison with 
much slaughter, and the orejones were forced to fly, 
defeated by the Cayambis, the Inca himself being thrown 
down. He would have been killed if a thousand of his 
guard had not come up with their captains Cusi Tupac 
Yupanqui and Huayna Achachi, to rescue and raise him. 
The sight of this animated the orejones. All turned to 
defend their Inca, and pressed on with such vigour that 
the Cayambis were driven back into their fortress. The 
Inca army, in one encounter and the other, suflfered 
heavy loss. 

Huayna Ccapac, on this account, returned to Tumi- 
pampa, where he recruited his army, preparing to resume 
the attack on the Cayambis. At this time some orejones 
deserted the Inca, leaving him to go back to Cuzco. 
Huayna Ccapac satisfied the rest by gifts of clothes, pro- 
visions, and other things, and he formed an efficient army. 

It was reported that the Cayambis had sallied from 
their fortress and had defeated a detachment of the Inca 
army, killing many, and the rest escaping by flight. This 
caused great sorrow to the Inca, who sent his brother 
Auqui Toma, with an army composed of all nations, 
against the Cayambis of the fortress. Auqui Toma went, 
attacked the fortress, captured four lines of defence and 
the outer wall, which was composed of five. But at the 
entrance the Cayambis killed Auqui Toma, captain of the 
Cuzcos, who had fought most valorously. This attack 
and defence was so obstinate and long continued that 
an immense number of men fell, and the survivors had 
nowhere to fight except upon heaps of dead men. The 
desire of both sides to conquer or die was so strong that 
they gave up their lances and arrows and took to their 
fists. At last, when they saw that their captain was 
killed, the Incas began to retreat towards a river, into 
which they went without any care for saving their lives. 



THE GREAT QUITO CAMPAIGN 163 

The river was in flood and a great number of men were 
drowned. This was a heavy loss for the cause of Huayna 
Ccapac. Those who escaped from drowning and from the 
hands of the enemy, sent the news to the Inca from the 
other side of the river. Huayna Ccapac received the news 
of this reverse with heavier grief than ever, for he dearly 
loved his brother Auqui Toma, who had been killed with 
so many men who were the pick of the army. 

Huayna Ccapac was a brave man, and was not dis- 
mayed. On the contrary it raised his spirit and he 
resolved to be avenged. He again got ready his forces 
and marched in person against the fortress of the 
Cayambis. He formed the army in three divisions. He 
sent Michi with a third of the army to pass on one side 
of the fortress without being seen. This detachment 
consisted of Cuzco orejones^ and men of Chinchay-suyu. 
They were to advance five marches beyond the fortress 
and, at a fixed time, return towards it, desolating and 
destroying. The Inca, with the rest of his army marched 
direct to the attack of the fortress, and b^an to fight 
with great fury. This continued some days, during which 
the Inca lost some men. While the battle was proceeding, 
Michi and those of Chinchay-suyu turned, desolating and 
destroying everything in the land of the Cayambis. They 
were so furious that they did not leave anything standing, 
making the very earth to tremble. When Huayna Ccapac 
knew that his detachment was near the fortress, he feigned 
a flight. The Cayambis, not aware of what was happening 
in their rear, came out of the fortress in pursuit of the 
Inca. When the Cayambis were at some distance from 
their stronghold, the Chinchay-suyus, commanded by 
Michi, came in sight. These met with no resistance in 
the fortress as the Cayambis were outside, following 
Huayna Ccapac. They easily entered it and set it on fire 
in several parts, killing or capturing all who were inside. 

II — 2 



164 THE GREAT QUITO CAMPAIGN 

The Cayambis were, by this time, fighting with the 
army of Huayna Ccapac. When they saw their fortress 
on fire they lost hope and fled from the battle field 
towards a lake which was near, thinking that they could 
save themselves by hiding among the beds of reeds. But 
Huayna Ccapac followed them with great rapidity. In 
order that none might escape he gave instructions that 
the lake should be surrounded. In that lake, and the 
swamps on its borders, the troops of Huayna Ccapac, he 
fighting most furiously in person, made such havock and 
slaughter, that the lake was coloured with the blood of 
the dead Cayambis. From that time forward the lake 
has been called Yahuar-cocha^ which means the "lake of 
blood," from the quantity that was there shed. 

It is to be noted that in the middle of this lake there 
was an islet with two willow trees, up which some 
Cayambis climbed, and among them their two chiefs 
named Pinto and Canto, most valiant Indians. The 
troops of Huayna Ccapac pelted them with stones and 
captured Canto, but Pinto escaped with a thousand brave 
Cafiaris. 

The Cayambis being conquered, the Cuzcos b^an to 
select those who would look best in the triumphal entry 
into Cuzco. But they, thinking that they were being 
selected to be killed, preferred rather to die like men than 
to be tied up like women. So they turned and began to 
fight. Huayna Ccapac saw this and ordered them all 
to be killed. 

The Inca placed a garrison in the fortress, and sent a 
captain with a detachment in pursuit of Pinto who, in 
his flight, was doing much mischief They followed until 
Pinto went into forests, with other fugitives, escaping for 
a time. After Huayna Ccapac had rested for some days 
at Tumipampa, he got information where Pinto was in 
the forests, and surrounded them, closing up all entrances 



CHIRIHUANA INVASION 165 

and exits. Hunger then obliged him, and those who 
were with him, to surrender. This Pinto was very brave 
and he had such hatred against Huayna Ccapac that even, 
after his capture, when the Inca had presented him with 
gifts and treated him kindly, he never could see his 
face. So he died out of his mind, and Huayna Ccapac 
ordered a drum to be made of his skin. The drum was 
sent to Cuzco, and so this war came to an end. It was 
at Cuzco in the taqui or dance in honour of the Sun. 

LXI. 

THE CHIRIHUANAS COME TO MAKE WAR IN PERU 
AGAINST THOSE CONQUERED BY THE INCAS. 

While Huayna Ccapac was occupied with this war of 
the Cayambis, the Chirihuanas, who form a nation of the 
forests, naked and eaters of human flesh, for which they 
have a public slaughter house, uniting, and, coming forth 
from their dense forests, entered the territory of Charcas, 
which had been conquered by the Incas of Peru. They 
attacked the fortress of Cuzco-tuyo, where the Inca had 
a large frontier garrison to defend the country against 
them. Their assault being sudden they entered the 
fortress, massacred the garrison, and committed great 
havock, robberies and murders among the surrounding 
inhabitants. 

The news reached Huayna Ccapac at Quito, and he 
received it with much heaviness. He sent a captain, 
named Yasca, to Cuzco to collect troops, and with them 
to march against the Chirihuanas. This captain set out 
for Cuzco, taking with him the kuaca "Cataquilla^" of 

^ It was the policy of the Incas. that the idols ?iad kuacas of 
concjuered nations should be sent to Cuzco and deposited there. 
Catiquilla was an idol of the Caxamarca and Huamachuco people. 
Arriaga calls it Apu-cati-quilla. Apu the great or chief, catic 



l66 HUAYNA CCAPAC'S LAST CONQUEST 

Caxamarca and Huamachuco, and '' Curichaculla of the 
Chachapoyas ; and the huacas ^ Tomayrica and Chinchay- 
cocha," with many people, the attendants of the huacas. He 
arrived at Cuzco where he was very well received by the 
Governors, Apu Hilaquito and Auqui Tupac Inca. Having 
collected his troops he left Cuzco for Charcas. On the 
road he enlisted many men of the Collao. With these he 
came up with the Chirihuanas and made cruel war upon 
them. He captured some to send to Huayna Ccapac at 
Quito, that the Inca might see what these strange men 
were like. The captain Yasca rebuilt the fortress and, placing 
in it the necessary garrison, he returned to Cuzco, dismissed 
his men, and each one returned to his own land. 



LXII. 

WHAT HUAYNA CCAPAC DID AFTER THE SAID WARS. 

As soon as Huayna Ccapac had despatched the captain 
against the Chirihuanas, he set out from Tumipampa to 
organize the nations he had conquered, including Quito, 
Pasto, and Huancavilcas. He came to the river called 
Ancas-mayu, between Pasto and Quito, wher^ he set up 
his boundary pillars at the limit of the country he had 
conquered. As a token of grandeur and as a memorial 
he placed certain golden staves in the pillars. He then 
followed the course of the river in search of the sea, seek- 
ing for people to conquer, for he had information that in 
that direction the country was well peopled. 



follower, quilla the moon. Apu-cati-quilla appears to have been 
a moon god. The other kuacas are local deities, all sent to Cuzco. 
Catiquilla had been kept as an oracle in the village of Tauca in 
Conchucos (Calancha, p. 471). Cati-quilla would mean "following 
moon." (See also ExHrpacion de la idolatria del PerUy Joseph dc 
Arriaga. Lima, 1627.) 



HUAYNA CCAPAC'S LAST CONQUEST 167 

On this road the army of the Inca was in great peril, 
suffering from scarcity of water, for the troops had to cross 
extensive tracts of sand. One day, at dawn, the Inca 
army found itself surrounded by an immense crowd of 
people, not knowing who they were. In fear of the un- 
known enemy, the troops began to retreat towards the Inca. 
Just as they were preparing for flight a boy came to 
Huayna Ccapac, and said : " My Lord ! fear not, those are 
the people for whom we are in search. Let us attack them." 
This appeared to the Inca to be good advice and he 
ordered an impetuous attack to be made, promising that 
whatever any man took should be his. The orejones de- 
livered such an assault on those who surrounded them 
that, in a short time, the circle was broken. The enemy 
was routed, and the fugitives made for their habitations, 
which were on the sea coast towards Coaques, where the 
Incas captured an immense quantity of rich spoils, emeralds, 
turquoises, and great store of very fine molloj a substance 
formed in sea shells, more valued amongst them than gold 
or silver. 

Here the Inca received a message from the Sinchi or 
Curaca of the island of Puna with a rich present, inviting 
him to come to his island to receive his service. Huayna 
Ccapac did so. Thence he went to Huancavilca, where he 
joined the reserves who had been left there. News came 
to him that a great pestilence was raging at Cuzco of 
which the governors Apu Hilaquito his uncle, and Auqui 
Tupac Inca his brother had died, also his sister Mama 
Cuca, and many other relations. To establish order 
among the conquered nations, the Inca went to Quito, 
intending to proceed from thence to Cuzco to rest. 

On reaching Quito the Inca was taken ill with a fever, 
though others say it was small-pox or measles. He felt 
the disease to be mortal and sent for the orejones his 
relations, who asked him to name his successor. His 



l68 DEATH OF HUAYNA CCAPAC 

reply was that his son Ninan Cuyoche was to succeed, if 
the augury of the calpa gave signs that such succession 
would be auspicious, if not his son Huascar was to 
succeed. 

Orders were given to proceed with the ceremony of 
the calpa, and Cusi Tupac Yupanqui, named by the Inca 
to be chief steward of the Sun, came to perform it 
By the first calpa it was found that the succession of 
Ninan Cuyoche would not be auspicious. Then they 
opened another lamb and took out the lungs, examining 
certain veins. The result was that the signs respecting 
Huascar were also inauspicious. Returning to the Inca, 
that he might name some one else, they found that he was 
dead. While the orejones stood in suspense about the 
succession, Cusi Tupac Yupanqui said : " Take care of the 
body, for I go to Tumipampa to give the fringe to Ninan 
Cuyoche." But when he arrived at Tumipampa he found 
that Ninan Cuyoche was also dead of the small-pox 
pestilence'. 

Seeing this Cusi Tupac Yupanqui said to Araua Ocllo — 
" Be not sad, O Coya ! go quickly to Cuzco, and say to 
your son Huascar that his father named him to be Inca 
when his own days were over." He appointed two 
orejones to accompany her, with orders to say to the 
Incas of Cuzco that they were to give the fringe to Huascar. 
Cusi Tupac added that he would make necessary arrange- 
ments and would presently follow them with the body of 
Huayna Ccapac, to enter Cuzco with it in triumph, the 
order of which had been ordained by the Inca on the point 
of death, on a staff. 

Huayna Ccapac died at Quito at the age of 80 years. 
He left more than 50 sons. He succeeded at the age 

^ Ninan Cuyoche is said by Cobos to have been legitimate, a son 
of the first wife Cusi Rimay Huaco, who is said by Sarmiento and 
others not to have borne a male heir. 



ACCESSION OF HUASCAR 1 69 

of 20, and reigned' 60 years. He was valiant though 
cruel. 

He left a lineage or ayllu called Tumipampa Ayllu, 
At present the heads of it, now living, are Don Diego 
Viracocha Inca, Don Garcia Inguil Tupac, and Gonzalo 
Sayri. To this ayllu are joined the sons of Paulu 
Tupac, son of Huayna Ccapac. They are Hanan- 
cuzcos. 

Huayna Ccapac died in the year 1524 of the nativity 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, the invincible Emperor Charles V 
of glorious memory being King of Spain, father of your 
Majesty, and the Pope was Paul HI. 

The body of Huayna Ccapac was found by the Licentiate 
Polo in a house where it was kept concealed, in the city of 
Cuzco. It was guarded by two of his servants named 
Hualpa Titu and Sumac Yupanqui. His idol or guauqui 
was called Huaraqui Inca, It was a great image of gold, 
which has not been found up to the present time. 



LXIII. 

THE LIFE OF HUASCAR, THE LAST INCA, AND OF 
ATAHUALPA. 

Huayna Ccapac being dead, and the news having reached 
Cuzco, they raised Titu Cusi Hualpa Inti lUapa, called 
Huascar, to be Inca. He was called Huascar because he 
was born in a town called Huascar-quihuar, four and a half 
leagues from Cuzco. Those who remained at Tumipampa 
embalmed the body of Huayna Ccapac, and collected the 
spoils and captives taken in his wars, for a triumphal 
entry into the capital. 

It is to be noted that Atahualpa, bastard son of 
Huayna Ccapac by Tocto Coca, his cousin, of the lineage 
of Inca Yupanqui, had been taken to that war by his 



I70 SPEECH OF ATAHUALPA 

father to prove him. He first went against the Pastos, 
and came back a fugitive, for which his father rated him 
severely. Owing to this Atahualpa did not appear among 
the troops, and he spoke to the Inca orejones of Cuzco 
in this manner. " My Lords ! you know that I am a son of 
Huayna Ccapac and that my father took me with him, to 
prove me in the war. Owing to the disaster with the 
Pastos, my father insulted me in such a way that I could 
not appear among the troops, still less at Cuzco among my 
relations who thought that my father would leave me well, 
but I am left poor and dishonoured. For this reason 
I have determined to remain here where my father died, 
and not to live among those who will be pleased to see me 
poor and out of favour. This being so you need not wait 
for me." He then embraced them all and took leave of 
them. They departed with tears and grief, leaving Ata- 
hualpa at Tumipampa^ 

The orejones brought the body of Huayna Ccapac to 
Cuzco, entering with great triumph, and his obsequies were 
performed like those of his ancestors. This being done, 
Huascar presented gold and other presents, as well as 
wives who had been kept closely confined in the house of 
the acllas during the time of his father. Huascar built 
edifices where he was born, and in Cuzco he erected the 

^ houses of Amaru-cancha, where is now the monastery of 
the "Name of Jesus," and others on the Colcampata, where 

'^ Don Carlos lives, the son of Paulo. 

After that he summoned Cusi Tupac Yupanqui,and the 



^ Atahualpa is said by Samiiento and Yamqui Pachacuti to have 
been an illegitimate son of Huayna Ccapac by T octo Coca his cousin, 
of the ayllu of Pachacuti. Cieza de Leon says that he was a son by 
a woman of Quilaco named Tupac Palla. Gomara, who is followed 
by Velasco, says that Atahualpa was the son of a princess of Quito. 
As Huayna Ccapac only set out for the Quito campaign twelve years 
before his death, and Ataliualpa was then grown up, his mother 
cannot have been a woman of Quito. I, therefore, have no doubt 
that Sarmiento is right. 



HUASCAR AND ATAHUALPA I7I 

Other principal orejones who had come with the body of 
his father, and who were of the lineage of Inca Yupanqui 
and therefore relations of the mother of Atahualpa. He 
asked them why they had not brought Atahualpa with 
them, saying that doubtless they had left him there, that 
he might rebel at Quito, and that when he did so, they 
would kill their Inca at Cuzco. The orejones^ who had 
been warned of this suspicion, answered that they knew 
nothing except that Atahualpa remained at Quito, as he 
had stated publicly, that he might not be poor and despised 
among his relations in Cuzco. Huascar, not believing 
what they said, put them to the torture, but he extracted 
nothing further from them. Huascar considered the harm 
that these orejotus had done, and that he never could be 
good friends with them or be able to trust them, so he 
caused them to be put to dqath. This gave rise to great 
lamentation in Cuzco and hatred of Huascar among the 
Hanan-cuzcos, to which party the deceased belonged. 
Seeing this Huascar publicly said that he divorced and 
separated himself from relationship with the lineages of 
the Hanan-cuzcos because they were for Atahualpa who 
was a traitor, not having come to Cuzco to do homage. 
Then he declared war with Atahualpa and assembled 
troops to send against him. Meanwhile Atahualpa sent 
his messengers to Huascar with presents, saying that he 
was his vassal, and as such he desired to know how he 
could serve the Inca. Huascar rejected the messages and 
presents of Atahualpa and they even say that he killed the 
messengers. Others say that he cut their noses and their 
clothing down to their waists, and sent them back in- 
sulted. 

While this was taking place at Cuzco the Huanca- 
vilcas rebelled. Atahualpa assembled a great army, nomi- 
nating as captains — Chalco Chima, Quiz-quiz, Incura 
Hualpa, Rumi-flaui, Yupanqui, Urco-huaranca and Ufta 



172 BATTLE AT RIOPAMPA 

Chullo. They marched against the Huancavilcas, con- 
quered them, and inflicted severe punishment. Returning 
to Quito, Atahualpa sent a report to Huascar of what had 
taken place. At this time Atahualpa received news of 
what Huascar had done to his messengers, and of the 
death of the orejones\ also that Huascar was preparing 
to make war on him, that he had separated himself from 
the Hanan-cuzcos, and that he had proclaimed him, 
Atahualpa, a traitor, which they call aucca. Atahualpa, 
seeing the evil designs entertained by his brother against 
him, and that he must prepare to defend himself, took 
counsel with his captains. They were of one accord that 
he should not take the field until he had assembled 
more men, and collected as large an army as possible, 
because negotiations should be commenced when he was 
ready for battle. 

At this time an Orejon named Hancu and another 
named Atoc came to Tumipampa to offer sacrifices before 
the image of Huayna Ccapac, by order of Huascar. They 
took the wives of Huayna Ccapac and the insignia of 
Inca without communication with Atahualpa. For this 
Atahualpa seized them and, being put to the torture, they 
confessed what orders Huascar had given them, and that 
an army was being sent against Atahualpa. They were 
ordered to be killed, and drums to be made of their skins. 
Then Atahualpa sent scouts along the road to Cuzco, to 
see what forces were being sent against him by his brother. 
The scouts came in sight of the army of Huascar and 
brought back the news. 

Atahualpa then marched out of Quito to meet his 
enemies. The two armies encountered each other at 
Riopampa where they fought a stubborn and bloody battle, 
but Atahualpa was victorious. The dead were so numerous 
that he ordered a heap to be made of their bones, as a 
memorial. Even now, at this day, the plain may be seen. 



DEFEATS OF HUASCAR'S ARMIES 1 73 

covered with the bones of those who were slain in that 
battle. 

At this time Huascar had sent troops to conquer the 
nations of Pumacocha, to the east of the Pacamoros, led 
by Tampu Usca Mayta and by Titu Atauchi, the brother 
of Huascar. When the news came of this defeat at 
Riopampa, Huascar got together another larger army, and 
named as captains Atoc, Huaychac, Hanco, and Huanca 
Auqui. This Huanca Auqui had been unfortunate and lost 
many men in his campaign with the Pacamoros. His 
brother, the Inca Huascar, to insult him, sent him gifts 
suited to a woman, ridiculing him. This made Huanca 
Auqui determine to do something worthy of a man. He 
marched to Tumipampa, where the army of Atahualpa 
was encamped to rest after the battle. Finding it with- 
out watchfulness, he attacked and surprised the enemy, 
committing much slaughter. 

Atahualpa received the news at Quito, and was much 
grieved that his brother Huanca Auqui should have made 
this attack, for at other times when he could have hit him, 
he had let him go, because he was his brother. He now 
gave orders to Quiz-quiz and Chalco Chima to advance in 
pursuit of Huanca Auqui. They overtook him at Cusi- 
pampa, where they fought and Huanca Auqui was defeated, 
with great loss on both sides. Huanca Auqui fled, those 
of Atahualpa following in pursuit as far as Caxamarca, 
where Huanca Auqui met a large reinforcement sent by 
Huascar in support. Huanca Auqui ordered them to march 
against Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz while he remained at 
Caxamarca. The troops sent by Huanca Auqui were 
Chachapoyas and many others, the whole numbering 
10,000. They met the enemy and fought near Caxa- 
marca. But the Chachapoyas were defeated and no more 
than 3000 escaped. Huanca Auqui then fled towards 
Cuzco, followed by the army of Atahualpa. 



174 DEFEATS OF HUASCAR'S ARMIES 

In the province of BombonS Huanca Auqui found a 
good army composed of all nations, which Huascar had 
sent to await his enemies there, who were coming in 
pursuit Those of Atahualpa arrived and a battle was 
fought for two days without either party gaining an 
advantage. But on the third day Huanca Auqui was 
vanquished by Quiz-quiz and Chalco Chima. 

Huanca Auqui escaped from the rout and came to 
Xauxa, where he found a further reinforcement of many 
Indians, Soras, Chancas, Ayamarcas, and Yanyos, sent by 
his brother. With these he left Xauxa and encountered 
the pursuing enemy at a place called Yanamarca. Here a 
battle was fought not less stubbornly than the former one. 
Finally, as fortune was against Huanca Auqui, he was again 
defeated by Chalco Chima, the adventurous captain of the 
army of Atahualpa. 

The greater part of the forces of Huanca Auqui was 
killed. He himself fled, never stopping until he reached 
Paucaray. Here he found a good company of orejoncs 
of Cuzco, under a captain named Mayta Yupanqui who, 
on the part of Huascar, rebuked Huanca Auqui, asking 
how it was possible for him to have lost so many 
battles and so many men, unless he was secretly 
in concert with Chalco Chima. He answered that the 
accusation was not true, that he could not have done more ; 
and he told Mayta Yupanqui to go against their enemy, 
and see what power he brought. He said that Atahualpa 
was determined to advance if they could not hinder his 
captains. Then Mayta Yupanqui went on to encounter 
Chalco Chima, and met him at the bridge of Anco-yacu 
where there were many skirmishes, but finally the orejones 
were defeated". 

1 Correctly Pumpu. 

' This campaign is also fully described by Balboa, and in some 
detail by Yamqui Pachacuti, pp. 1 13 — 1 16. 



ATAHUALPA PROCLAIMED INCA 1 75 



LXIV. 

HUASCAR INCA MARCHES IN PERSON TO FIGHT 
CHALCO CHIMA AND QUIZ-QUIZ, THE CAPTAINS 
OF ATAHUALPA. 

As the fortune of Huascar and his captains, especially 
of Huanca Auqui, was so inferior to that of Atahualpa and 
his adventurous and dexterous c^tains Chalco Chima 
and Quiz-quiz, one side meeting with nothing that did 
not favour them, the other side with nothing that was not 
against them, such terrible fear took possession of Huanca 
Auqui and the other Inca captains after the battle of 
Anco-yacu bridge, that they fled without stopping to 
Vilcas, 20 and more leagues from Anco-yacu, on the road 
to Cuzco. 

Over the satisfaction that the captain5 of Atahualpa felt 
at the glory of so many victories that they had won, there 
came the news sent by Atahualpa that he had come in 
person to Caxamarca and Huamachuco, that he had been 
received as Inca by all the nations he had passed, and 
that he had assumed the fringe and the Ccapac-uncu, He 
was now called Inca of all the land, and it was declared 
that there was no other Inca but him. He ordered his 
captains to march onwards conquering, until they en- 
countered Huascar. They were to give him battle, conquer 
him like the rest, and if possible take him prisoner. 
Atahualpa was so elated by his victories, and assumed 
such majesty, that he did not cease to talk of his suc- 
cesses, and no one dared to raise his eyes before him. 
For those who had business with him he appointed a 
lieutenant called "Inca Apu," which means "the Inca's 
lord," who was to take his place by the Inca when he was 
seated. Those who had business transacted it with him. 



176 ATAHUALPA DESTROYS AN ORACLE 

entering with a load on their backs, and their eyes on the 
ground, and thus they spoke of their business with the 
ApH, He then reported to Atahualpa, who decided what 
was to be done. Atahualpa was very cruel, he killed 
right and left, destroyed, burnt, and desolated whatever 
opposed him. From Quito to Huamachuco he perpetrated 
the greatest cruelties, robberies, outrages, and tyrannies 
that had ever been done in that land. 

When Atahualpa arrived at Huamachuco, two principal 
lords of his house caqie to offer sacrifice to the huaca of 
Huamachuco for the success that had attended their cause. 
These orejones went, made the sacrifice, and consulted 
the oracle. They received an answer that Atahualpa 
would have an unfortunate end, because he was such a 
cruel tyrant and shedder of so much human blood. They 
delivered this reply of the devil to Atahualpa. It enraged 
him against the oracle, so he called out his guards and 
went to where the huaca was kept. Having surrounded 
the place, he took a halberd of gold in his hand, and was 
accompanied by the two officers of his household who had 
made the sacrifice. When he came to where the idol was, 
an old man aged a hundred years came out, clothed in 
a dress reaching down to the ground, very woolly and 
covered with sea shells. He was the priest of the oracle 
who had made the reply. When Atahualpa knew who he 
was, he raised the halberd and gave him a blow which cut 
off his head. Atahualpa then entered the house of the 
idol, and cut off its head also with many blows, though it 
was made of stone. He then ordered the old man s body, 
the idol, and its house to be burnt, and the cinders to be 
scattered in the air. He then levelled the hill, though it 
was very large, where that oracle, idol or htiaca of the 
devil stood. 

All this being made known to Chalco Chima and 
Quiz-quiz, they celebrated festivals and rejoicings, and 



HUASCAR TAKES THE FIELD 1 77 

then resumed their march towards Cuzco. Huascar 
received reports of all that had happened, and mourned 
over the great number of men he had lost He clearly 
saw that there only remained the remedy of going forth 
in person to try his fortune, which had hitherto been so 
adverse. In preparation he kept some fasts — for these 
gentiles also have a certain kind of fasting, made many 
sacrifices to the idols and oracles of Cuzco, and sought 
for replies. All answered that the event would be adverse 
to him. On hearing this he consulted his diviners and 
wizards, called by them utnu, who, to please him, gave 
him hope of a fortunate ending. He got together a 
powerful army, and sent out scouts to discover the position 
of the enemy. The hostile army was reported to be at a 
place, 14 leagues from Cuzco, called Curahuasi*. They 
found there Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz, and reported 
that they had left the main road to Cuzco, and had taken 
that of Cotabamba, which is on the right, coming from 
Caxamarca or Lima to Cuzco. This route was taken to 
avoid the bad road and dangerous pass by the Apurimac 
bridge. 

Huascar divided his army into three divisions. One 
consisted of the men of Cunti-suyu, Charcas, Colla-suyu, 
Chuys, and Chile under the command of a captain named 
Arampa Yupanqui. His orders were to advance over 
Cotabamba towards another neighbouring province of 
the Omasayos, to harass the enemy on the side of thd 
river of Cotabamba and the Apurimac bridge. The 
survivors of the former battles, under Huanca Auqui, Ahua 
Panti, and Pacta Mayta, were to attack the enemy on one 
flank, and to march into Cotabamba. Huascar in person 
commanded a third division. Thus all the forces of both 
Huascar and Atahualpa were in Cotabamba. 

^ Curahuasi is near the bridge over the Apurimac. 

M. S. 12 



178: FIRST SUCCESS OF HUASCAR 

Arampa Yupanqui got news that the forces of 
Atahualpa were passing through a small valley or ravine 
which leads from HuanacQ-pampa. He marched to oppose 
them, and fought with a strong squadron of the troops 
under Chalco Chima. He advanced resolutely to the 
encounter, and slew many of the enemy, including one 
of their captains named Tomay Rima. This gave Huascar 
great satisfaction and he said laughingly to the orejoius — 
" The Collas have won this victory. Behold the obligation 
We have to imitate our ancestors." Presently the captains- 
general of his army, who were Titu Atauchi, Tupac Atao 
his brother, Nano, Urco Huaranca and others, marshalled 
the army to fight those of Atahualpa with their whole force. 
The armies confronted each other and attacked with skill 
and in good order. 

The battle lasted from morning nearly until sunset^ 
many being slain on both sides, though the troops of 
Huascar did not suflfer so much as those of Chalco Chima 
and Quiz-quiz. The latter seeing their danger, many of 
them retreated to a lai^e grassy plateau which was near» 
in Huanacu-pampa. Huascar, who saw this, set fire to the 
grass and burnt a great part of Atahualpa's forces. 

Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz then retreated to the 
other side of the river Cotabamba. Huascar, satisfied 
with what he had done, did not follow up his advantages^ 
but enjoyed the victory which fortune had placed in his 
hands. For this he took a higher position. Chalco Chima 
and Quiz-quiz, who were experienced in such manoeuvres^ 
seeing that they were not followed, decided to rest their 
troops, and on another day to attack those who believed 
themselves to be conquerors. They sent spies to the camp 
of Huascar, and found from them that Huascar would send 
a certain division of his troops to take Atahualpa's captains 
without their being able to escape. 



HUASCAR ENTRAPPED ^79 



LXV. 

THE BATTLE BETWEEN THE ARMIES OF HUASCAR' 
AND ATAHUALPA. HUASCAR MADE PRISONER* 

When the morning of the next day arrived Huascar 
determined to finish off the army of his brother at one. 
blow. He ordered Tupac Atao to go down the ravine 
with a squadron, discover the position of the enemy, and 
report what he had seen. Tupac Atao received this order 
and entered the ravine in great silence, looking from side 
to side. But the spies of Chalco Chima saw everything 
without being seen themselves and gave notice to Chalco 
Chima and Quiz-quiz. Chalco Chima then divided his 
men into two parts and stationed them at the sides of the 
road where the orejones would pass. When Tupac Atao 
Came onwards, they attacked him to such purpose that 
scarcely any one escaped. Tupac Atao himself was taken^ 
badly wounded, by whom Chalco Chima was informed 
that Huascar would follow him with only a squadron of 
5000 men, while the rest of his army remained in Huanacu- 
pampa. 

Chalco Chima sent this information to Quiz-quiz, who 
was at a little distance, that they might unite forces. He 
told him that Tupac Atao was taken, that Huascar was 
expected with a small force, and that Quiz-quiz was wanted 
that both might take this enemy on the flanks. This was 
done. They divided their forces, placing them on both 
sides as irf the attack on Tupac Atao. A short time after 
they entered the ravine, Huascar and his men came upon 
the dead bodies of the men of Tupac Atao who, being 
known to Huascar he wished to turn back, understanding 
that they were all dead and that there must have been 
$ome anibush. But it was too late, for he was surrounded 



l8o ROUT OF HUASCAR'S ARMY 

by his enemies. Then he was attacked by the troops of 
Chaico Chima. When he tried to fly from those who fell 
upon his rear, he fell into the hands of Quiz-quiz who was 
waiting for him lower down. Those of Chaico Chima and 
those of Quiz-quiz fought with great ferocity, sparing none, 
and killing them all. Chaico Chima, searching for Huascar, 
saw him in his litter and seized him by the hands, and 
pulled him out of his litter. Thus was taken prisoner the 
unfortunate Huascar Inca, twelfth and last tyrant of the 
Inca Sovereigns of Peru, falling into the power of another 
greater and more cruel tyrant than himself, his people 
defeated, killed, and scattered. 

Placing Huascar in safe durance with a suflicient guard, 
Chaico Chima went on in the Inca's litter and detached 
$000 of his men to advance towards the other troops 
remaining on the plain of Huanacu-pampa. He ordered 
that all the rest should follow Quiz-quiz, and that when 
he let fall the screen, they should attack. He executed 
this stratagem because his enemies thought that he was 
Huascar returning victorious, so they waited. He advanced 
and arrived where the troops of Huascar were waiting for 
their lord, who, when they saw him, still thought that it 
was Huascar bringing his enemies as prisoners. When 
Chaico Chima was quite near, he let loose a prisoner who 
had been wounded, who went to the Inca troops. He told 
them what had happened, that it was Chaico Chima, and 
that he could kill them all by this stratagem. When this 
was known, and that Chaico Chima would presently order 
them to be attacked with his whole force, for he had let 
the screen fall, which was to be the sign, the Inca troops 
gave way and took to flight, which was what Chaico Chima 
intended. The troops of Atahualpa pursued, wounding 
and killing with excessive cruelty and ferocity, continuing 
the slaughter, with unheard of havock, as far as the bridge 
of Cotabamba. As the bridge was narrow and all could 



ADVANCE OF ATAHUALPA'S ARMY TO CUZCO l8l 

not cross it, many jumped into the water from fear of their 
ferocious pursuers, and were drowned. The troops of 
Atahualpa crossed the river, continuing the pursuit and 
rejoicing in their victory. During the pursuit they captured 
Titu Atauchi, the brother of Huascar. Chalco Chima and 
Quiz-quiz arrived at some houses called Quiuipay, about 
half a league from Cuzco, where they placed Huascar as 
a prisoner with a sufficient guard. Here they encamped 
and established their head-quarters. 

The soldiers of Chalco Chima went to get a view of 
Cuzco from the hill of Yauina overlooking the city, where 
they heard the mourning and lamentation of the inhabi- 
tants, and returned to inform Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz. 
Those captains sent a messenger to Cuzco to tell the 
inhabitants not to mourn, for that there was nothing to 
fear, ft being well known that this was a war between two 
brothers for the gratification of their own passions. If any 
of them had helped Huascar they had not committed a 
crime, for they were bound to serve their Inca; and if 
there was any fault he would remit and pardon it, in the 
name of the great Lord Atahualpa. Presently he would 
order them all to come out and do reverence to the statue 
of Atahualpa, called Tied Ccapac which means " Lord of 
the World." 

The people of Cuzco consulted together, and resolved 
to come forth and obey the commands of Chalco Chima 
and Quiz-quiz. They came according to their aylltts 
and, on arriving at Quiuipay, they seated themselves in 
that order. Presently the troops of Atahualpa, fully armed, 
surrounded all those who had come from Cuzco. They 
took Huanca Auqui, Ahua Panti, and Paucar Usna, who 
had led the army against them in the battle at Tumipampa. 
Then they took Apu Chalco Yupanqui and Rupaca, Priests 
of the Sun, because these had given the fringe to Huascar. 
These being prisoners Quiz-quiz rose and said — " Now you 



rt2 SUBMISSION OF THE GENERALS OF HUASCAK 

know of the battles you have fought with me oh the road, 
and the trouble you have caused me. You always raised 
Huascar to be Inca, who was not the heir. You treated 
evilly the Ihca Atahualpa whom the Siin guards, and for 
these things you deserve death. But using you with 
humanity, I pardbn you in the name of my Lord Atahualpa, 
whom may the Sun prosper/^ 

But that they might not be Without any punishment, 
he ordered them to be given some blows with a great stone 
on the shoulders, and he killed the most culpable. Then 
he brdered that all should be tied by the knees, with their 
fkces towards Caxamarca or Huamslchuco where Atahualpa 
wasy and he made them pull out their eyelashes and 
eyebrows as an oflfering to the new Inca. All the orejanesy 
inhabitants of Cuzco, did this from fear, saying in a loud 
voice, "Long live! Liv^ for many years Atahualpa our 
inca, may our father the Sun increase his life!" 

; Araua OcUo, the mother of Huascar, and his wife 
Chucuy Huypd, were there, and were dishonoured and 
abused by Quiz-quiz. In a loud voice the mother of 
Huascar said to her son, who was a prisoner, "O unfortunate! 
thy cruelties and evil deeds have brought you to this state. 
Did I not tell you not to be so cruel, and not to kill 
nor ill-treat the messengers of your brother Atahualpa!" 
Having said these words she came to him, and gave him 
a blow in the face. 

Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz then sent a messenger 
to Atahualpa, letting him know all that had happened, 
and that they had made prisoners of Huascar and many 
others, and asking for further orders. 



INSULTS ENDURED BY THE INCAS 183 



LXVI. 

WHAT CHALCO CHIMA AND QUIZ-QUIZ DID CON- 
CERNING HUASCAR AND THOSE OF HIS SIDE IN 
WORDS. 

After Chaico Chima and Quiz-quiz had sent off the 
messengers to Atahualpa, they caused the prisoners to be 
brought before them, and in the presence of aH, and of the 
mother and wife of Huascar, they declared, addressing 
themselves to the mother of Huascar, that she was the 
concubine and not the wife of Huayna Ccapac, and that, 
being his concubine, she had borne Huascar, also that 
she was a vile woman and not a Coya. The troops of 
Atahualpa raised a shout of derision, and some said to the 
orejoneSy pointing their fingers at Huascar — "Look there 
at your lord ! who said that in the battle he would turn 
fire and water against his enemies?" Huascar was then tied 
hand and foot on a bed of ropes of straws. The orejones^ 
from shame, lowered their heads. Presently Quiz-quiz 
asked Huascar, " Who of these made you lord, there being 
others better and more valiant than you, who might have 
been chosen } " Araua Ocllo, speaking to her son, said, 
." You deserve all this my son as I told you, and all comes 
from the cruelty with which you treated your own relations." 
Huascar replied, ** Mother! there is now no remedy, leave 
us," and he addressed himself to the priest Chaico Yupanqui, 
saying — " Speak and answer the question asked by Quiz- 
quiz." The priest said to Quiz-quiz, " 1 raised him to be 
lord and Inca by command of his father Huayna Ccapac, 
and because he was son of a Coya" (which is what we should 
call Infanta). Then Chaico Chima was indignant, and 
called the priest a deceiver and a liar. Huascar answered 
to Quiz-quiz, "Leave off these arguments. This is ^ 



l84 ATROCITIES OF ATAHUALPA 

question between me and my brother, and not between 
the. parties of Hanan-cuzco and Hurin-cuzco. We will 
investigate it, and you have no business to meddle between 
us on this point." 

Enraged at the answer Chalco Chima ordered Huascar to 
be taken back to prison, and said to the Incas, to re-assure 
them, that they could now go back to the city as they 
were pardoned. The orejones returned, invoking Vira- 
cocha in loud voices with these words — ** O Creator ! thou 
who givest life and favour to the Incas where art thou 
now ? Why dost thou allow such persecution to come upon 
us ? Wherefore didst thou exalt us, if we are to come to 
such an end?" Saying these words they beat their cloaks 
in token of the curse that had come upon them all. 



LXVII. 

THE CRUELTIES THAT ATAHUALPA ORDERED TO BE 
PERPETRATED ON THE PRISONERS AND CON- 
QUERED OF HUASCAR'S PARTY, 

When Atahualpa knew what had happened, from the 
messengers of Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz, he, ordered 
one of his relations named Cusi Yupanqui to go to Cuzco, 
and not to leave a relation or friend of Huascar alive. 
This Cusi Yupanqui arrived at Cuzco, and Chalco Chima 
and Quiz-quiz delivered the prisoners to him. He made 
inquiries touching all that Atahualpa had ordered. He 
then caused poles to be fixed on both sides of the road, 
extending not more than a quarter of a league along 
the way to Xaquixahuana. Next he brought out of the 
prison all the wives of Huascar, including those preg- 
nant or lately delivered. He ordered them to be hung 
to these poles with their children, and he ordered the 
pregnant to be cut open, and the stillborn to be hung 



ATROCITIES OF ATAHUALPA 185 

With them. Then he caused the sons of Huascar to be 
brought out and hung to the poles. 

Among the sons of Huayna Ccapac who were prisoners 
there was one named Paullu Tupac. When they were 
going to kill him, he protested saying, it was unreasonable 
that he should be killed, because he had previously been 
imprisoned by Huascar; and on this ground he was re- 
leased and escaped death. Yet the reason that he was 
imprisoned by Huascar was because he had been found 
with one of the Inca's wives. He was only given very 
little to eat, the intention being that he should die in 
prison. The woman with whom he was taken was buried 
alive. The wars coming on he escaped, and what has been 
related took place. 

After this the lords and ladies of Cuzco who were found 
to have been friends of Huascar were seized and hanged 
on the poles. Then there was an examination of all the 
houses of deceased Incas, to see which had been on the 
side of Huascar, and against Atahualpa. They found that 
the house of Tupac Inca Yupanqui had sided with Huascar. 
Cusi Yupanqui committed the punishment of the house to 
Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz. They seized the steward of 
the house, and the mummy of Tupac Inca, and those of 
his family and hung them all, and they burnt the body of 
Tupac Inca outside the town and reduced it to ashes. And 
to destroy the house completely, they killed many mama 
cunas and servants, so that none were left of that house 
except a few of no account. Besides this they ordered 
all the Chachapoyas and Caflaris to be killed, and their 
Curaca named Ulco Colla, who they said had rebelled 
against the two brothers. 

All these murders and cruelties were perpetrated in the 
presence of Huascar to to^tnent him. They murdered over 
80 sons and daughters of Huascar, and what he felt most 
cruelly was the murder, before his eyes, of one of his 



1 86 ARRIVAL OF THE SPANIARDS 

sisters named Coya Miro, who had a son of Huascar in 
her arms, and another in her womb; and another very 
beautiful sister named Chimbo Cisa. Breaking his heart 
at the sight of such cruelty and grief which he was power- 
less to prevent, he cried, with a sigh, ** Oh Pachayachachi 
Viracocha, thou who showed favour to me for so short a 
time, and honoured me and gave me life, dost thou see 
that I am treated in this way, and seest thou in thy 
presence what I, in mine, have seen and see." 

Some of the concubines of Huascar escaped from this 
cruelty and calamity, because they had neither borne a 
child nor were pregnant, and because they were beautiful. 
They say that they were kept to be taken to Atahualpa. 
Among those who escaped were Dofta Elvira Chonay, 
daughter of Cafiar Ccapac, Dofta Beatriz Carnamaruay, 
daughter of the Curaca of Chinchay-cocha, Dofta Juana 
Tocto, Dofta Catalina Usica, wife, that was, of Don Paullu 
Tupac, and mother of Don Carlos, who are living now. In 
this way the line and lineage of the unfortunate tyrant 
Huascar, the last of the Incas, was completely anni- 
hilated. 



LXVIII. 

NEWS OF THE SPANIARDS COMES TO ATAHUALPA. 

Atahualpa was at Huamachuco celebrating great festivals 
for his victories, and he wished to proceed to Cuzco and 
assume the fringe in the House of the Sun, where all 
former Incas had received it. When he was about to set 
out there came to him two Tallanas Indians, sent by' the 
Curacas of Payta and Tunibez, to report to him that there 
had arrived by sea, which they call cocAa^ a people with 
different clothing, and with beards, and that they brought 
animals like large sheep. The chief of them was believed 



ARRIVAL OF THE SPANIARDS 1 8/ 

to be Viracocha, which means the god of these people, and 
he brought with him many Viracochas, which is as much 
as to say "gods." They said this of the Governor Don 
Francisco Pizarro, who had arrived with i8o men and some 
horses which they called sheep. As the account in detail 
is left for the history of the Spaniards, which will form the 
Third Part to come sifter this, I will only here speak briefly 
of what passed between the Spaniards and Atahualpa. 

When this became known to Atahualpa he rejoiced 
greatly, believing it to be the Viracocha coming, as he 
had promised when he departed, and as is recounted in 
the banning of this history. Atahualpa gave thanks that 
he should have come in his time, and he sent back the 
messengers with thanks to the Curacas for sending the 
news, and ordering them to keep him informed of what 
might happen. He resolved not to go to Cuzco until he 
had seen what this arrival was, and what the Viracochas 
intended to do. He sent orders to Chalco Chima and 
Quiz-quiz to lose no time in bringing Huascar to Caxa- 
marca, where he would go to await their arrival, for he 
had received news that certain Viracochas had arrived by 
sea, and he wished to be there to see what they were like. 

As no further news came, because the Spaniards were 
forming a station at Tangarara, Atahualpa became careless 
and believed that they had gone. For, at another time, 
when he was marching with his father, in the wars of 
Quito, news came to Huayna Ccapac that the Viracocha 
had arrived on the coast near Tumbez, and then they had 
gone away. This was when Don Francisco Pizarro came 
on the first discovery, and returned to Spain for a con- 
cession, as will be explained in its place 



1 88 IMPRISONMENT OF ATAHUALPA 



LXIX. 

THE SPANIARDS COME TO CAXAMARCA AND SEIZE 
ATAHUALPA, WHO ORDERS HUASCAR TO BE 
KILLED. ATAHUALPA ALSO DIES. 

As the subject of which this chapter treats belongs to 
the Third Part (the history of the Spaniards), I shall here 
only give a summary of what happened to Atahualpa* 
Although Atahualpa was careless about the Spaniards 
they did not miss a point, and when they heard where 
Atahualpa was, they left Tangarara and arrived at Caxa* 
marca. When Atahualpa knew that the Viracochas were 
near, he left Caxamarca and went to some baths at a 
distance of half a league that he might, from there, take 
the course which seemed best. As he found that they 
were not gods as he had been made to think at first, he 
prepared his warriors to resist the Spaniards. Finally he 
was taken prisoner by Don Francisco Pizarro, the Friar, 
Vicente Valverde, having first made a certain demand, in 
the square of Caxamarca. 

Don Francisco Pizarro knew of the disputes there had 
been between Atahualpa and Huascar, and that Huascar 
was a prisoner in the hands of the captains of Atahualpa^ 
and he urged Atahualpa to have his brother brought as 
quickly as possible. Huascar was being brought to Caxa* 
marca by Atahualpa's order, as has already been said. 
Chalco Chima obeying this order, set out with Huascar 
and the captains and relations who had escaped the 
butchery of Cusi Yupanqui. Atahualpa asked Don 
Francisco Pizarro why he wanted to see his brother. 
Pizarro replied that he had been informed that Huascar 
was the elder and principal Lord of that land and for 
that reason he wished to see him, and he desired that 



DEATH OF HUASCAR 1 89 

he should come. Atahualpa feared that if Huascar came 
alive, the Governor Don Francisco Pizarro would be in- 
formed of what had taken place, that Huascar would be 
made Lord, and that he would lose his state. Being 
sagacious, he agreed to comply with Pizarro's demand, 
but sent off a messenger to the captain who was bringing 
Huascar, with an order to kill him and all the prisoners. 
The messenger started and found Huascar at Antamarca, 
near Yana-mayu. He gave his message to the captain of 
the guard who was bringing Huascar as a prisoner. 

Directly the captain heard the order of Atahualpa he 
complied with it He killed Huascar, cut the body up, 
and threw it into the river Yana-mayu. He also killed 
the rest of the brothers, relations, and captains who were 
with him as prisoners, in the year 1533. Huascar had 
lived 40 years. He succeeded his father at the age of 31 
and reigned for 9 years. His wife was Chucuy Huypa 
by whom he had no male child. He left no lineage or 
aylluy and of those who are now living, one only, named 
Don Alonso Titu Atauchi is a nephew of Huascar, son 
of Titu Atauchi who was murdered with Huascar. He 
alone sustains the name of the lineage of Huascar called 
the Huascar Ayllu, In this river of Yana-mayu Ata- 
hualpa had fixed his boundary pillars when he first 
rebelled, saying that from thence to Chile should be for 
his brother Huascar, and from the Yana-mayu onwards 
should be his. Thus with the death of Huascar there was \ 
an end to all the Incas of Peru and all their line and 
descent which they held to be legitimate, without leaving 
man or woman who could have a claim on this country, 
supposing them to have been natural and legitimate lords 
of it, in conformity with their own customs and tyrannical 
laws. 

For this murder of Huascar, and for other good and 
sufficient causes, the Governor Don Francisco Pizarro 



ig6 FALSE CHARGES AGAINST THE INCAS 

afterwards put Atahualpa to death. He was a tjrrant- 
against the natives of this country and against bis brother 
Huascar. He had Uved 36 years. He was not Inca of 
Peru, but a tyrant He was prudent,' sagacious, and: 
valiant, as I shall relate in the Third Part, being events, 
which belong to the deeds of the Spaniards. It suffices*' 
to close this Second Part by completing the history of 
the deeds of the 12 Inca tyrants who reigned in this 
kingdom of Peru from Manco Ccapac the first to Huascar 
the twelfth and last tyrant 



LXX. 

IT IS NOTEWORTHY HOW THESE INCAS WERE 
TYRANTS AGAINST THEMSELVES, BESIDES BEING 
SO AGAINST THE NATIVES OF THE LAND, 

It is a thing worthy to be noted [/or tke foci that 
besides being a thing certain and evident tke general 
tyranny of these cruel and tyrannical Incas of Peru against 
the natives of the land^ may be easily gathered from 
history], and any one who reads and considers with at- 
tention the order and mode of their procedure will see» 
that their violent Incaship was established without the 
will and election of the natives who always rose with 
arms in their hands on each occasion that offered for 
rising against their Inca tyrants who oppressed them, to 
get back their liberty. Each one of the Incas not only 
followed the tyranny of his father, but also b^an afresb 
the same tyranny by force, with deaths, robberies and 
rapine. Hence none of them could pretend, in good faith,, 
to give a beginning to time of prescriptipn, nor did any of 
them hold in peaceful possession, there being always some 
one to dispute and take up arms against them and their, 
tyranny. Moreover, and this is above all to be noted, to 




Reproduced and Printed for the Hakluyt Society by Donald Macbeth. 

CAPTURE OF ATAHUALPA. AND SIEGE OF CUZCO, ETC. 

From the Rev. C. M. Cracherode's coPy in the British MuMUtn. 



FALSE CHARGES AGAINST THE INCAS I9I 

understand the worst aims of these tyrants and * their 
horrid avarice and oppression, they were not satisfied with 
being evil tyrants to the natives, but also to their own 
proper sons, brothers and relations, in defiance of their 
own laws and statutes, they were the worst and most 
pertinacious tyrants with an unheard-of inhumanity. For 
it was enacted among themselves and by their customs 
and laws that the eldest legitimate son should succeed, yet 
almost always they broke the law, as appears by the Incas 
who are here referred to. 

Before all things Manco Ccapac, the first tyrant, coming 
from Tampu-tocco, was inhuman in the case of his brother 
Ayar Cachi, sending him to Tampu-tocco cunningly with 
orders for Tampu-chacay. to kill him out of envy, because 
he was the bravest, and might for that reason be the most 
estieemed. When he arrived at the valley of Cuzco he not 
only tyrannized over the natives, but also over Copali- 
mayta and Columchima who, though they had been 
received as natives of that valley were his relations, for 
they were orejones. Then Sinchi Rocca, the second Inca, 
having an older legitimate son named Manco Sapaca who, 
according to the law he and his father had made, was 
entitled to the succession, deprived him and nominated 
Lloqui Yupanqui the second son for his successor. Like- 
wise Mayta Ccapac, the fourth Inca, named for his su<^cessor 
Ccapac Yupanqui, though he had an older legitimate son 
named Cunti Ma}ia, whom he disinherited. Viracocha, 
the eighth Inca, although he had an older legitimate son 
named Inca Rocca, did not name him as his successor, nor 
any of his legitimate sons, but a bastard named Inca Urco^ 
This did not come about, Inca Urco did not enjoy the 
succession, nor did the eldest legitimate son, for there was 
a new tyranny. For Inca Yupanqui deprived both the 
one and the other, besides despoiling his father of his 
honours and estate. The same Inca Yupanqui, having an. 



192 FALSE CHARGES AGAINST THE INCAS 

elder legitimate son named Amaru Tupac Inca, did not 
name him, but a young son, Tupac Inca Yupanqui« The 
same Tupac Inca, being of the same condition as his 
father, having Huayna Ccapac as the eldest legitimate son, 
named Ccapac Huari as his successor, although the relations 
of Huayna Ccapac would not allow it, and rose in his favour. 
If Ccapac Huari was legitimate, as his relations afBrm, the 
evil deed must be fixed on Huayna Ccapac, who deprived 
his brother Ccapac Huari, and killed his mother and all 
his relations, making them infamous as traitors, that is 
supposing he was legitimate. Huayna Ccapac, though he 
named Ninan Cuyoche, he was not the eldest, and owing 
to this the succession remained unsettled, and caused the 
differences between Huascar and Atahualpa, whence pro- 
ceeded the greatest and most unnatural tyrannies. Turning 
their arms against their own entrails, robbing, and with 
inhuman intestine wars they came to a final end. Thus as 
they commenced by their own authority, so they destroyed 
all by their own proper hands. 

It may be that Almighty God permits that one shall 
be the executioner of the other for his evil deeds, that both 
may give place to his most holy gospel which, by the hands 
of the Spaniards, and by order of the most happy, catholic, 
and unconquered Emperor and King of Spain, Charles V 
of glorious memory, father of your Majesty, was sent to 
these blind and barbarous gentiles. Yet against the force 
and power of the Incas on foot and united, it appeared that 
it would be impossible for human force to do what a few 
Spaniards did, numbering only i8o, who at first entered 
with the Governor Don Francisco Pizarro. 

It is well established that it is a thing false and without 
reason, and which ought not to be said, that there is now, 
in these kingdoms, any person of the lineage of the Incas 
who can pretend to a right of succession to the Incaship 
of this kingdom of Peru, nor to be natural or legitimate 



THE SONS OF MANCO INCA 193 

lords. For no one is left who, in conformity with their 
laws, is able to say that he is the heir, in whole or in part 
of this land. Only two sons of Huayna Ccapac escaped the 
cruelty of Atahualpa. They were Paullu Tupac, afterwards 
called Don Crist6val Paullu, and Manco Inca. They were 
bastards, which is well known among them. And these, if 
any honour or estate had belonged to them or their 
children, your Majesty would have granted more than 
they had, their brothers retaining their estate and power. 
For they would merely have been their tributaries and 
servants. These were the lowest of all, for their lineage 
was on the side of their mothers which is what these people 
look at, in a question of births 

And Manco Inca had been a traitor to your Majesty 
and was a fugitive in the Andes where he died or was 
killed. Your Majesty caused his son to be brought out, in 
peace, from those savage wilds. He was named Don Diego 
Sayri Tupac. He became a Christian, and provision was 
made for him, his sons and descendants. Sayri Tupac died 
as a Christian, and he who is now in the Andes in rebellion, 
named Titu Cusi Yupanqui, is not a legitimate son of 
Manco Inca, but a bastard and apostate. They hold that 
another son is legitimate who is with the same Titu, named 
Tupac Amaru, but he is incapable and the Indians called 
him utL Neither one nor the other are heirs of the land, 
because their father was not legitimate. 

Your Majesty honoured Don Crist6val Paullu with 
titles and granted him a good repartimiento of Indians, on 
which he principally lived. Now it is possessed by his son 
Don Carlos. Paullu left two legitimate sons who are now 
alive, named Don Carlos and Don Felipe. Besides these 



* These statements about the illegitimacy of Manco and Paullu 
Inca are made to support the Viceroy's argument and have no 
foundation in fact. The two princes were legitimate ; their mother 
being a princess of the blood. 

M. s. 13 



194 COMPUTATION OF DATES 

he left many illegitimate sons. Thus the known grandsons 
of Huayna Ccapac, who are now alive and admitted to be 
so, are those above mentioned. Besides these there are 
Don Alonso Titu Atauchi, son of Titu Atauchi, and other 
bastards, but neither one nor the other has any right to be 
called a natural lord of the land. 

For the above reasons it will be right to say to those 
whose duty it may be to decide, that on such clear evi- 
dence is based the most just and l^itimate title that your 
Majesty and your successors have to these parts of the 
Indies, proved by the actual facts that are here written, more 
especially as regards these kingdoms of Peru without a 
point to raise against the said titles by which the crown of 
Spain holds them. Respecting which your Viceroy of these 
kingdoms, Don Francisco Toledo, has been a careful and 
most curious enquirer, as zealous for the clearing of the 
conscience of your Majesty, and for the salvation of your 
soul, as he has shown and now shows himself in the general 
visitation which he is making by order of your Majesty,, 
in his own person, not avoiding the very great labours and 
dangers which he is suffering in these journeys, so long as 
they result in so great a service to God and your Majesty. 



LXXI. 

SUMMARY COMPUTATION OF THE PERIOD THAT 
THE INCAS OF PERU LASTED. 

The terrible and inveterate tyranny of the Incas Ccapac. 
of Peru, which had its seat in the city of Cuzco, commenced 
in the year 565 of our Christian redemption, Justin II 
being Emperor, Loyva son of Athanagild the Goth being 
King of Spain, and John III Supreme Pontiff. It ended in 
1533, Charles V being the most meritorious Emperor and 
most Christian King of Spain and its dependencies, patron 



LONGEVITY OF THE INCAS I95 

of the church and right arm of Christendom, assuredly 
worthy of such a son as your Majesty whom may God our 
Lord take by the hand as is necessary for the Holy Christian 
church. Paul III was then Pope. The whole period from 
Manco Ccapac to the death of Huascar was 968 years. 

It is not to be wondered at that these Incas lived for so 
long a time, for in that age nature was stronger and more 
robust than in these days. Besides men did not then 
marry until they were past thirty. They thus reached such 
an age with force and substance whole and undiminished. 
For these reasons they lived much longer than is the case 
now. Besides the country where they lived has a healthy 
climate and uncorrupted air. The land is cleared, dry, 
without lakes, morasses, or forests with dense v^etation. 
These qualities all conduce to health, and therefore to the 
long life of the inhabitants whom may God our Lord lead 
into his holy faith, for the salvation of their souls. Amen^ 

Maxima Tollcti Proregis gloria creuit 
Dum regni tenebras, lucida cura, fugat. 
Ite procul scioli, vobis non locus in istis! 
Rex Indos noster nam tenet innocue. 



CERTIFICATE OF THE PROOFS AND VERIFICATION 
OF THIS HISTORY. 

In the city of Cuzco, on the 29th day of February, 1572, 
before the very excellent Lord Don Francisco de Toledo, 
Mayordomo to His Majesty, and his Viceroy, Governor, 
and Captain-General of these kingdoms and provinces of 
Peru, President of the Royal Audience and Chancellory 
that resides in the city of the Kings, and before me Alvaro 

^ Cieza dc Leon and other authorities adopt a more moderate 
chronology. 

13 — 2 



196 SARMIENTO'S REPORT 

Ruiz de Navamuel his Secretary and of the Government 
and General Visitation of these kingdoms, the Captain 
Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa presented a petition of the 
following tenor: 

Most Excellent Lord, 

I, the Captain Pedro Sarmiento, Cosmographer- 
General of these kingdoms of Peru, report that by order of 
your Excellency I have collected and reduced to a history 
the general chronicle of the origin and descent of the Incas, 
of the particular deeds which each one did in his time and 
in the part he ruled, how each one of them was obeyed, of 
the tyranny with which, from the time of Tupac Inca 
Yupanqui, the tenth Inca, they oppressed and subjugated 
these kingdoms of Peru until by order of the Emperor 
Charles V of glorious memory, Don Francisco Pizarro 
came to conquer them. I have drawn up this history from 
the information and investigations which, by order of your 
Excellency, were collected and made in the valley of 
Xauxa, in the city of Guamanga, and in other parts where 
your Excellency was conducting your visitation, but princi- 
pally in this city of Cuzco where the Incas had their 
continual residence, where there is more evidence of their 
acts, where the miiimaes of all the provinces gathered to- 
gether by order of the said Incas, and where there is true 
memory of their ayllus. In order that this history may 
have more authority, I pray that you will see, correct, and 
give it your authority, so that, wherever it may be seen, it 
may have entire faith and credit 

Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa. 

Having been seen by his Excellency he said that it 
may be known if the said history was in conformity with 
the information and evidence, which has been taken from 
the Indians and other persons of this city and in other 
parts, and he ordered that Doctor Loarte, Alcalde of the 



INCA WITNESSES 197 

court of his Majesty should cause to appear before him the 
principal and most intelligent Indians of the twelve ayllus 
or lineages of the twelve Incas and other persons who may 
be summoned, and being assembled before me, the present 
Secretary, the said history shall be read and declared to 
them by an interpreter in the language of the said Indians, 
that each one may understand and discuss it among them- 
selves, whether it is conformable to the truth as they know 
it If there is anything to correct or amend, or which may 
appear to be contrary to what they know, it is to be 
corrected or amended. So I provide and sig^ 

Don Francisco de Toledo 
Before me Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel. 

Afterwards, on the abovesaid day, month, and year the 
illustrious Doctor Gabriel de Loarte, in compliance with 
the order of his Excellency and in presence of me the said 
Secretary, caused to appear before him the Indians of the 
names, ages and aylliis as follows : 

Ayllu of Manco Ccapac. 

Aged 
Sebastian Ylluc 30 

Francisco Paucar Chima ... 30 

Ayllu of Sinchi Rocca, 

Di^o Cayo Hualpa 70 

Don Alonso Puzcon 40 

Ayllu of Lloqui Yupanquu 

Hernando Hualpa 70 

Don Garcia Ancuy 45 

Miguel Rimachi Mayta 30 

Ayllu of Mayta Ccapac. 

Don Juan Tampu Usca Mayta 60 

Don Felipe Usca Mayta ... 70 

Francisco Usca Mayta ... 30 ' 



198 



INCA WITNESSES 




Ayllu of Ccapac YupanquL 


Aged 

70 


Don Francisco Copca Mayta ... 


Don Juan Quispi Mayta 


30 


Don Juan Apu MayU 


30 


Ayllu of Inca Rocca, 




Don Pedro Hachacona 


53 


Don Di^o Mayta 


40 


Ayllu of Yahuar-huaccac. 




Juan Yupanqui 


60 


Martin Rimachi 


26 


Ayllu of Viracocha. 




Don Francisco Anti-hualpa 


89 


Martin Quichua Sucsu 


64 


Don Francisco Chalco Yupanqui 


45 


Ayllu of Pachacutu 




Don Diego Cayo 


68 


Don Juan Hualpa Yupanqui ... 


75 


Don Domingo Pascac 


90 


Don Juan Quispi Cusi 


45 


Don Francisco Chanca Rimachi 


40 


Don Francisco Cota Yupanqui 


40 


Don Gonzalo Huacanhui 


60 


Don Francisco Quichua 


68 


Ayllu of Tupac Inca, 




Don Cristoval Pisac Tupac 


50 


Don Andres Tupac Yupanqui 


40 


Don Garcia Pilco Tupac 


40 


Don Juan Cozco 


40 


Ayllu of Huayna Ccapac. 




Don Francisco Sayri 


28 


Don Francisco Ninan Coro ... 


24 


Don Garcia Rimac Tupac 


34 



INCA WITNESSES I99 

Ayllu of Huascar, 

Aged 
Don Alonso Titu Atauchi ... 40 

Besides these Ayllus, 

Don Garcia Paucar Sucsu ... 34 

Don Carlos Ayallilla 50 

Don Juan Apanca 80 

Don Garcia Apu Rinti 70 

Don Diego Viracocha Inca ... 34 

Don Gonzalo Tupac 30 

These being together in presence of his Excellency, the 
said Alcalde of the court, by the words of Gonzalo Gomez 
Ximenes, interpreter to his Excellency, in the general lan- 
guage of the Indians, said : — " His Excellency, desiring to 
verify and put in writing and to record the origin of the 
Incas, your ancestors, their descent and their deeds, what 
each one did in his time, and in what parts each one was 
obeyed, which of them was the first to go forth from Cuzco 
to subdue other lands, and how Tupac Inca Yupanqui and 
afterwards Huayna Ccapac and Huascar, his son and grand- 
son became lords of all Peru by force of arms ; and to 
establish this with more authenticity, he has ordered that 
information and other proofs should be supplied in this city 
and other parts, and that the said information and proofs 
should be, by Captain Pedro Sarmiento to whom they were 
delivered, digested into a true history and chronicle. The 
said Pedro Sarmiento has now made it and presented it to 
his Excellency, to ascertain whether it is truthfully written 
in conformity with the sayings and declarations which 
were made by some Indians of the said ayllus. His Ex- 
cellency is informed that the ayllus and descendants of 
the twelve Incas have preserved among themselves the 
memory of the deeds of their ancestors, and are those who 
best know whether the said chronicle is correct or defective, 
he has therefore caused you to assemble here, that it may 



2CX) IN'CA WITNESSES 

be read in your presence and understood. You, among 
yourselves, will discuss what will be read and declared in 
the said language, and see if it agrees with the truth as 
you know it, and that you may feel a stronger obligation 
to say what you know, it is ordered that you take an oath." 
The said Indians replied that they had understood why 
they had been sent for, and what it was that was required. 
They then swore, in the said language, by God our Lord, 
and by the sign of the cross, that they would tell the truth 
concerning what they knew of that history. The oaths 
being taken the reading was commenced in sum and sub- 
stance. There was read on that and following days from 
their fable of the creation to the end of the history of the 
Incas. As it was read, so it was interpreted into their 
language, chapter by chapter. And over each chapter the 
Indians discussed and conferred among themselves in the 
said language. All were s^eed in confirming and declaring 
through the interpreter, that the said history was good and 
true, and in agreement with what they knew and had heard 
their fathers and ancestors say, as it had been told to them. 
For, as they have no writing like the Spaniards, they 
conserve ancient traditions among themselves by passing 
them from tongue to tongue, and age to age. They heard 
their fathers and ancestors say that Pachacuti Inca Yu- 
panqui, the ninth Inca, had verified the history of the 
former Incas who were before him, and painted their deeds 
on boards, whence also they had been able to learn the 
sayings of their fathers, and had passed them on to their 
children. They only amended some names of persons and 
places and made other slight corrections, which the said 
Alcalde ordered to be inserted as the Indians had spoken, 
and this was done. After the said corrections all the 
Indians, with one accord, said that the history was good 
and true, in conformity with what they knew and had 
heard from their ancestors, for they had conferred and 



COMPLETION OF THE HISTORY 20I 

discussed among themselves, verifying from beginning to 

end. They expressed their belief that no other history 

that might be written could be so authentic and true as 

this one, because none could have so diligent an examination, 

from those who are able to state the truth. The said 

Alcalde signed 

The Doctor Loarte 

Gonzalo Gomez Ximenes 

Before me Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel. 

After the above, in the said city of Cuzco, on the 
2nd of March of the same year, his Excellency having seen 
the declaration of the Indians and the affidavits that were 
made on them, said that he ordered and orders that, with 
the corrections the said Indians stated should be made, the 
history should be sent to his Majesty, signed and authenti- 
cated by me the said Secretary. It was approved and 
signed by the said Doctor Gabriel de Loarte who was 
present at the verification with the Indians, and then taken 

and signed 

Don Francisco de Toledo 

Before Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel. 

I the said Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel, Secretary to his 
Excellency, of the Government, and to the general visitation 
of these kingdoms, notary to his Majesty, certify that the 
said testimony and verification was taken before me, and is 
taken from the original which remains in my possession, 
and that the said Alcalde, the Doctor Loarte, who signed, 
said that he placed and interposed upon it his authority 
and judicial decree, that it may be valued and accepted 
within his jurisdiction and beyond it I here made my 
sign in testimony of the truth 

Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel. 



Series II. Vol. XXII. 







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SIGNATURES OF THE ATTESTING WITNESSES TO THE SARMIENTO MS. 1572. 

Prom the originah OUtiingen Univeraity Library. 

Reproduced and printed for the Hakluyi Society hy Donald Macbeth, 



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*rti: 

— ACCOUNT 

OF THE 

f PROVINCE OF VILCAPAMPA 

AND 

A NARRATIVE OF THE EXECUTION 

OF THE 

INCA TUPAC AMARU 

BY 

CAPTAIN BALTASAR DE OCAMPO 

(WRITTEN IN 1610) 
Translated from a manuscript in the British Museum 

A DESCRIPTION OF THE PROVINCE 

OF 

ST FRANCIS OF VICTORY 
OF VILCAPAMPA 

To the most excellent Lord Don Juan de Mendoza y 
Luna, Marquis of Montes Claros^ lieutenant of the King 
our Lord, Viceroy, Governor, and Captain -General in 
these kingdoms and provinces of Peru and Chile, the 

* The third Marquis of Montes Claros was grandson of the first 
Marquis, who was a younger son of the third Duke of Infantado. He 
was Viceroy of Mexico from 1603 to 1607, and he came by sea from 
Acapulco to Callao to take up the appointment of Viceroy of Peru, 
owing to the death of the Count of Monterey, the former Viceroy. 
Solorzano praises him as a model of rectitude and prudence. In 
December, 161 5, he gave up charge to the Prince of Esquilache and 
returned to Spain, where he received other high appointments. 



204 OCAMPO STATES HIS CASE 

Captain Baltasar de Ocampo, his servant, desires eternal 
felicity. 

My age and white locks do not require that I should 
now treat of long past histories of bloodshed, but rather 
that I should seek for pleasant rest whereby I might finish 
my worn out life. In the service of the royal person 
of Philip II, our Lord and natural King, the true original 
transmitted to the third of that name, I have served in this 
country for more than 44 years, on all the occasions that 
the times and events have offered, seeking generally to be 
among the first to serve my King and Lord as a loyal 
vassal with my proper person, arms, horses and servants at 
my own cost, nor have I been rewarded or remunerated 
for such services. Although it is more than two years 
since I came to this coast to give an account to your 
Excellency of my condition and to make known my great 
necessities (^owing to having disposed of my property by 
employing it in the way that I have said) I have before 
and do now present to your Excellency's person my 
memorials and proofs. Finding myself broken and alto- 
gether ruined, without any hope or remedy whatever, I 
ventured to kiss your Excellency's hand, and verbally to 
give you an account of the city and province of San 
Francisco of the Victory of Vilcapampa, its origin and 
beginning, with information respecting it, as well as a 
rough estimate of the time occupied in its discovery. 
Your Excellency, having derived some pleasure from my 
narration, ordered me to put it in writing. Thinking that 
in doing so I should perform an agreeable service to your 
Excellency, I endeavoured that the memoir should con- 
sist of a narration of the memorable occurrences of those 
golden times, striving in all things to offer the truest 
history of the events that I am able to remember. For it 
is just that a Prince (such as your Excellency) should 
receive a frank account without any concealment whatever. 



HIS NARRATIVE SUBMITTED TO THE VICEROY 205 

May your Excellency receive it as a benign, amiable and 
most Christian Prince, from your servant who, in all things, 
desires to serve and please you. And I pray that your 
Excellency will not dwell upon the rustic style and lan- 
guage, but on the sincere, frank, and pure intention which 
animates me. So when I should suffer from hunger (more 
than I suffer at present) and, seeking help for God's sake, 
if I receive no other reward than kind words and accept- 
ance, I shall remain well paid, and shall understand that I 
deserve nothing from God, from his Majesty, from his 
Excellency, nor from other men. This being granted, may 
your Excellency be served by passing your eyes over this 
writing and description of that land, that by chance it may 
have a pleasant sound in the ear of your Excellency whom 
may the Almighty Majesty of God preserve for many 
prosperous years, with the highest felicity of greater estates 
and lordships as your Excellency merits, and this your 
servant desires for you. Most excellent Lord 

the servant of your Excellency 

who kisses your feet and hands 

Baltasar de Ocampo Conejeros. 



206 BIRTH OF THE HEIR OF CARLOS INCA 



DESCRIPTION 

OF THE 

PROVINCE OF SAN FRANCISCO OF THE VICTORY 
OF VILCAPAMPA. 

HOW INTELLIGENCE WAS OBTAINED OF IT, OF ITS 
DISCOVERY, OF THE DEFEAT OF THE INCA TUPAC 
AMARU, OF HIS DEATH, AND OTHER MOURNFUL 
EVENTS. 

May it please you, most excellent Prince, to give a 
favourable inclination, as of a pleasant taste on the palate, 
to my earnest desire to please you in relating this true 
history. If in anything I am faulty in what I say, it will 
not be from a want of desire to give complete satisfaction^ 
but by reason of my limited understanding, being unable 
to reach a higher standard, as in my letter I have repre- 
sented to your Excellency. And so I begin. 

The Viceroy Don Francisco de Toledo being in the 
city of Cuzco, in the beginning of the year 1571, Don 
Carlos Inca, a resident in that city, legitimate son of Don 
Crist6val Paullu Cusi Tupac Inca and of Dofia Catalina 
Usica Coya his wife, was leading a marital life, as he 
always did, with Dofia Maria de Esquivel his legitimate 
wife, native of Truxillo of Estremadura, in the kingdom 
of Spain. She having conceived, and the time having 
been completed brought forth a son in the fortress of the 
city of Cuzco^ 

^ That is, the palace of the Colcampata, at the foot of the fortress. 



THE VICEROY TO BE GODFATHER 2QJ 

This caused great pleasure and rejoicing in the city, 
because Carlos Inca and his wife had been married for 
many years, and had never before had a child, the blessed 
fruit of their marriage. For the baptism of the infant its 
parents sought in the city for a godfather of sufficient rank, 
the Inca Don Carlos being grandson of Huayna Ccapac, 
the universal sovereign of these lands, in his time. They 
requested and besought the Lord Viceroy, Don Francisco 
de Toledo, that he would do them a signal favour by 
honouring them with his Excellency's presence and 
authority, in taking their son to the baptismal font, and 
being his godfather and their gossip'. They also requested 
that he would think it well that Doctor Friar Pedro 
Ordoflez y Flores, his chaplain and confessor of the order 
of Alcantara (brother of Don Pedro Ordoftez y Flores, 
formerly Apostolic Inquisitor of these kingdoms and now 
Archbishop of the new kingdom of Granada) should per- 
form the baptismal service in the parish church of San 
Crist6val of the Colcampata, which is adjoining to the said 
fortress. 

The said Lord Viceroy consented, with pleasure, to be 
godfather to the child, and gossip to its parents. On the 
day of the baptism, which was Epiphany Sunday, the 
6th January of the said year 1571, when the child received 
the name of Melchior, there were festivals, rejoicings, fire- 
works, dances, and many newly invented and costly con- 
ceits, which they well knew how to get up very admirably 
at Cuzco in those days*. 

* Gossip from "God" and "sib," a relation through baptism. In 
Spanish the word used is Compadre^ the relationship between the 
parents and the godparents, and of the godparents to each other. 

2 On an eminence called Carmenca, on the other side of the 
Huatanay stream to the fortress of Cuzco, there is a suburb with a 
small church dedicated to Santa Ana, possessing an altar of massive 
silver richly embossed. Most interestmg paintings of the end of the 
1 6th century line the walls, representing the procession of Corpus 
Christi in about the time of the Viceroy Toledo. The dresses give a 



208 VILLAGES INHABITED BY INCAS 

Invitations were sent out over all the land for more 
than forty leagues round Cuzco, and there assembled for 
the occasion all the Incas of the following parishes : 
ACCHA (Paruro province) Paccari-tampu (Quispi- 
Anta (cap. Anta province) cancha province) 

Antahuayllas (La Chica) Pacopata 
Araypalpa (Paruro pro- Palpa 

vince) Pampacuchu 

Ataras Parcos 

Chinchero (near Cuzco) Paruro (cap. Paruro pro- 
COLCHA (Paruro province) vince) 

CONCACALLA PiLPINTO 

CUCHARAYPAMPA PiSAC (Calca province) 

Equequo Pocoray 

cuzco PUQUIURA 

HUANUQUITI QuiQUlSANA (Quispicancha 

HUAYHUACUNCA province) 

Marco 

correct idea of the appearance of the assembly at the christening 
of Melchior Carlos Inca. First inarch the four religious orders of 
Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustines, and Mercedaric^ followed 
by the " Santissimo " under a canopy. Then an old cavalier in black 
with the insignia of the order of Alcantara, perhaps Toledo himself. 
Then follow people of each parish of Cuzco, drawing their patron 
saints in triumphal cars, and headed by principal Inca nobles m full 
ancient costume. On the head is the chuccu or head-dress with 
crimson fringe and plumes of feathers. Round the neck is a broad 
collar of several colours with a long yellow fringe. The tunic is of 
white cotton covered with ornaments, and confined round the waist by 
a very broad belt of richly worked cloth. On the breast there is 
a golden sun. Garters confine the pantaloons above the knee, which 
are of black cloth. The shoes are also of black cloth. Pumas' heads 
of gold, set with emeralds, on the shoulders, secure a long scarlet 
mantle with full white sleeves bordered with wide lace. There is 
a fJusta or princess heading the procession of her parish, in one 
picture, with nearly the same dress but bare-headed, and a boy 
m front carrying her head-dress. The concluding picture represents 
the return of the " Santissimo " to the cathedral, with the whole Inca 
family looking on, magnificently dressed with huge plumes of egret's 
feathers on their heads. Heads and shoulders of the crowd are 
grouped along the lower parts of the pictures, Spaniards in black 
cloaks and broad sombreros mingling with Indian men and women in 
characteristic dresses. 



THE INCAS AT THE CHRISTENING 209 

RiMAC-TAMPU (Anta pro- Urcos (Quispicancha pro- 
vince) vince) 

San Salvador Urupampa (cap. of Uru- 

San Sebastian (Cuzco bamba province) 

cercado) Xaquixahuana 

San Geronimo de Co- Yaurisca (Paruro province) 

RAMA YUCAY (Urubamba pro- 

SURITE (Anta province) vince). 

All these are places where Incas reside. Canas, Can- 
chis, and Collas were also invited, and men of all other 
nations that could be got together. Among the rest there 
came to the christening Titu Cusi Yupanqui Inca and his 
young brother Tupac Amaru Inca, who came from the 
province of Vilcapampa. They were infidel idolaters who 
worshipped the Sun, believing that he was the maker of all 
things, and they had an image of gold and a sanctuary. 
When these two last Incas saw the grandeur, majesty, and 
sumptuousness of the Christians, and that divine service 
was celebrated with such authority, and beheld the con- 
gregations of Christians assembled for public worship ; as 
men of good understanding they were deeply impressed, 
and easily deduced the sanctity and excellence of the 
Christian law. 

Titu Cusi Yupanqui had the desire to enter the bosom 
of our holy mother church, and to be converted to our 
sacred catholic faith. The respect and reverence which 
the Lord Viceroy received from all his subjects appeared 
good to the Inca, who saw his person guarded by halber- 
diers. The Inca proposed in his heart to be a Christian, 
that he might realize his majesty and high rank, and feel 
that he was respected and esteemed in the land as its lord. 
As soon as the festivities, which lasted for many days in 
Cuzco, were concluded he retired to his native land of 
Vilcapampa with his brother Tupac Amaru Inca. Being 

M. s. 14 



2IO CONVERSION OF TITU CUSI YUPANQUI 

a man full of ambition (a vice which is usually dominant in 
the characters of tyrants), he put his young brother into the 
House of the Sun with the chosen virgins and their 
matrons, a most ancient custom among all the rulers of 
these kingdoms before the arrival of the Spaniards. This 
younger brother was the natural and legitimate lord of 
these lands and grandson of Huayna Ccapac. But the 
elder brother, by his management and cunning, kept him 
secluded and imprisoned on the ground of his want of 
experience, usurping the government for himself. This 
Titu Cusi Yupanqui then sent ambassadors to the Lord 
Viceroy in the city of Cuzco, saying that he was very 
desirous of becoming a Christian, owing to having' seen 
the grandeur and majesty displayed by the Christians in 
matters connected with divine worship. 

As he was the Lord Inca of that land, he requested 
his Excellency to have the kindness to send him ministers 
who would instruct him respecting the holy catholic church ; 
as well as some persons w*ho would teach and explain to 
him the rules of urbanity and courtesy that, after he had 
been instructed and trained, he might come to the city 
of Cuzco and offer obedience to his Majesty, and to his 
Excellency in his royal name. 

Don Francisco de Toledo, full of joy and delight, called 
together the prelates of the monastic orders, with the 
members of the cathedral chapter and the magistracy of 
the city, and the words he spoke to them showed his 
pleasure. He gave them all to understand (like so prudent 
a Lord) the arrival of the new message which the Inca 
Titu Cusi Yupanqui had sent by his ambassadors, and that 
he would much like to send some religious priests to instruct 
the Inca, as well as some secular persons to accompany 
them, so that he might also be taught the customs of a 
court, and be trained in all things that were due to his 
position as the Inca. Each one of the prelates of the 



EMBASSY TO TITU CUSI YUPANQUI 211 

religious orders offered to appoint one or two monks from 
their convents. 

Finally the persons chosen for this good work were the 
Father Friar Juano de Vivero*, at that time Prior of the 
Convent of St Augustine, and Friar Diego Ortiz* (whom 
they afterwards martyred). The Lord Viceroy sent, as 
his Ambassadors, a citizen of Cuzco named Atilano de 
Aflaya, a grave gentleman with an affable address and 
versed in the language of the Indians ; Diego Rodriguez 
de Figueroa as Chief Magistrate, conferring upon him the 
privilege of bearing that staff of office during his life ; and 
Francisco de las Veredas, public notar>', a very courteous 
and discreet cavalier ; that they might minister to the said 
Titu Cusi Yupanqui, and instruct him. As mayor-domo 
and master of the household a mestizo native of Cuzco, 
named Pedro Pando, was chosen, a great talker in their 
language. This was in the year 1571. 

After the festivals on the occasion of the baptism of 
Don Melchior Carlos Inca, son of Don Carlos Inca and 
Dofta Maria de Esquivel his wife (whom God pardon), to 
whom his Majesty the King our Lord has shown great 
favours, including the habit of Santiago and 10,000 ducats 
of rent in Spain, the embassy set out Don Francisco de 



' Juan de Vivero was a native of Valladolid, of an ancient Galician 
family, descended from Froila, King of Oviedo. He took the habit of 
St Augustine at Salamanca, and went out to Peru in 1557. He went 
to Cuzco and was the founder and first prelate of the Augustine 
monastery there, in 1559. The Marquis of Canetc committed to 
Vivero the duty of converting the Inca Sayri Tupac, and the baptism 
took place in 1558. Vivero accompanied the Viceroy Toledo in his 
visitations. His services were appreciated by Philip II who offered 
him a bishopric, which he declined. He returned to Spain and died 
at Toledo in 1577. 

* Diego Ortiz was bom near Seville, and came to Peru in 1560 as 
an Aujg^ustine friar. He was occupied for years in teaching and 
catechizing the Indians. When the Spaniards occupied Vilcapampa, 
the body of Ortiz was buried in the church they built, but in 1 598 the 
Augustine friars removed it to Cuzco. Father Fulgencio Baldani 
wrote a life of Diego Ortiz in Italian. 

J4— 2 



212 DISCOURSE OF PEDRO PANDO 

Toledo sent with it many presents such as velvets, bro- 
cades, and linen for the adornment of the Inca's person 
and house ; as well as provision of wines, raisins, figs 
and almonds, with other valuable things which were all 
joyfully received by Titu Cusi Yupanqui. He showed 
them to his principal courtiers as the gifts which the Lord 
Viceroy had sent by his ambassadors. He ordered all his 
vassals to show respect and hospitality to those who had 
brought the presents, as persons coming from so great 
a prince. The interpreter Pedro Pando explained to him 
that they should treat the Priests with honour, respect and 
veneration because they were ministers of another great 
Prince who was the Lord of Heaven. On earth they were 
Ministers of His Holiness the Roman Pontiff. He said 
that they had come, at the will of the Viceroy and in the 
service of God our Lord, to catechize, indoctrinate, baptize, 
say mass, and publicly preach the evangelical law ; so as 
to bring them to our holy catholic faith. For, he told 
them, the Inca had hitherto been a slave of the devil, 
worshipping the Sun which was one of God's creatures, not 
a creator but created for the good of men. He gave them 
to understand that their religion was idolatry. Such were 
the hills, the huacaSy and the apachitas\ which are heaps of 
stones made by the Indians on certain great cliflTs and 
rocks. They have a custom of throwing the coca, which 
they hold in such estimation, on these heaps, carrying it in 
their mouths solely with the object of offering it on the 
said apachitas. They say that they leave there all the 
fatigue of the road. Others leave their tisutos, which in our 
language means shoes. He went on to say that the said 
Fathers, and the others who were in Christendom, were 
respected, reverenced, and esteemed, and held in great 
veneration by the Kings and great Lords, because they 

* Apacheta or pacheta was a heap of stones at the summit of a pass^ 



POSITION OF TUPAC AMARU 21 3 

were ministers of God, and did not occupy themselves in 
anything but the sacred work of the King of Heaven, that 
they were people who were held in such estimation by all 
the princes and powers of the earth, that they went down 
on their knees in their presence, and kissed their hands. 
He added that they had such influence with God that they 
received him in their hands from heaven, when they put 
him on the altar. They are consecrated with holy oil, and 
are permitted to treat familiarly with the Lord of heaven 
and earth, which the Emperor and all the other Monarchs 
in the world cannot do. They are blessed by all because 
they themselves bless the people and pardon by the 
authority of Almighty God, absolving and cleansing men 
from their sins and confessing them as the lieutenants of 
Jesus Christ, the Lord and Creator of all things in the 
universe. 

As I have already said, this said province was dis- 
covered in the year 1571, through the same Titu Cusi 
Yupanqui having, God permitting, sent his ambassadors. 
He had seized and usurped the lordship of Tupac Amaru 
Inca, the natural and legitimate Lord of that land (he 
being a bastard) having no right For the true Lord was 
the said Tupac Amaru Inca, his brother. Being a youth 
without experience his illegitimate brother oppressed him, 
and imprisoned him with the chosen virgins and their 
matrons in the House of the Sun, where he was when the 
Lord Viceroy Don Francisco de Toledo sent his embassy. 
The ambassadors persuaded Titu Cusi Yupanqui, with 
loving words and rich presents, to leave that province of 
Vilcapampa and come to the city of Cuzco to offer 
obedience to his Majesty, and to his Excellency in the 
royal name, as the said Inca had proposed to do through 
his envoys. He determined to comply but, owing to a fit 
of obstinacy, he delayed his departure for some time, 
putting it off from one day to another. The Father Friar 



214 DEATH OF TITU CUSI YUPANQUI 

Juan de Vivero, seeing the perversity of the Inca, returned 
to Cuzco with Atilano de Aftaya, Di^o Rodriguez de 
Figueroa, Chief Magistrate, and Francisco de las Veredas. 
The Father Friar Diego Ortiz and Pedro Pando remained 
with the Inca. 

The returning ambassadors reported what had taken 
place to his Excellency, who was piqued, as it appeared to 
him that the Inca was making fun of his person and 
authority. He ordered the Father Friar Juan de Vivero 
and Diego Rodriguez de Figueroa to go back with the 
wand of royal justice, that as chief magistrate he might 
overcome all difficulties, and bring the matter to a con- 
clusion. He also sent Atilano de Afiaya to administer the 
affairs connected with the Inca's property and person. 

While these departures and returns were being arranged, 
Titu Cusi Yupanqui fell ill and was on the point of death. 
When the Indians saw his danger they said to the Father 
Friar Diego Ortiz that, as he was the Minister of God, he 
must ask Him to cure the said Inca of that infirmity. He 
replied that he would do so every day, and that if it was 
His pleasure God would restore him to health, and if not 
all would be in conformity with His will. For His Majesty 
knew what was best for the salvation of souls. For the 
Inca, at his own request, had been baptized by the Father 
Friar Juan de Vivero in the said province of Vilcapampa, 
receiving the name of Don Felipe Titu Cusi Yupanqui. 
As a baptized Christian the Fathers said a mass every day. 
The chapel in which they performed these services was 
near my house and on my own land in the place called 
Puquiura, near the metal works of Don Crist6val de 
Albomoz, formerly Precentor of the cathedral of Cuzco. 

Affairs being in this state, the Inca died. When his 
chief people and captains saw that the Inca Don Felipe 
Titu Cusi Yupanqui was dead, and that the prayers and 
sacrifices of the said Father Friar Diego Ortiz were of no 



DEATHS OF FRIAR ORTIZ AND PANDO 215 

avail, an Indian named Quispi, who is still living, came to 
the said Friar, and asked him why his God had not cured 
the Inca if he was so powerful? and, without giving the 
Father time to answer, the Indian struck him. Our Lord 
permitted that his hand and his arm up to the shoulder 
should wither. It is dried up to this day, and the Indian 
knew his sin. The Friar went down on his knees, and 
turned the other cheek to the smiter. He received another 
blow and they tied his hands behind his back and dragged 
him along. They opened a place under the beard with 
a kind of knife which they call tumi, and fastened a rope 
in his mouth by which they dragged him, making him 
suffer an unheard of martyrdom. The blessed Father took 
it smiling, with his eyes raised to heaven. His age was 33, 
a man of holy life and fame, for he had performed many 
and great miracles in that province, as well on women 
as on children and other persons. His body remained 
fragrant, being placed in a box of cedar, lined with crimson 
satin, in the tabernacle of the convent of St Augustine, in 
the city of Cuzco, on the gospel side of the principal 
chapel of the transept. On the same day they killed the 
interpreter Pedro Pando with unheard of cruelties, like 
barbarous people without laws or beliefs. 

After they had performed certain ceremonies which the 
Incas had established on the occasions of the interment of 
the Lords of that land, which they called Purucaya} in 
their language, meaning the honours only shown to the 
Incas, they brought out the insignia of their Sovereigns. 
These were: 

Tumi— The battle axe Yacolla— Robe 

Chuqui— The lance ACHIHUA — The parasol of 

Chipana — Bracelet various colours wonder- 

Llautu — The fringe fully worked 

* General moamings on the death of an Inca. 



2l6 ACCESSION OF TUPAC AMARU 

HUALLCANCA— The shield Mascapaychu— The crown 
USUTA— The shoes HUANTUY— The litter. 

DUHO*— The throne 

Carrying each of the insignia in the hands of the 
greatest lords in deep mourning, with muffled drums, and 
sounds of grief, they proceeded to the House of the Sun, 
where was the Inca Tupac Amaru, the true and legitimate 
Lord, brother of the now deceased Titu Cusi Yupanqui. 
Tupac Amaru was with the Acllus or selected women. 
These Acllus were women chosen for the service of the 
Sun, under the Mama-aitKis, who were matrons to keep 
guard over them, for they were very beautiful 

The said Inca Tupac Amaru was there in the fortress 
of Pitcos, which is on a very high mountain whence the view 
commanded a great part of the province of Vilcapampa. 
Here there was an extensive level space, with very sump- 
tuous and majestic buildings, erected with great skill and 
art, all the lintels of the doors, as well the principal as 
the ordinary ones, being of marble, elaborately carved. 

They took the Inca Tupac Amaru out of this place, and 
did him homage as their natural Lord, telling what had 
happened with respect to the Father Friar Diego Ortiz 
and Pedro Pando. I am unable to tell your Excellency 
what then happened. When tidings came that people 
were coming from Cuzco to act as spies', seven captains 
went out along the road to that city. One was named 
Puri Paucar. With him there was a native of the valley 
of Xauxa, a Huanca Indian of a very warlike tribe. I do 
not remember the names of the other five captains. They 
guarded the bridge of Chuqui-chaca, over the Vilcamayu 
river, which is the key to the province of Vilcapampa. 



* This form of the word is corrupt. It should be Tiana. 
> Chapas ox caunihuas. Chapa or Chapatiyoc is a sentry. The 
word is also used for a spy. Caunihua is not in Holguin or Mossi. 



DEATH OF ANAYA 217 

The Ambassador Atilano de Aftaya, with the Friar Juan 
de Vivero and Diego Rodriguez de Figueroa, was coming 
a second time to the province of Vilcapampa, with an 
embassy to Titu Cusi Yupanqui, who was dead. Friar 
Juan de Vivero and Diego Rodriguez de Figueroa, being 
in the town of Ollantay-tampu, which is on the road to 
the bridge, received certain tidings of what had happened 
there, which caused them not to wish to enter with the 
Ambassador, and they required further news before they 
went on. But Atilano de Aftaya, being a sober-minded 
man, affable in his intercourse with the Indians, did not 
desist from continuing the prosecution of the duty assigned 
to him by the Viceroy. He proceeded to the bridge of 
Chuqui-chaca : he intended to pass the night there, as 
there was a house for him to lodge in, and pasture for his 
horses. After he had put in order all that he brought as 
presents and provisions for the Inca, he saw the Peruvian 
captains approaching with hostile determination and ready 
for war. Before they could arrive an Indian came appa- 
rently to warn him of what had happened. Not trusting 
them, he ordered a negro servant to saddle a good mule, 
gave him a token of gold, with orders to return quickly 
to the city of Cuzco and deliver it to Dofla Juana 
Machuca, his wife, as a sign that she would never see him 
again, because this was the warning he had from the Indian 
who had disappeared, by which he knew that it was an 
angel sent from heaven. The negro went. 

The captains came to where the Ambassador was, who 
gave them to eat and drink, receiving them with much 
kindness, and giving them presents. After they had re- 
ceived this hospitality they killed him as a return for it. 
He thought it better to suffer death than to fail in the 
execution of the orders he had received from his prince. 
For he could have escaped with his negro, but he did not 
do so. 



2l8 EXPEDITION AGAINST VILCAPAMPA 

Three days afterwards the negro arrived with the sad 
news of the death of the Ambassador, and of what had 
happened to the blessed martyr Diego Ortiz and to Pedro 
Pando. When the Viceroy was informed, he called together 
the magistracy and municipality of the city of Cuzco, to 
assemble in the palace where he lodged. He announced 
the sad news that had arrived of the death of the priest 
and the others, declaring that he would despatch a warlike 
force to punish those who had taken part in the events 
described in my narrative. 

After the consultation with the said officials he adopted 
the resolution to prepare an armed force with captains and 
officers. He nominated Martin Hurtado de Arbieto* as 
general, a citizen and magistrate of the city, a leading 
knight and one of the conquerors. The Camp Master was 
Juan Alvarez Maldonado', also a citizen of Cuzco and 
governor of the province of the Chunchos. As Coadjutor 
of the council of war he named his nephew, Don Geronimo 
de Figueroa. The captains were Martin Garcia Oflez de 
Loyola', captain of the Viceroy's guard, and knight of the 

^ Martin Hurtado de Arbieto was a Biscayan. He served under 
Centeno against Gonzalo Pizarro and was wounded and taken prisoner 
at the battle of Huarina. He escaped and was with Gasca at the rout 
of Sucsahuana. He also served against Giron. He founded a new 
city in Vilcapampa. He was a magistrate of Cuzco. 

^ Juan Alvarez Maldonado was a citizen of Cuzco. He led an 
expedition into the montana of Paucartampu ; and was followed by 
Gomez de Tordoya. A dispute arose between the two expeditions and 
they fought a desperate battle. The wild Chunchos fell upon the 
survivors and killed Tordoya. Maldonado escaped by way of Cara- 
vaya, and returned to Cuzca Leon Pinelo is said, by Antonio, to 
have written a Relacion de lajortuuia de Alvarez Maldonado^ 1617. 

' Don Martin Garcia Onez de Loyola was a native of Guipuzcoa, 
of the same family as Ignatius. He had seen some service in Europe, 
and went out to Peru with the Viceroy Toledo, as the captain of his 
guard. After the Vilcapampa campaign he married the Inca Princess 
Beatriz Clara Coya, niece of Tupac Amaru, her dowry being an estate 
in the valley of Yucay. In 1579 Loyola was Governor of Potosi, and 
acquired great wealth. He raised 200 men and went with them 
to Chile ; where he was appointed Captain-General, in 1 592. He was 
killed by the Araucanian Indians who surprised his camp in 1598. By 
the Inca Princess he had an only daughter. Ana Maria Coya de 



EXPEDITION AGAINST VILCAPAMPA 219 

order of Calatrava ; Captain Ordofto Ordoftez of Valencia, 
a citizen of Lima, who went as captain of artillery ; the 
Captain Juan Ponce de Leon, a citizen of Huamanca and 
brother-in-law of the general, who was Provost Marshal ; 
Captain Don Juan Palomino^ ; Captain Don Gomez de 
Tordoya' ; Captain Don Antonio Pereyra ; Captain Mancio 
Sierra de L^uisano*; Captain Don Alonso de Mesa*, 
Lord of the town of Piedra-buena ; Captain Martin 
Dolmas, a Knight of Santiago; Captain Martin de 
Meneses, and Captain Julian de Umuran. The general 
and his captains, with their camp in order, marched from 



Loyola, who was born at Cuzco. She went to Spain in 1622 and was 
created by Philip III Marchioness of Oropesa and Yucay, with 
remainder, in default of children, to the heirs general of her uncle 
Tupac Amaru. She married Don Juan Henriquez de Borja, son 
of the Marquis of Alcanizes and of a daughter of Don Francisco 
de Borja, Duke of Gandia. Ana had three children, Juan Marquis of 
Alcanizes and Oropesa and descendant of the Incas, Alvaro, and 
Francisca married to the Marquis of Pena Alba. In the church 
of Copacabana at Lima there is a picture of the marriage of Loyola 
with the Inca princess. 

* If this is the same Juan de Palomino whose name often occurs in 
the civil wars of the conquerors, he must have been well advanced in 
years. 

* Gomez de Tordoya is the same cavalier who was at the battle of 
Chupas, and made the disastrous entry into the forests of the 
Chunchos. 

^ Mancio Sierra de Leguisano was one of the first conquerors and 
a first settler at Cuzco in 1 534. He received a golden sun as his share 
of the spoils, which he gambled away in one night. When he was 
elected a Magistrate he left off gambling, and never touched a card 
again. He served in the defence of Cuzco. He married an Inca 
Princess, Dona Beatriz Coya, and had a son Juan. But his memory 
is chiefly worthy of praise because, in his will, he recognized the 
virtues of the Indians and denounced the cruelties of his own country- 
men. His son was a schoolfellow of the Inca Garcilasso de la Vega. 

* This must have been the son of Alonso de Mesa, the conqueror 
who came to Caxamarca with Pizarro. The father was a native of the 
Canary Islands. He received 135 marcs of silver and 3350 pesos 
of gold out of Atahualpa's ransom. He became a citizen and had 
a house in Cuzco. He behaved with great gallantry during the siege, 
and at the battles of Salinas and Chupas. He did good service in the 
campaign against Gonzalo Pizarro and also opposed Giron. The son 
Alonso went to Spain, and co-operated with the Incas Garcilasso de la 
Vega and Melchior Carlos in an effort to obtain concessions for the 
Inca family. 



220 ROUT OF TUPAC AMARU 

Cuzco down the valley by Yucay and Ollantay-tampu to 
the bridge of Chuqui-chaca and province of Vilcapampa. 
The Captain Caspar de Sotelo, uncle of the President of 
Charcas Don Diego de Portugal, a very leading knight and 
native of Zamora, with Captain NuAo de Mendoza, a 
citizen of Cuzco, entered by way of Curahuasi and 
Huamancay^to stop the way if by chance the Inca should 
wish to fly by it to the province of Antahuaylla, where he 
might take shelter. Thence he might take refuge in the 
valley of Maya-marca, very near the province of the 
Pilcones', very warlike Indians inhabiting an extensive 
tract of country, which I shall mention presently. 

The force which marched from Cuzco by way of the 
valley of Yucay, reached the Chuqui-chaca bridge. Here 
they found Tupac Amaru Inca prepared, having been taken 
out of the House of the Sun, with his camp formed. 
Our troops had an encounter with his people, though the 
river was between them. For with four shots from our 
small field guns, and the arquebuses of the soldiers, the 
Peruvians were routed, and were obliged to retreat to their 
camp. Our men then occupied the bridge, which was a 
measure of no small importance for the royal force. For 
the enemy did not remember to bum and destroy the said 
bridge. God permitted this, because of the great trouble 
the Spaniards would have had in making one over the 
very full river. Leaving some of our men to guard it, and 
to forward supplies to the front, the rest of the force con- 
tinued the pursuit, the Inca and his people being routed 
and in flight. The road was narrow in the ascent, with 
forest on the right, and on the left a ravine of great depth. 
Our troops could not advance in formation of squadrons, 
but only two and two. 

The Captain Martin Garcia Oftez de Loyola, who was 

* Abancay? * Further on he has Pilcosones. 



CAPTURE OF TUPAC AMARU 221 

in the vanguard, was advancing alone like a good and well- 
armed captain, when an Inca captain, named Hualpa,came 
out of the forest without being seen by anyone, and tackled 
our captain with such an embrace that he could not get at 
his arms, the object being to hurl him down the ravine. 
He would have been dashed to pieces and hurled into the 
river, but an Indian servant of the captain, named Corillo, 
who is still alive, with property in the valley of Yucay, and 
who was then with him, drew Loyola's sword from the 
scabbard and, with much dexterity and animation, killed 
the Indian Hualpa, who was thus vanquished and failed in 
his evil intent. To this day the place where this happened 
is called "the leap of Loyola." 

Continuing the pursuit the troops arrived at a place 
called Onccoy, where there are some wide and fertile open 
spaces. Here there were herds of cattle, and llamas with 
their lambs ; at which the captains and soldiers were con- 
tented and delighted on finding supplies of meat for the 
camp. Continuing in pursuit of the enemy, many prisoners, 
both captains and common people, were taken. Being 
pressed to say what road the Inca had taken, they replied 
that he had gone inland towards the valley of Simaponte ; 
and that he was flying to the country of the Mafiaries 
Indians, a warlike tribe and his friends, where balsas and 
canoes were posted to save him and enable him to escape. 

Having received this information, the Spaniards held 
a council of war, at which Captain Martin Garcia Oftez de 
Loyola was appointed to continue the pursuit. He ac- 
cepted and went on with 50 soldiers. Loyola overtook 
the fugitives, capturing the Inca and many other prisoners. 
None escaped, because detachments were stationed all 
round. Only two Spaniards were killed. One was called 
Ribadeneira, but there is no memory of the name of the 
other. 

The Inca and the other Indians were collected and 



222 FOUNDATION OF A TOWN IN VILCAPAMPA 

brought back to the valley of Hoyara. Here the Indians 
were settled in a large village, and a city of Spaniards was 
founded. It was called San Francisco of the Victory of 
Vilcapampa for two sacred and honest reasons. The first 
was because the victory was on the 4th of October, 1571, 
the day of San Francisco, the second being the name of 
the Viceroy to whom the victory was due. Great festivities 
were held in the city of Cuzco when the news of the victory 
arrived. 

This city was founded on an extensive plain near a 
river, with an admirable climate. From the river channels 
of water were taken for the service of the city, the water 
being very good. Owing to the discovery of important 
silver mines in the hills of Huamani and Huamanape, the 
site of the city was moved nearer to the mines, to the Villa- 
rica de Argeta, which was founded by order of Don Garcia 
Hurtado de Mendoza, Marquis of Caftete, and Viceroy of 
these kingdoms. By assent of the municipality formed in 
the said city of San Francisco of the Victory, four priests 
became members of it. One was Don Crist6val de 
Albornoz, Precentor of the cathedral of Cuzco. It was 
decided by the governor that the site of the said city 
should be moved to that of Villa-rica de Argeta, which 
was at the place called Onccoy, where the Spaniards who 
first discovered this land found the flocks and herds. In 
this municipality it was resolved to send a procurator- 
general to obtain permission and the good will of Don 
Luis de VelascoS who was at that time Viceroy. For the 
negotiation there was sent as Procurator myself, Baltasar 
de Ocampo, and I came to the city and treated with the 
said Viceroy. The change of site appeared convenient for 

* Don Luis de Velasco, afterwards Marquis of Salinas, was 
Viceroy of Mexico, whence he was transferred to Peru in 1595, 
relieving the Marquis of Canete. He was Viceroy of Peru from 1 595 
to 1604, when he was relieved by the Count of Monterey. In 1609 he 
was created Marquis of Salinas by Philip III. 



THE NEW TOWN IN VILCAPAMPA 223 

the service of God our Lord and of his Majesty, and for 
the increase of his royal fifths, as well as beneficial to the 
inhabitants of the said city. Having examined the capitu- 
lations and reasons, the said Don Luis de Velasco granted 
the licence to move the city to where it is now founded, 
ordering that it should have the title and name of the city 
of San Francisco of the Victory of Vilcapampa, which was 
its first name. By this change of site I, the said Baltasar 
de Ocampo, performed a great service to God our Lord and 
his Majesty. Through my care, industry and solicitude a 
very good church was built, with its principal chapel and 
great doors. For previously there was only a small chapel 
in the city, with barely room for the citizens and miners, 
while the Indian mitayos were exposed to sun or rain. 
The sacrament is now placed on the high altar, and on the 
occasion of this divine worship our Lord was served by 
ordaining that affairs should be in much prosperity for the 
common good, and that there should be a large increase of 
the royal fifths, as will presently be mentioned. For until 
our conquest all was idolatry and worship of the devil, at 
which the majesty of God was greatly offended. The 
martyr, Father Friar Di^o Ortiz, had destroyed many 
sanctuaries from which devils were seen to come out, 
unable to resist the prayers, exhortations and exorcisms 
offered up by the said Father, and the fumigations with 
which he tormented and afflicted them. 

After the General Martin Hurtado de Arbieto left off 
using cords, he b^an the foundation of the city and named 
citizens to receive encamiendaSy among whom he divided 
more than 1500 Indians for personal service. Until he 
should make his report to Don Francisco de Toledo he 
placed things in martial order, leaving a garrison of more 
than 50 soldiers in that city. He then marched to Cuzco 
with the Inca Tupac Amaru and his captains, who were 
prisoners. On reaching the archway of Carmenca, which 



224 TUPAC AMARU BROUGHT TO CUZCO 

IS the entrance to the city of Cuzco, he marshalled all his 
troops. The said governor Juan Alvarez Maldonado, as 
Master of the Camp, chained Tupac Inca Amaru and his 
captains together. The Inca was dressed in a mantle and 
doublet of crimson velvet. His shoes were made of wool 
of the country, of several colours. The crown or head- 
dress, called mascapaychUy was on his head, with fringe over 
his forehead, this being the royal insignia of the Inca, in 
the same way as a crown is used by kings. So they pro- 
ceeded in triumph over their victory straight to the palace 
where the Viceroy Don Francisco de Toledo then lived. 
It formed the houses of Don Tristan de Silva y Guzman 
and Juan de Pancorvo Celiorigo, citizens of the city of 
Cuzco. They are the principal and best houses in the 
city, as Doctor Alonso Perez Marchan, President of 
Guadalaxara, can inform your Excellency, for he lived in 
one of them. 

In form of an ordered force, the General and his 
captains marched there in triumph, and presented their 
prisoners to the Viceroy. After his Excellency had felt 
the pleasure of conquest, he ordered that the Inca and his 
captains should be taken to the fortress which is in the 
parish of San Crist6val of the Colcampata, where the 
Viceroy's uncle, Don Luis de Toledo, was castellan. This 
fortress consisted of grand and majestic houses belonging 
to Don Crist6val PauUu Inca, citizen of Cuzco, father of 
Don Carlos Inca, and grandfather of Don Melchior Carlos 
Inca, who was born there. Don Carlos Inca was despoiled 
of them in order that they might be converted into a royal 
fortress and barrack for the city guard. The pretext was 
that he had Titu Cusi Yupanqui and Tupac Amaru Inca, 
his first cousins, concealed in his house without reporting 
their presence, at the time of the baptism. These houses 
commanded a view of the whole city of Cuzco and its 
parishes, and of more than four leagues of the valley 



CRUEL EXECUTIONS 225 

beyond, as far as the tamjni of Quispicancha, on the road to 
Potosi. 

This fortress was owned by his Majesty for many years, 
but after a lawsuit respecting the houses, brought by Don 
Melchior Carlos Inca against the crown, it was decreed 
that they should be restored to the said Don Melchior 
Carlos IncaS and they were restored. 

To return to our history : at the end of some days after 
the triumph, having considered the evidence respecting the 
deaths of the Father Friar Diego Ortiz, of Pedro Pando, 
and of the ambassador Atilano de Aftaya, the Doctor 
Gabriel de Loarte", Magistrate of this court, who was then 
Governor of the city of Cuzco, sentenced the homicidal 
captains to be hanged, and Tupac Amaru Inca to be 
beheaded. 

The sentences were executed. The captains were led 
through the streets to the place of execution, while the 
town crier proclaimed their offences. Three died in the 
public streets, and two at the foot of the gallows, because 
they had been tortured in prison until they were dying. 
Notwithstanding their condition their bodies were taken to 
comply with the law, while two, namely Ccuri Paucar and 
the Huanca Indian were hanged when still alive. 

At the end of two or three days, after being taught and 
catechized, Tupac Amaru was baptized. This was done by 



^ Melchior Carlos Inca went to Spain to seek justice for himself 
and his family from the King. The Inca Garcilasso de la Vega, the 
historian, and Alonso de Mesa the younger, co-operated with him. 
He came with a complete pedigree of the Incas in 1603. He died, 
without obtaining any of his requests, at Alcala de Henares, leaving a 
son who died young. 

* Gabriel de Loarte had been a judge at Panama and Quito, and 
was one of the four first criminal judges in the Audience of Lima, 
in 1570. He came with the Viceroy Toledo to Cuzco. He acted 
as the Viceroy's accomplice in preparing false charges against Tupac 
Amaru. Having perpetrated this crime he was sent to Huancavelica 
to seize the quicksilver mine for the government, the owner being 
robbed, and appealing to the Council of the Indies. 

M. s. 15 



226 JUDICIAL MURDER 

two monks of our Lady of Mercy. One was the first Creole 
who was born after the seige of Cuzco, named Friar Gabriel 
Alvarez de la Carrera, son of a soldier of the first conquest, 
and the other Friar Melchior Fernandez. They spoke the 
language so well that they excelled the Incas themselves, 
especially Friar Gabriel Alvarez de la Carrera. To this 
day no other has been found who could speak with such 
grace and eloquence. In short the Inca was converted, for 
the two religious were such great adepts in their office, 
that they fed the Inca, as it were, with a spoon. 

The Inca was taken from the fortress, through the 
public streets of the city, with a guard of 400 Caftari 
Indians, having their lances in their hands. The Caflaris 
were great enemies of the Incas. He was accompanied by 
the two monks, one on either side, by Father Alonso de 
Barzana, of the Company of Jesus, and by Father Molina, 
preacher to the Indies and priest of the hospital of our 
Lady of the remedies. They went along teaching and 
saying things of much consolation to the soul, until they 
reached the scaffold, which was reared on high in the 
centre of the great square, fronting the cathedral. Here 
they got down, and the fathers remained with the Inca, 
comforting his soul with holy preparation. 

The open spaces, roofs, and windows in the parishes 
of Carmenca and San Crist6val were so crowded with 
spectators that if an orange had been thrown down it could 
not have reached the ground anywhere, so closely were the 
people packed. The executioner, who was a Caflari Indian, 
having brought out the knife with which he was to behead 
Tupac Amaru, a marvellous thing happened. The whole 
crowd of natives raised such a cry of grief that it seemed as 
if the day of judgment had come, and all those of Spanish 
race did not fail to show their feelings by shedding tears of 
grief and pain. 

When the Inca beheld the scene, he only raised his 



OF TUPAC AMARU 227 

right hand on high and let it fall With a lordly mind he 
alone remained calm, and all the noise was followed by 
a silence so profound that no living soul moved, either 
among those who were in the square or among those at 
a distance. The Inca then spoke with a self-possession 
unlike one about to die. He said that now his course was 
run, and that he merited that death. He besought and 
charged all present who had children, on no account to 
curse them for any bad conduct, but only to chastise them. 
For when he was a child, having angered his mother, she 
had put a malediction on him by saying that he would end 
by being put to death and would not die a natural death ; 
and it had come true. The Fathers Carrera and Fernandez 
rebuked him, saying that his fate was the will of God and 
was not due to the curse of his mother. As these Fathers 
were, like St Paul, so eloquent in their preaching, they 
easily convinced him, and he repented of what he had said. 
He asked them all to forgave him, and that they would tell 
the Viceroy and the Magistrate that he would pray to God 
for them. 

Things being in this state along the principal streets, 
the most reverend Friar Don Agustin de la CoruftaS Bishop 
of Popayan, who was one of the famous twelve Augustine 
Friars who were the first to enter Mexico preaching the 
gospel ; Father Friar Gonzalo de Mendoza, Provincial of 
the order of our Lady of Mercy ; Father Friar Francisco 



^ Friar Agustin de la Coruna y Gormaz was a native of Coruna, 
son of Hernando de Gormaz and Catalina de Velasco. He took 
the Augustine habit at Salamanca in 1 524, and went to Mexico with 
other friars in 1533, where he was Prior of several convents and 
Provincial in 1560. He returned to Spain to urge the better treatment 
of the Indians, and was consecrated Bishop of Popayan where he 
went to reside. But in 1567 he had to go to Lima to be present at the 
'second Council, and he afterwards assisted the Viceroy Toledo in his 
visitation, "and the preparation of his " Ordinances." He did all in his 
power to prevent the murder of Tupac Amaru, and returned to his 
diocese declining to be longer associated with Toledo. He died at 
Timana in 1590. 

15—2 



228 DEATH OF TUPAC AMARU 

Corrol, Prior of St Augustin in this city ; Father Friar 
Gabriel de Oviedo, Prior of San Domingo ; Father Friar 
Francisco Vdez, Guardian of San Francisco ; Father Friar 
Geronimo de Villa Carrilto, Provincial of San Francisco ; 
Father Friar Gonzalo Baltastero, Vicar Provincial of the 
Order of Mercy ; and Father Luis Lopez, Rector of the 
Company of Jesus, all went to the Viceroy. They went 
down on their knees and besought him to show mercy and 
spare the life of the Inca. They urged that he should be 
sent to Spain to be judged by the King in person. But 
no prayers could prevail with the Viceroy. 

Juan de Soto, chief officer of the court and a servant of 
his Excellency, was sent on horseback with a pole to clear 
the way, galloping furiously and riding down all kinds of 
people. He ordered the Inca's head to be cut off at once, 
in the name of the Viceroy. The Inca then received con- 
solation from the Fathers who were at his side and, taking 
leave of all, he put his head on the block, like a lamb. The 
executioner then came forward and, taking the hair in his 
left hand, he severed the head with a knife at one blow, and 
held it on high for all to see As the head was severed 
the bells of the cathedral began to ring, and were followed 
by those of all the monasteries and parish churches in 
the city. The execution caused the greatest sorrow and 
brought tears to all eyes. 

They carried the body of Tupac Amaru to the house of 
Dofla Maria Cusi Huarcay, the Inca's mother and aunt, for 
brother was married to sister in heathen times. After- 
wards, by a bull of Pope Paul III, the marriage was 
ratified by Friar Geronimo de Loaysa, first Archbishop 
of Lima, being then Viceroy Don Andres Hurtado de 
Mendoza, Marquis of Caftete and Chief Guard of Cuenca. 
On the next day, after mass, the body of the Inca was 
interred in the high chapel of the cathedral, the services 
being performed by the chapter. Pontifical mass was said 



GRIEF OF THE PEOPLE 229 

by the Bishop Agustin de la Corufla. The epistle was 
read by the Canon Juan de Vera, the gospel by the Canon 
Estevan de Villalom. All the religious of the city attended 
the funeral, and each one said his vigils and joined in the 
singing at the mass, in presence of the corpse. There 
had been a great council before he was baptized, when on 
the point of being taken out to be beheaded. Now there 
was a universal feeling of sorrow; and the masses were 
sung, with the organ, as for a Lord and Inca. 

On the 9th day all the funeral honours were repeated, 
the religious coming to join in the vigils and masses of 
their own accord ; from which it may be inferred that the 
Inca is with God our Lord. 

When the head was cut off, it was put on a spike, and 
set up on the same scaffold in the great square, where the 
execution had taken place. There it became each day 
more beautiful, the Inca having had a plain face in life. 
The Indians came by night to worship the head of their 
Inca. At last, one night, towards the dawn, Juan Sierra^ 
came to his window and saw the idolatries practised by 
the people. He reported it to Don Francisco de Toledo, 
who then ordered the head to be taken down and buried 
with the body. This was done with no less solemnity than 
on the occasion of the interment of the body. Thus the 
inconvenience of the Inca's head being worshipped by the 
people was avoided. In this city there is a monk of our 
Lady of Mercy, named Father Nicolas de los dichos, who 
witnessed all I have here related, touched it with his hands, 
trod there with his feet, and heard everything. Your 
Excellency can well inform yourself from him, as he pos- 
sesses a very good memory, and is an excellent authority 
on all these events, being an eye-witness of good repute*. 

^ Juan Sierra de Leguizamo. See p. 219 and footnote. 
' The judicial murder of the Inca Tupac Amaru was a blunder 
as well as a crime. King Philip II seems to have heard of it in- 



230 A RICH MAN OF VILCAPAMPA 

Returning to our subject, which is to give an account to 
your Excellency of the disposition of the land and the 
government of the province of Vilcapampa, I have to 
inform your Excellency that this land covers more than 
300 leagues, with much fertile and fairly level spaces. The 
discovered and conquered part is suited for the cultivation 
of sugar cane in the valleys, with an annual rent making a 
large sum of money. For one inhabitant alone, named 
Toribio de Bustamante, has an annual rent, free of all 
demands, of $10,000. He is a man who has built two 
houses in Cuzco for God and his servants, a grand thing, 
much to be admired. One is a monastery for bare foot 
Franciscans, all complete with ornaments necessary for the 
performance of divine service. The best part of his labours 
is for the adornment of the church ; for all wood work for 
the doors, windows and chapels is of very fine cedar from 
the province of Vilcapampa. At present he is building a 
convent for Dominican nuns of our Lady of the remedies 
which, when finished, will not be less curious and perfect 
than the monastery for the bare foot Franciscans. These 
are heroic works, worthy of praise throughout the world. 



directly, most probably through the ecclesiastical dignitaries who 
protested against it. Judging from the narrative of Sarmiento the 
Viceroy kept silence. Philip resented the action of Toledo, who was 
disgraced on his return. 

Tupac Amaru was the legitimate son of Inca Manco^ grandson of 
Huayna Ccapac, and the rightful Sovereign of Peru. 

Dr Justiniani, the descendant of this Inca's sister, had a portrait of 
Tupac Amaru in 1853 with these words under it — Ccollanap Pacha- 
camac ricuay auccacunac yahuamiy hichascancuta (Creator of the 
world behold how my enemies spill my blood). 

The youthful Inca had two little daughters, Juan a and Magdalena, 
who found a refuge with Dr Loaysa, the Archbishop of Lima. Juana 
married the Curaca of Surimani named Condorcanqui. Their 
descendant Jos^ Gabriel Condorcanc^ui, Cacique or Curaca of 
Surimani and Tungasuca, was bom in 1742. rie established his 
claim to the Marquisate of Oropesa, before the Royal Audience of 
Lima in 1770. Taking the name of Tupac Amaru he led the Indian 
revolt in 1780, and suffered death by torture in the great square 
of Cuzco on May i8th, 1781. Two of his sons were put to death with 
him, and the youngest was sent to Spain and died in prison. 



PRODUCTS OF VILCAPAMPA 23 1 

he having been a soldier who arrived very poor. Yet he 
has done such good work that many nobles and grandees 
of Spain could not have shown more generosity than this 
soldier. He had been kept a prisoner for more than two 
years by the savages on the island of Dominica, and was 
many times in danger of his life, especially when his 
captors had their drinking bouts. But it pleased God that 
a fleet of Castille should come to the island, and boats 
came on shore for water. He ran shouting to the 
Spaniards, with nothing on but plantain leaves, and thus 
he escaped to perform works so lofty and worthy that they 
deserve eternal memory. All this has happened from his 
being a citizen of San Francisco of the Victory of Vilca- 
pampa. 

Besides this soldier there are others who have factories 
of much grandeur and richness. The province is im- 
portant both for its size and fertility. For this reason 
it may be understood why this land was chosen by the 
Incas, it being the richest and most opulent in all Peru. 

This province has farms for coca, lands for wheat, 
barley, potatoes, yucas and all kinds of vegetables, and 
many hills containing rich lodes of silver, besides the mines 
on the hill of Huamani and Huamanape. A very great 
quantity of silver was taken out of these mines in the time 
of the Marquis Don Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza^ and of 
Don Luis de Velasco^ which largely increased the royal 
fifths of his Majesty. There have been years when they 
have yielded to the royal treasury over $30,000, with only 
300 Indians subjected to forced labour ; this being the total 
amount of labour for the mines, factories, and to cut wood 
and make charcoal. The 200 from the province of Anda- 
huaylas the great', of the royal crown, and the 100 of the 

1 Viceroy from 1 590 to 1 596. 
* Viceroy from 1596 to 1604. 
3 Andahuaylas is an extensive and fertile valley on the road from 



232 SUPPOSED RICHES OF VILCAPAMPA 

province of Chumpivilcas from the encomienda of Don 
Diego de Vargas de Carbazal were taken away as your 
Excellency well knows. The 200 of Andahuaylas were 1 
transferred to the quicksilver mines of Huancavelica by | 
order of the Count of Monterey', who was not informed of 
the great injury this would cause to the royal fifths, and to 
the settlers and owners of mines in this province. The 
information should have come from the Governor and the 
royal officers of Cuzco, where the fifths were calculated by 
provision of the Viceroys, that they might have an annual 
account of the fifths. Serious losses have been the result, 
of which your Excellency may satisfy yourself by calling 
for a return from the royal official judges of Cuzco, of the 
fifths for each year. The truth will then be known. 

There is in this province, most excellent Lord, a report 
concerning great treasure in a huaca of the Incas of which 
there are expectations that it will be discovered, our Lord 
being served, together with a ravine yielding gold, called the 
ravine of Purumata. From this place the Spaniards have 
already taken a great quantity of very fine gold. Four 
years ago a nugget was found the size of a hen's ^;g. 
When the Camp Master Diego Garcia de Paredes was 
Governor he took to Spain a purse full of bits of gold, 
including the one just mentioned, that the King might see 
them. These riches are not found owing to the want of 
Indians; and it is desired beyond measure that, in the 
time of your Excellency, favoured by the help of your 
Excellency in granting some Indians for the province, 
great riches may be found. It will be the most important 
thing that has happened in this kingdom, for by it all these 



Ayacucho to Cuzco. Ocampo calls it "the great** to distinguish 
it irovci Andahuaylas " the little," a village south of Cuzco, now odled 
Andahuaylillas. 

* Viceroy from 1604 to 1607, and predecessor of the Marquis of 
Montes Claros to whom Ocampo addresses his narrative. 



MUNIFICENCE OF RICH SPANIARDS 233 

Indies and our Spain may return to that opulence and 
grandeur they enjoyed at the beginning, when these pro- 
vinces of Peru were first discovered. There then went to 
Spain very powerful men by reason of their estates and 
possessions. When necessitous knights came to them to 
ask for charity, they gave it with minds greater than those 
of most men, not considering whether they or their children 
would be losers ; and they gave $3000 or $4000 to the 
necessitous, thinking nothing of it. 

In these days a man's wealth is well placed, when he is 
not considered poor, and performs deeds worthy of praise. 
There was a knight, a citizen of Cuzco named Don Luis 
Palomino, who, having given a soldier as a present (Dofta 
Mayor Palomino his sister being a maiden) a very hand- 
some harpsichord, this cavalier gave in return 2000 cestos of 
coca placed in Potosi, at a time when coca was worth Si 2 
to $14 the cesto. For this soldier rose from great poverty, 
but went back to Castille very rich and influential. 

The same knight performed another piece of magnifi- 
cence, publicly in the great square, being then an ordinary 
magistrate of the city of Cuzco. Being on horseback a 
soldier came to him and besought him to order an official 
to return his sword which he had taken from him on the 
previous night, and offered to let him have it back for a 
mark, which he did not care to pay. The good knight 
told him that such things were perquisites of the officials, 
and he took his own sword with a belt embroidered in gold 
and pearls, and all the fittings of silver gilt, and gave it to 
the soldier that the official might not lose his perquisite on 
the other sword, though this one was worth an ingot of 
silver. When the minister of justice saw the magistrate's 
very munificent act, he returned the soldier s sword without 
demanding any fee, and the soldier restored the rich sword 
to its master. These things deserve to be recorded in 
history and kept in eternal memory, for there is nothing 



234 COUNTRY OF THE MAJ^ARIES 

that shines so brightly as a generous mind doing a good 
work. As the theolc^ans say, a good work has four 
effects on him who performs it. The first is to make him 
good as the act he has performed is good. The second is 
to cure the vices which would lead him to act in a contrary 
way. The third and greater effect is to make him deserve 
grace and glory. The fourth is to give satisfaction for the 
pain he may have to suffer in this world or in purgatory. 
I could tell your Excellency many other things about the 
prodigality of citizens in this kingdom, but I leave them in 
order to avoid prolixity. 

The province of Maftaries, most excellent prince, is one 
of Indians friendly to our Spanish nation. The people are 
fair and well disposed, amatory both men and women, the 
latter being very beautiful. All are well and honestly 
dressed. Their country is very pleasant and fertile, with 
extensive grounds, suited for growing all kinds of fruits, 
and corn, excellent for sugar cane, with delightful rivers of 
sweet water, abundant pastures for flocks and herds, and of 
great extent. The soldiers who enter it will do so without 
shedding blood, skirmishes and encounters being un- 
necessary, for they will be received with affability, love, 
and charity. Though they will have their arms, death,' 
cruelties and atrocities should not occur as in former times, 
for they will be given what they want without resistance. 
The occupation of this province would cause a lai^e exten- 
sion of the royal patrimony and sovereignty. 

The reason that I am moved to say this is that I was 
an eye-witness. After the pacification of the province of 
Vilcapampa and the foundation of the city, when all the 
Indian population had become peaceful and quiet, two 
captains with only two soldiers, named Captain Anton de 
Alvarez and Captain Alonso Suarez, with Pedro Gudiilo, 
a Portuguese, and another soldier whose name I do not 
remember, penetrated into the country of the Maftaries. 



THE WARLIKE PTLCOSONES 235 

The people received them with much wilh'ngness and love, 
giving them plenty of food, vclcos de anta (tapirs), peccaries, 
which have their navels on their backs, turkeys, ducks and 
other game, fish in great quantity. They were also r^aled 
with yuca, mani, maize toasted and boiled, many delicious 
fruits of that land, especially from trees planted by the 
Indians yielding paltaSy guayavas^ paccays, quantities of 
almonds much larger and better than those of Castille, and 
trees of c(uao. 

The Indians showed themselves to be so affable and 
friendly that the four Spaniards brought an image of our 
Lady on canvas and, to commend them to God, they 
ordered the Indians to construct a small chapel. They did 
this, placed the picture in the chapel, and set up a great 
cross outside, on a heap of stones, and other smaller crosses 
inside. Here they prayed and commended themselves to 
God every morning and also in the afternoons. Seeing 
this devotion the Indians came to the chapel to perform 
acts of prayer, raising their hands to heaven and striking 
their breasts. The Spaniards rejoiced to see them so 
friendly and so desirous to become Christians. When 
these four soldiers went back to the province of Vilca- 
pampa, the principal chief, called Apu, which means lord 
or governor, prayed that they would receive them as their 
vassals ; and if they wanted to enter the province of Pilco- 
sones with arms, they could easily do so, as it was near. 
The chief gave his word that he would assist them in an 
enterprise against these warlike Indians. There were two 
reasons for this invasion. One was to make them Christians 
that they might know the word of God ; and the other was 
to stop the injuries done by the Pilcosones to the Maftaries. 

After more than eight years the governor, owing to 
this report, wrote to Don Martin Henriquez, Viceroy of 
these kingdoms S asking for permission to go in person 

' Viceroy from 1581 to 1583, the successor of Tolcda 



236 EXPEDITION AGAINST THE PILCOSONES 

to discover these provinces of the Pilcosones and Yscay- 
singas, concerning which the Maftaries gave information to 
the said captains Anton de Alvarez and Alonso Saurez. 
He reported that he could raise a force, and he recapitu- 
lated certain reasons for the enterprise being of service to 
his Majesty. 

About a hundred soldiers were raised in the city of 
Cuzco and neighbouring valleys, besides mestizos, mulattos, 
and free negroes. With these an entry might be made, for 
the Spaniards are very good soldiers. Starting on our 
enterprise from the valley of Quillapampa, we descended 
the river in balsas and canoes made with great trouble and 
cost, which appeared like an armed fleet. After having 
navigated for four or five days, we lost them at some rapids 
formed in the turns which the river makes, on rocks and 
shoals, the Captain Anduaca, and several Spaniards, Indians, 
and mulattos being drowned. There were lost also the 
cash belonging to the Governor, the ornaments of the 
Father Pedro de Cartagena of the Company of Jesus, 
brother of Don Fernando de Cartagena, a citizen of Cuzco ; 
and of Dr Montoya Romano, of the said Company, The 
soldiers also lost much property. We landed on a beach 
and held a council of war. 

It was agreed that we should make a road through the 
forest with wood knives and axes. We suffered from 
hunger, exposure and cold, our clothes being torn to pieces 
by thorns on the trees, and we were left without any cover- 
ing or food. For it is a wild country without road. If 
a hundred friendly Maflaries, who had been apprised by 
the Governor that he was coming to conquer the Pilcosones, 
had not come to our rescue we should all have perished. 

Coming in search of us with two of their chiefs, they 
brought us succour, and put us on the Inca road to the land 
of the Pilcosones, with supplies. 

If your Excellency would be serv^ed that in this time of 



FIGHT WITH THE PILCOSONES 237 

your government all that land should be conquered with 
little cost to his Majesty, you might nominate a General, 
Camp Master, and Officers. With all my grey hairs and 
advanced age I would take order to join the expedition. 
The roads in the jurisdiction of the city of Huamanca 
being open, the conquest would be easy, and the virile 
energy which God has given me, combined with industry 
and the experience I possess, would ensure the enterprise 
having a better result than before. 

Treating of the Pilcosones I say, most excellent Lord, 
that we received information from a Pilcosone Indian, 
named Oparo, that we had arrived near their settlements. 
But he was treacherous, deserting us in the night We 
were in a convenient place where we made a good fort, with 
trenches, bastions at the angles, and loopholes in all parts 
whence to discharge the arquebuses. The Pilcosone came 
with great demonstrations of peace, simulating profound 
humility, and bringing provisions for the camp. He 
promised the Governor obedience, and embraced him with 
smiles and professions of content. He also embraced me 
as Camp Master. In this kingdom it is the custom to give 
this title to principal and meritorious soldiers, there not 
being over many such in the militia. When we least 
expected it, one day at two in the afternoon, they gave us a 
volley of arrows and darts. They hit the Governor badly, and 
other soldiers, who went to guard the door of the fort, where 
he had stationed himself as a spirited and valiant knight. 

The Governor was made into a San Sebastian with 
arrows that stuck in his escaupiL This is harness made of 
cotton cloth well stuffed with wool until it resists as well as 
steel. With a partisan in his hand (being a large man) he 
did more even than Mucius Scaevola, wounding and killing 
with great valour and elevation of his knightly spirit ; 
showing him to be Hurtado and Mendoza by the heroic 
deeds which are worthy of eternal memory. 



238 SPANIARDS ROUTED BY THE PILCOSONES 

We were warned by the Maftaries of the great risk we 
ran from being so reduced in numbers and without re- 
sources. The shipwreck we suffered in the river caused the 
loss of property and supplies, and the death of soldiers 
We were torn by the forest, in want of food and the means 
of nourishing our bodies. The enemy was numerous. In 
the village called Hatun Pilcosone alone they were in over- 
powering force. For great and small had taken up arms, 
sending notice throughout the province, and they were a 
very warlike people. 

It was, therefore, resolved to raise the camp, and retreat 
in all haste by the Inca road which the Maftaries had 
shown us. Leaving their province on one side, we entered 
our own, more that the Fathers of the Company might be 
placed in safety than from fear of our own lives. If we 
had not suflfered such great losses of powder, shields, and 
muskets, we did not doubt that we should have conquered 
those people, even if they had been much more warlike 
than they were. According to the information we collected, 
and from a sight of their farms and cultivation, and of the 
many flocks, and the lay of the land, it appeared to us that 
they were a hill people, in a country of very g^reat mineral 
wealth, and that there were also people of the valleys where 
there was a marvellous climate for the cultivation of grains 
and sugar cane. It is land with abundant streams of 
water, and a great river having quantities of fish. 

Returning to our campaign, most excellent Lord, if we 
had not been rescued and guided by those friends, not 
a single one of us would have come out alive, owing to the 
overpowering numbers of our enemies, who would have 
inflicted cruel deaths upon us without sparing one. God 
our Lord delivered us from that danger*. 

* The Manaries and Pilcosones were two forest tribes near the 
skirts of the mountains, between the rivers Vilcamayu and Apurimac 
in their lower courses. The Manaries are mentioned by Sarmientoas 



INSURRECTION IN VILCAPAMPA 239 

It is eight years, most excellent LortI, since we were 
visited by the worst calamity it was possible for us to suffer, 
over and above the misfortunes and labours this city has 
had to endure, caused by the necessity for changing the 
site which has already been mentioned. In this province 
there are many factories all peopled by African slaves, 
whose disposition is soul-less, without God or conscience. 
We saw six Spaniards and one priest (nephew of the pre- 
centor Don Crist6val de Albomoz), engaged in a great 
conflict, the commencement of a general rising of negroes 
of all the factories in the valleys of Quillapampa, HondarA, 
Amaypampa and Huayupampa'. They were working in 
concert with the negroes of Cuzco, Arequipa, and Hua- 
manca, that they might enter into that land and convert it 
into another Vallano, of which your Excellency will have 
had notice. I received warnings as Magistrate of the Holy 
Brotherhood, a post I then held, and had done for 14 years 
with orders from the Viceroy, Marquis of Caftete and Don 
Luis de Velasco, which I now submit. I had ordered the 
imprisonment of a woman, wife of a negro highwayman, 
and of another Indian woman who was apprehended in 
a sugar cane farm, by my order, because they had murdered 
their two Indian husbands and a free mulatto, robbing them 
of their clothes and their provisions in the farms where 
they were killed. The actual murderers were an Indian 
Pilcosone named Francisco Chichima, and a negro slave of 
the widow of Melchior del Pero, who had a factory there. 

I had them in irons, and threatened that next day they 
would be quartered unless they told me where were their 
husbands. The n^ress, fearing death, and having seen 
justice executed on the others that same night, the captain 
Nicolas de Ormachea being with me, a person who possessed 

occupying country near the banks of the Tono. I have not met with 
the name of Pilcosones in any other writer. 
^ Huayupata? 



240 INSURRECTION IN VILCAPAMPA 

a lai^e estate, shtf called to him, and b^ged him to ask me 
not to quarter her if she told a truth which involved the 
lives of all the owners of factories and mayor-domos, besides 
many others. I went to where the prisoners were secured, 
and asked the said captain Ormachea what the negress had 
told him, although I had heard everything. He answered 
that she was a drunken lying creature who did not know 
what she was saying. In order to find out the truth I used 
flattering words, telling her that if she would speak the 
truth I would not only release her, but also give her liberty 
in the name of his Majesty. She then told me that, in the 
middle of that night, all the negroes of Ormachea and of 
Toribio de Bustamente, and those of the widow of Melchior 
del Pero and of all the other factories in the valleys of 
Hondari, Amaypampa, and Huayupampa, had conspired 
among themselves, and. w^ith the negroes of the cities of 
Cuzco, Arequipa, and Huamanca, to rise that night 

This they actually did, burning the houses and factory 
of Toribio de Bustamente, whom they intended to have 
killed. That night they killed 24 Indians and a chief who 
came to put out the fire. Then they intended to kill 
Toribio de Bustamente, and four Spaniards and a priest 
who were with him. Next, at midnight, they would attack 
Captain Ormachea and all that were with him. 

Asking her how she knew this, she declared on oath 
that on Sundays and festivals when the negroes assembled 
for drinking bouts, they talked in their mother tongue, and 
went about to collect arms and stores of maize, mani^ and 
oca which they had in granaries in the forests. 

Using good diligence I sent the tidings to the Governor 
Diego de Aquilar y de Cordova at Vilcapampa by two 
Indians who were very well paid, and two negroes bom in 
the house. The latter never appeared again, for they were 
killed and thrown into the river. But the Indians, knowing^ 
the country, reached Vilcapampa and gave the message. 



A BRAVE PILCOSONE 24I 

As soon as succour arrived we made a wooden fort, in 
which we assembled a number of Indian natives, posting 
sentries that we might not be taken by surprise. Here we 
were besieged for 30 days, defending ourselves with muskets 
and other arms. The Indians pointed out to us the direc- 
tion from the top of the fort, without showing their faces. 
The Governor Don Diego de Aquilar y Cordova sent 50 
well armed soldiers with their muskets, ammunition, and a 
good supply of cheese, biscuit, dried mutton, maize, and 
other things ; also a number of friendly Indians with bows 
and arrows. With this we were able to raise the seige and 
put down the mutiny. For certain reasons given by Toribio 
de Bustamente, who was then building the bare foot 
monastery at Cuzco, the negroes cutting cedars and other 
trees for the work, justice was only executed on eight or ten 
of the ringleaders, and on the Pilcosone Indian, Francisco 
Chichima, who was one of the murderers, and the most 
bellicose Indian we ever had to do with in our time. His 
valour was such that the negroes themselves chose him as 
their captain, and obeyed his orders, though generally 
Indians were down-trodden by the negroes, with ill-treat- 
ment both of word and deed. So that the Indians called 
the negroes their lords, and the negroes called the Indians 
dogs. Such was the bravery of this Francisco Chichima 
that, being alone, and the negroes so many, he was their 
captain and chief, and they obeyed him in all things, and 
feared him like death. 

To this city of Vilcapampa, when it was first peopled, 
there came the monks of our Lady of Mercy and founded 
a convent. They were given land for building and for 
sowing. They built a living house and a church where 
they said mass. They were more than 15 years established 
there, being the Fathers Friars Juan de Rivas, Francisco 
Guerrero, Nicolas Gomez, and Gonzalo de Toro Cavallero. 
As they had no servants, nor labourers to cultivate the 
M. s. 16 



242 WANT OF FRIARS AT VILCAPAMPA 

land, nor even one to bring them a jar of water, they agreed 
in council to abandon that place, leaving the ornaments, 
chalices, bells, and images in charge of a secular priest 
They went from that province to Cuzco, and to this day 
the church is there. Though they have tried to return 
four or five times, for great devotion is felt for these fathers, 
being the first monks, servants of our Lady, who planted 
the faith in these kingdoms of Peru, Chili, Tucuman, 
Paraguay, and Santa Cruz de la Sierra, but as they had 
no servants, they did not come back for fear they should 
die of hunger. The other religious communities saw that 
the fathers of our Lady of Mercy had given up the place, 
and no others have come lest they should be in the same 
straits as the said fathers. Hence this city remains with only 
a parish church. The inhabitants cannot hear mass early 
as they would wish, but only when it is said in the parish 
church. This is an intolerable grievance which ought to be 
remedied. The monastery of our Lady of Mercy should 
be re-established, for it would be a great boon to the 
citizens. If your Excellency would order some servants and 
labourers to be granted, the desired result could be secured. 
All that I have written until now, most excellent Prince, 
is what I have been well able to recollect respecting things 
far back but within my weak memory. I understand that 
I have related the events nearly as they happened, but 
describing only the soul of those things which are most 
pleasant to hear about I am well able to describe the 
parades, reviews, and other imitations of war which took 
place in the city of Cuzco previous to the despatch of that 
expedition, and to depict to your Excellency the great and 
celebrated festivals which took place, including bull fights, 
tournaments, and other displays*. There were imitations 

* These festivities are in the wrong place. They were celebrated 
before the Viceroy Toledo became *'an execrable regicide" as the 
Inca pedigrees call him. 



FESTIVITIES AT CUZCO 243 

of Moorish castles, forests of very lofty trees that seemed to 
reach the sky, set up in the great square of Cuzco. Among 
the trees were fastened tigers, lions, bears, peacocks, tapirs, 
large and small monkeys, armadillos, ferrets, ducks of 
varied plumage, macaws and parrots green, red, blue, brown 
and yellow, talking parrots of different kinds, small paro- 
quets, and other birds of many colours, large and small. 
They were subtly fastened in the trees, and all made such 
resounding music as enchanted every one. There was a 
fountain from which mountain girls and others drew their 
jars of water. Then the Moors issued from their castle and 
captured the girls. Then, after the tournaments, all the 
knights made skirmishes against the Moors, taking them 
prisoners and releasing the Christian captives. The show 
was very pleasant and delightful for those who witnessed it 
from the windows and balconies, as well as for those who 
saw it standing in the square. Don Francisco de Toledo 
jousted with canes on that day, which added much to the 
pleasure and enjoyment of the people. It was the day of 
St John the Baptist. The costumes and liveries were very 
costly, adorned with gold and silver, very rich harness 
inlaid with pearls and precious stones. The bars within 
which the knights made mimic war were adorned with 
silver. There came forth 48 knights from among the most 
distinguished in the kingdom. The Lord Viceroy was on 
the most beautiful horse for prancing and speed, yet the 
safest, gentlest, and most loyal that was ever born of a 
mare. They called it the hobby of the silver feet, for it had 
white marks from below the knees, and one on the fore- 
head, which added to its beauty, all the rest of the body 
being dark chestnut, with the finest tail that ever was seen 
in a horse. As the Viceroy's companions there came the 
following knights: 

Ayala, Gonzalo Mexia de, second son of the Count of 
La Gomera (the elder), 

16—2 



244 KNIGHTS WHO TILTED AT CUZCO 

Barrasa, Francisco de, the Viceroy's Chamberlain, 

Berrio, Juan de, 

Berrio, Miguel de, 

Carbajal, Pablo de, 

Carrasco, Pablo Alonso, now of the order of Santiago, 

Castilla', General Geronimo, of the order of Santiago, 

Davila, the Governor Melchior Vasquez, 

Dolmos, Captain Martin, of the order of Santiago, 

Esquivel, Captain Rodrigo de, 

Figueroa, Don Geronimo, the Viceroy's nephew, 

Frias, General Geronimo de, 

Grado, Captain Francisco de, 

Loaysa*, Captain Alonso, cousin of the Archbishop of 

Lima, 
Loaysa, Don Geronimo, 
Maldonado, the Governor Juan Alvarez, 
Manuel, Pedro Nuftez, 

Marafton, Don Geronimo, a much esteemed knight, 
Mendoza, Captain Nufto de, 
Meneses, Captain Martin de, 
Nocedo, Pedro Castilla de, 
Orozco, Sancho de, brother of the Loaysas, 
Pacheco, Captain Geronimo, 
Palomino, Don Luis, 
Pancorvo, Juan de, citizen of Cuzco, 
Pereyran, Captain Don Antonio de, 
Quinos, Captain Juan de, 



^ Geronimo Castilla was a native of Zamora. He was a magistrate 
of Cuzco and owned the estate of Asillo in the Collao. His name 
occurs frequently in the civil wars. His descendant was created 
Marquis of San Juan de Buena Vista. 

• Alonso de Loaysa, nephew of the first Archbishop of Lima, was 
concerned in the civil wars, and went through strange adventures, 
especially on his wedding day at Cuzco, when the house was attacked 
by the rebels under Giron. His uncle the Archbishop was a native of 
Talavera of good family. Another uncle was Archbishop of Seville, 
and another confessor to Charles V. 



FESTIVITIES AT CUZCO 245 

Salas de Valdas, the Factor Juan de, brother of Cardinal 
Don Fernando de Valdas, Archbishop of Seville, 

Sanchez, Miguel, the Treasurer, 

Silva, Don Juan de, of the order of Santiago, 

Sotomayor, Juan de, of the order of Santiago, 

Siiaso, Lope de, 

Tordoya, Don Gomez de, 

Umaran, Captain Julian de, 

Valen^uela, Gonzalo Hernandez de, son of Miguel 
Sanchez, 

Valveorde, Francisco de, of the order of Santiago, 

and other very distinguished knights whose names I cannot 
remember, all the rest being citizens of Cuzco. There were 
also others of the household of the Viceroy, and representa- 
tives of other cities, people of condition. 

There came out, at the turn into the square, six cava- 
liers attired as very ferocious demons, and behind their 
horses there were other demons made of paste, seated in 
their saddles with very short stirrups, looking as if they 
had been born on horseback, going shoulder to shoulder. 
These also tilted with the cane lance. Next came a boy 
aged twelve years, dressed in the finest brocade, with the 
mitre of a bishop made of cloth of silver, with gloves made 
in the city, and many rings of emeralds set in gold, on his 
fingers. He went along, on a mule, giving benedictions, 
with his face behind and his back in front. Further back 
there came six sheep in the dress of choristers, mounted on 
horseback, with singing books in their hands. They were 
made to give out groans by means of cords, raising and 
lowering the song according to the ideas of those who had 
charge of the affair. Next came I know not how many 
satyrs very well attired, and last came a Hirco dressed 
all in crimson, with his shirt and cloak of a black colour, 
bordered with velvet, and a cap of the same. He had 



246 BULL BAITING AT CUZCO 

a crown of gilt paste, and a gilt sword. Many servants 
followed. 

After having paraded round the square, they took up 
their positions in order for entering the lists. The g^me 
then commenced, the Viceroy coming first, who only ran 
three courses. He then dismounted and went up to the 
corredor of Diego de los Rios, a citizen and principal 
cavalier. From thence his Excellency witnessed the tilting. 
Afterwards they let out a most ferocious bull, one of the 
bravest I ever saw, which took charge for a long time. At 
last it went in among the trees where it saw the wild 
beasts. It attacked the tiger with great impetus and fury. 
As the beast was tied up very short it could not well use 
its claws, nor take advantage of its superior quickness ; but 
it defended itself, also taking the offensive, until the bull 
was so tired and baffled that it gave up the encounter and 
came out again into the square, where it was irritated by 
the bull baiters until darkness put an end to the amuse- 
ments and rejoicings. For a long time people talked of 
nothing else. 

One would wish, most excellent Lord, to have the 
eloquence of that great orator Cicero, and the wisdom of 
Solomon, so as to be able to shape this history into a neat 
and pleasant style, and in language so that all the world 
would be pleased with it. I must be satisfied if^-^ur 
Excellency will receive it with your benign consideratiolPSv 
and excuse the faults which I have made, numerous as^i^ 
they must be. I supplicate that it may be thus received. ' 
If I have been prolix in my narration, I submit that I may 
be pardoned because in a history of the events which have 
occurred in this kingdom I could do no less ; this requiring 
the cream of the truth. There is, in this city, an old monk 
of the order of Mercy, as I have said before, who was an 
icye-witness of all these things, and heard them with his 
,ears, and touched them with his hands. I have made bold 



CONCLUSION 247 

to mention him, because your Excellency could get from 
him some more particulars, as he is younger than I am, 
and would remember things that I have forgotten. I have 
done my duty without stating anything that is unauthentic, 
or that may be wide of the truth. I have eschewed 
fabulous things for fear of losing the esteem of sensible 
men, for this course is advantageous, though the vulgar 
may not think so. For my straightforward procedure 
I await your Excellency's full approval, and hope for it. 
For besides having served their Majesties the Kings our 
Lords, your Excellency will have performed one of the 
most meritorious acts of mercy that can be done in this 
life, by recognizing my loyal service, in having given the 
flower of my youth to my Kings and Lords, until these 
last years which find me in poverty and old age. For this 
approval may our Lord grant to your Excellency the 
greatest felicity in this life, and in the life to.come may you 
find eternal rest for ages and ages. 

Amen. 




PLACE NAMES. 



Abancay, capital of the province. 
Nearly the same latitude as Cuzco. 
Height about 8,300 ft. There was 
a battle here between Orgoftez and 
Alvarado, 13 July. 1537, no 

Accha, in the province of Paniro 
(dept. of Cuzco) near the right bank 
of the Apurimac. Molina spells it 
Aycha (174, 176), 308 

Acos, 10 to I r leagues from Cuzco 
according to Sarmiento. Acomavu 
is now a province. Most of the 
people were moved by the Inca to 
Acobamba, 109 

Acobamba, now the capital of the 
province of Angaraes (dept. Huan- 
cavelica), ioq 

Ahua-chumbi. See Avachumpi. 

Ahuatuna ( Aguatona), on one of the 
roads to the forests of Anti-suyu, 
141 

Ahuayro-cancha, a town of the 
Ayamarcas near Cuzco, to which 
the Inca's kidnapped son ^as taken, 

75 
Alayde, Huayna Ccapac at, 159 
Alcabisas, one of the original tribes 
settled in the valley of Cuzca The 
Incas had some trouble with them, 
59, 60 ; crushed by Manco Ccapac 
61 ; and finally subdued by Mayia 
Ccapac. 5^/ Cieza de Leon« ii. 105, 
106, Balboa, 35, 26. Balboa has 
Allcay-villcas, 40, 58, 66, 67 
Amaru, on one of the roads to the 

forests of Anti-suyu, 75, 14a 
Amaru -cancba, in Cuzco. Palace 
built by Huascar. Amaru a ser- 
pent, cancha a place, 170 
Amaru-majru, nver, 144 
Amaybamba, valley of, 139 
Ancamarca, subdued by Huayna 

Ccapac, 161 
Ancasmarca, 4 leagues from Cuzco, 
subdued by Ccapac Yupanqui, 
69 



Anco-mayu, country as far as, deso- 
lated by the Incas. Northern 
limit of the empire, 31, 161, 166 

Anco-yacu, bridge over the river 
between Huanta and Acobamba« 
Defeat of the army of Huascar at, 

'74, 175 

Andahuaylas, capital of the modem 
department of Apurimac. There 
are three villages in the beautiful 
and fertile valley, Andahuaylas, 
Talavera, and San Geronima. The 
river flows north to the Pampas. 
This valley was the original home 
of the powerful tribe of Chancas. 
It is on the road from Ayacucho to 
Cuzco, between the Pampas and 
Pachachaca river, xviii, 86, 87, 331, 
331 

Andahuaylas el cbico, now called 
Andahuaylillas, owing to Chancas 
from Andahuaylas having been 
settled there, i% miles S.S.W. of 
Cuzco, in the province of Quispi- 
canchi. It is in an oval valley, 
nearly level, 18 miles long by 3 to 
6 wide watered by rills from the sur- 
rounding mountains, which collect 
in a single stream and reach the 
Vilcamayu — the valley was once, 
no doubt, a lake, 331 

Andes, the chains of mountains or 
cortiilleras in Peru ; so called from 
the anduaria or terraced cultivation, 

8, 34. i33» 193 
Anta, capital of a province, about 7 
miles N.W. of Cuzco. The little 
town is on the side of a hill facing 
north, overlooking the great swampy 
plain of Sosahuana. A daughter 
of the Sinchi of Anta contrived the 
rescue of the Inca's little son 
Yahuar-huaccac, from the Ayamar- 
cas. Antas to be called relations of 
the Incas. Viracocha Inca married 
a native of, 77, 81, 308 



PLACE NAMES 



249 



AntahuayUs. See Andahuaylas. 

Antamarca, murder of Inca Haascar 
at, 189 

Antasay, a tribe settled on the site 
of Cuzco, 40 

Anti-suyu, the eastern division of 
the empire, V.L.B., 133, 159 

Apurimac, the great river drains the 
coast cordilUra from Canas to Lu- 
canas receiving large tributaries 
from the south and east, Cayaruni, 
Catabamba, Huayllati, Pachachaca, 
Abancay, and Pampas. It finally 
unites with the Vilcamayu, forming 
the Ucavali. Flowing through a 
profouna gorge it divides the coun- 
try, and there is a famous cable 
bridge on the road from Cuzco 
westward, xxi, 70, 177, 338 

Arapa, in the Collao, on the lake of 
Arapa ; in the modem province of 
Azangaro. O.B., 145 

Araypalpa, province of Paruro, 
308 

Arequipa, 16° 94' S., 7,266 ft. above 
the sea. Founded 1534. Subju- 
gated by the CoUas. Visited by 
Huayna Ccapac. V.L.B., 66, 114, 

159. «39 

Asillo, in the CoUa, province of 
Azangaro. V.L.B., 145, 244 

Atacama, the coast desert between 
Peru and Chile, c.v. Under the 
dominion of the Collas. Huayna 
Ccapac in, 114, 159 

Atafiaris, Indians 

Ataras, 308 

Avachumpi Island, News of Tupac 
Inca*s voyage to, 135, 136 

Ayamarcas, a powerful tribe, 3 
leagues S.S.W. of Cuzco, 64. 
V. L. M.p. Wife of Ccapac Yupanaui 
from, 69. War with the Huaylla- 
cans, 73. Kidnapping of the Inca's 
son, 74. His rescue, 77. Final sub- 
jugation by Pachacuti, 106, etc. 

Ayavilla, in the valley of Cuzco, 

83 
Aymara, a tribe in the upper basin 
of the river Pachachaca, tributary 
of the Apurimac. Some Aymaras 
were taken as colonists {mitimaes) 
to the Collao. their children adopted 
the CoUa dialect, and, through a 
blunder, the Jesuits at Juli gave the 
name to the Colla dialect, and 
later to the Collas themselves. None 
of the older writers give the name 
of Aymara to the Collas. Tributary 
to Pachacuti, 109 



Bimbilla, a village where the mum- 
mies of Manco Ccapac and Sinchi 
Rocca were found, near Cuzco, 61, 

«3 
Bombon, correctly Pumpu. Height 
on the right bank of the river 
Pampas, 174 

Cabifias. See Cavifias 

Cacha, ruins of a remarkable temple 
in the basin of the upper Vilca- 
mayu. Province of Canchis, below 
Sicuani. Viracocha^s miracle at, 
35. The temple is fully described 
bv Squier (pp. 408 to 4(4) 

Galea, capital of a province, in the 
valley of Vilcamajru. It includes 
the districts of Calca, Pisac, and 
Laris. Conquered by Viracocha, 
85, 308. V.M. 

Calls puquio, the ashes of Tupac 
Inca were found there, 154 

Carnal, conquered by Viracocha 
Inca, 85 

Camata, on one of the routes into 
Anti-su3n.i, 143 

Cafiaris, a turbulent tribe near Tumi- 
pampa. Conquered by Tupac Inca, 
131. Fight with the Cayambi 
chief, 164. At Cuzco in Spanish 
times, because they hated the Incas, 
336. Executioner of Tupac Amaru, 
336. V.L.B. Fable of their origin, 
30. 

Caquia Xaquixahuana. See Sacsa- 
huana 

Caranqu^s, a warlike Quito tribe, in 
rebellion, 159 

Carmenca, suburb of Cuzco, 83, 99, 
307, 333, 336 

Casacancha, conquered by Vira- 
cocha, 84 

Casana, in Cuzco. Edifices built by 
Sinchi Rocca, 158 

Cavifias, a tribe in the Vilcamayu 
valley, south of Urcos. Made 
"tributary to Vahuar-huaccac, 81 

Cazamarca, a province in Chinchay- 
suyu, 140, 165, 166, 173, 188, 319. 
Conquered by the Incas, 117, ri8. 
Atahualpa at, 175 

Cayambis, a warlike Quito tribe, in 
rebellion, 63, 159. Defeat the 
Inca, 163, 163. Siege, 163. Final 
rout, 164 

Cayancachi, suburb of Cuzco, 40, 
59» ^» 83 

Cayara, a fortress in the Quichua 
province. Taken by Tupac Inca, 
130 



250 



PLACE NAMES 



Cajrto-Caytomarca, four leases 
from Cuzco. Subdued by \ira- 
cocha, 84 ; by Inca Rocca, B., 71- 

Chachapoyas, a province in the 
basin of the Marafion, in Chinchay- 
suyu. Expeditions against, 131, 
(4<^» i57» 158. Troops of Huanca 
Auqoi, 173 

Chalco, a town in the country of the 
Soras. Reduced by Pachacuti Inca, 
109 

Chancas, the powerful tribe in 
Andahuaylas, which marched on 
Cuzco carrying mummies of former 
chiefs, 86. Defeated by the Incas, 
^4. Second defeat, 115. Flight 
mto the montafia, 117 

Charcaa, in the south of Pern. 
Retreat to the Chichas, 115. Tupac 
Inca in, 145; Huayna Ccapac in, 
159. Invaded by Chirihuanas, 165 

Chichas, in the far south. Subject 
to the Colla chief, 114. Defeat by 
the Incas, 125 

Chile, road to, 133. Invaded by 
Tupac Inca, 145 ; Huayna Ccapac, 
150 

Chillincay, conquered by Yahuar- 
huaccac, 81 

Chimu, tributary to Caxamarca. 
Conquered by Tupac Inca, 131, 

137 

Chinchay -cocha, lake in the de- 
partment of Junin, 166, 186 

Cninchay-suyu, northern division 
of the empire, 132. Principal 
provinces , Mitimacs^ 1 3 o. ^Division , 
13a. Conquest, 115. Huaman 
Achachi governor of, 157. Men 
of, employed against the Cayambis, 

163 
Chinchero, in the province of Calca, 

on the plateau overlooking the 

lovely vale of Yucay, 155, 208. 

The ruins of the palace may still 

be seen, resembling those on the 

Colcampata at Cuzco. Death of 

Tupac Inca at, 153 
Chiponanas, the most distant tribe 

in Anti-suyu, 143 
Chiraquas, subdued for Viracocha 

Inca, 85 
Chita, the high land between Cuzco 

and the Vilcamayu valley, 88. 

Flight of Viracocha Inca to, 90 
Choco, the wife of Pachacuti a native 

of, 107 
Chocos-chacona, a suburb of 

Cuzco. The Chancas repulsed at, 

9« 



Choyca, near Pisac, in the Vilcamayu 
valley. Conquered by Yahuar- 
huaccac, 80 

Chucuito, the lake of Titicaca so 
called, also a town on the western 
shore of the lake, 33 

Chumpi cancha, a division of the 
land at Cuzco between the rivers, 
58 

Chumpivilcas, a province in the 
department of Cuzco, 931. Its 
submission to the Inca, 145 

Chunchos, a group of forest tribes 
in Anti'suyu, 8, 143, 144, 318. 

Chuncumarca, in the valley of 
Huayllas. Conquered by Tupac 
Inca, 131 

Chupellusca rock, below Ollantay- 
tampu, in the Vilcamayu river, 
where Inca Urco wasdrovmed, 105 

Chuqui-chaca, bridge over the Vil- 
camayu, near OUantay-tampu, lead- 
ing into the mountains of Vilca- 
fampa, xxi, 3i6, aao 
uyes, near Chichas, 125, 177 

Coaques, on the Pacific, 167 

Cocama river, fugitive Chancas 
settled near, 117 

Cochabamba valley, 159 

Cochahuayla, near Caxamarca 

Cochisque fortress, Huayna Ccapac 
came to, 161 

Colcabamba, Mama Huaco hurled 
the golden wand to, 54 

Colcampata, at Cuzco. Palace at 
the foot of the Sacsahuaman hill ; 
where Paullu Inca and his son 
Carlos Inca lived, xxi, 206, 2141 
325. Buildings by Huascar, 170 

CoUao, the basin of lake Titicaca, 
32. Invasion by Pachacuti, 11 1. 
Insurrection suppressed, 121. Sub- 
jugation completed, 135. Final 
insurrection, 144 

CoUas, people of the CoUao 

Collasuyu, southern diWsion of the 
empire, 132. Mittniaes^ 120. Visited 
by Huayna Ccapac, 158 

Collocte, conquered for Viracocha 
Inca, 85 

Conchacalla, a village on the march 
of the Chancas to Cuzco, 90, 
208 

Copiapo, in Chile, 159 

Coquimbo, in Chile, 18. Tupac Inca 
at, 145; Huayna Ccapac at, 159 

Cotabambas, a province south of 
the Apurimac. Became tributary 
to Pachacuti, 109. Route by, taken 
by Atahualpa*s army, 1 77. Forces of 



PLACE NAMES 



251 



Huascar and Atahualpa in, 177. 
Slaughter at the bridge, 180 

Cotanera, province, became tribu- 
tary to Pachacuti, 109 

Cucharay-pampa, 108 

Cugma, 4 leagues from Cuzco. 
Conquered by Pachacuti, 108 

Culumchinas, early settlers in the 
valley of Cuzco, 40. Boys beaten 
by Mayta Ccapac, 67 

Cuntisuyu, the western division of 
the empire, v.l.b., 131. People 
submit through fear, 113. Mitimius, 
1 90. Submission, 145 

Curahuasi, on the left bank of the 
Apurimac, near the bridge. The 
name is from curac an eldest son, 
and kuasi a. house. Atahualpa's 
army at, 177 

Curamba, fortress between Aban- 
cay and Huancarama. The ruins 
may still be seen. There is a plan 
of them in Wiener (p. 180). Occu- 
pied by Tupac Inca, 130 

Cusipampa, near Cuzco, 91. En- 
counter with the Chancas at, 1 73 

Cuyo, Cuyo-suyu, near Cuzco. A 
man threw a pot at the head of the 
Inca Pachacuti. Chiefs accused of 
complicity and put to death, 107 

Cuyumarca, sutxlued by Ccapac 
Yupanqui. Same as Cuyo, 69 

CUzCO, capital of the empire of the 
Incas, i3°3i'S., 71° 3' W.. 11,370 
feet above the sea. First settlers, 
39. Meanings of the name, 55. 
Occupied by Manco Ccapac, 58. 
Improvements by Inca Rooca, 7a ; 
by Pachacuti, 98. Buildings, 41, 
100, 114, 158, etc. 

CuzcotU3ru, a fort to check incur- 
sions of the Chirihuanas into Char- 
cas, 165 

Equequo, 108 

Guamanga. See Huamanca 
Quasano. See Huasano 

Haisquisro, fourth stage of the 
march of Manco Ccapac to Cuzco, 
48. 50 

Hanan-chacan, waters of, dis- 
covered by Inca Rocca, who made 
conduits from them for irrigation, 

71 
Hanan -Cuzco, l.v.s.b. Descend- 
ants of Inca Rocca and subsequent 
Incas, •J 2, Also of the five first 
Ayllus from Paccari-tampu, 46. 



Enmity of Huascar, 171. ITanan 
means " upper," 71 

Hanan-saya, 31, 38 

Hatun-colla, once the capital of 
the Col la sovereignty, near N.W. 
end of lake Titicaca, and still 
nearer the lake of Umayu and the 
chulpas of Sillustani, which were 
probably the burial towers of the 
Colla chiefs. Now a small village. 
Great battles at, iii, 11 a, 124 

Hatun-huayllas, a Chinchay-suya 
nation. The Yana-mayu river their 
boundary, 116 

Hondari, valley of, 139 

Hoyara, valley of, lai 

Huallas, first settlers in the Cuzco 
valley, 40s At Huamaypata, 56. 
Subjugated by the Incas, 57, 6a 

Huamachuco, a province near Caxa- 
marca. The Huaca, 1 75 ; the Oracle 
denounced Atahualpa's cruelties, 
who destroyed it, 176 

Huamanca (Guamanga), the chief 
town of a department now called 
Ayacucho. v.l.b. Its rivers drain 
to the Mantaro, ix, 87, 116, 196, 
119, 239 

Huaman-cancha, first stage of the 
march of Manco Ccapac to Cuzco, 
48. Great battle with the Ayamar- 
cas, 106 

Huamani and Huamanapi, two 
hills in Vilcapampa, with silver 
mines, mentioned by Ocampo, aaa, 

Huamav-sano, Lloqui Yupanqui 
has influence over. This may be 
the same as Saflo, the native place 
of this Inca*s mother, 63 
Huamo, Tupac Inca at, 135 
Huanacauri, near Cuzco, where the 
Huarachko was annually cele- 
brated, 50. Fable of Ayar Uchu, 5 1 
Huanacu-pampa, 178 
Huaiiapi, Tupac Inca at, 135 
Huanaypata, Mama Huaco hurled 
the golden wand to, 54. Huallas 
settled at 57. Eighth and last stage 
of the march of Manco Ccapac to 
Cuzco, 57 
Huancara, 11 leagues from Cuzco. 

Conquered by Pachacuti, 108 
Huancavilicas, v.l.s. A nation 
near the Pacific conquered by Tupac 
Inca, 134, 135. In rebellion: Huay- 
na Ccapac in their country, 159. 
Rebellion put down by Atahualpa, 

171 
Huanuco, v.l.s. Capital of a 



252 



PLACE NAMES 



modern department. Most interest- 
ing Inca ruins of a palace and 
town. {Se€ R,G.S.J. (n.s.), xxvi. 

'53)» "7 

Huara, a village in the valley of the 
Vilcamayu, province of Qoispican- 
chi, 64 

Huarotampu, place where the 
Chancas started from in their flight, 
117 

Huasano, in the Cafiari (able, 30 

Huascar-quihuar, 4^ leagues from 
Cuzco. Birthplace of Huaacar 
Inca, 169 

Huata, 4 leagues from Cuzca G>n- 
quered by Pachacuti, 108 

Huayhua-cunca, 10% 

Huayllacans, marriage of Inca Rocca 
to a daughter of the chief of, 71. 
War with Ayamarca, 73. Betrayal 
of the Inca*s son, 74. Ask forgive- 
ness, 80. Murder a son of Yahuar- 
huaccac, 80. Punishment, 80, 81 

Huaylla-pucara, fortress in An- 
garaes taken by Tupac Inca, 131 

Huayllas, province pillaged by the 
fugitive Chancas, 1 1 7. Conquered 
by Tupac Inca, 131 

Huayparmarca, conquered by Vira- 
cocha, 84 

Huaypon, lake, fight at, between 
the rescuers of Yahuar-huaccac and 
the Ayamarcas, 78 

Huayupampa (Huayupata), valley 
of, ^39 

Humanamean, a corrupt word. A 
tribe in Cuzco, between Inti-cancha 
and Cayocachi. Subdued by Manco 
Ccapac, 59 

Hurin-chacan, waters discovered 
by Inca Rocca at Cuzco, 71 

Hurin-Cu2co, or lower Cuzco, near 
the House of the Sun. Descend- 
ants of all Incas before Inca Rocca 
were Hurin-Cuzcos, 7a 

Hurin-saya, 31, 38 

Ichu-pampa ('Uhe grass plain"). 
Headquarters of the Chancas, 88, 
92, 94. Defeat of the Chancas at, 
94, etc., 115 

Lampa, in the Collao, capital of a 
province of the department of 
Puno, 124 

Limatambo (correctly Rimac tampu) 
in the province of Anta. Ruins of 
an Inca palace. Pachacuti caused 
his brother to be put to death at, 
119, 209 



Llallahua, in the province of 
Ayaviri. Fort of the CoUas at, 145 

Llasa-huasi, at Cuzco. Heads of 
hostile chiefs placed in, 113 

Macai, subdued by Huayna Ccapac, 
161 

Mafiaries, a friendly forest tribe to 
Anti-suyu, near Vilcapampa, 8, 
I 143, 221, 134, 238, 139 
j Manosuyo, a tribe in Anti-suyu, con- 
quered by Tupac Inca, 143 

Manta, on the Pacific coast, north of 
the equator. Viracocha departed 
from, 36. Tupac Inca at, 135 

Marailon river, 18, 117 

Maras-tocco, one of the side win- 
dows at Tampu-tocco, out of which 
came the Maras ayllu^ 44-46 

Marco, three leagues from Cuzco, 
95. «o8 

Matahua, m.b. Seventh stage of 
the march of Manco Ccapac to 
Cuzco, 53. Sinchi Rocca armed 
as knight at, 53, 54 

Maule, river, v.l.o. Limit of empire 
of Tupac Inca to S., 145 

Maya-marca, valley of, 220 

Micao-cancha, Inca Rocca's son 
taken to, 74 

Mohina. 5^4f Muyna, v.l.b. 

M0JO8 (Musus), power of the chief of 
the Collas extended to the forests of, 

Mollaca, near Cuzco, conquered for 
Yahuar-huaccac, 80, and for Vira- 
cocha, 84 
Musus. Sfe Mojos 
Mu3ma, conquered by Inca Rocca, 
82; re-conquered for Yahuar-hu- 
accac, 82 ; and by Viracocha, 82, 
, 84. A lake there, with drainage 
I to the Apurimac 

' Nifiachumpi, B., island. News of, 

135. Tupac Inca navigated to, 

136. Discovered by Sarmiento, 136 
Nolitria, Indians of, subdued by 

Huayna Ccapac, 161 

! Ollantay-tambo, conquered by Pa- 
chacuti Inca, 107 (see Tambo). 
Magnificent buildings erected by 

' Pachacuti, 121. Flight of the sons 
of Colla Capac from, 121. Works 
at, completed, 124. In the province 

I of Urubamba, dept. Cuzco 
Oma, L,, 2 leagues from Cuzco. 

' Native place of wife of Lloqui 

' Yupanqui, 65 



PLACE NAMES 



253 



Omasayos, l. See Umasayus 
Onccoy, Vtlcapampa, 331, iii 
Opatari, tribe. First met with when 
Tupac Inca invaded Anti-suyu, 141 
Oropesa, xv, xviii, xx, 6, 219, 130 
Otabalo, invasion by the Incas, 161 

Paca, in the valley of Yucay. Battle 
at, between Pachacuti and Urco, 
ro4 

Pacamoros, near Pumacocha, 173 

Pacasmayu, v.l. Valley conquered 
by Tupac Inca, 131. Province in 
dept. of Libertad 

Pacay river, fugitive Chancas settled 
on, 117 

Pacaycacha, near Pisac. Conquered 
for Viracocha, 84 

Paccari-tambo, v.l.b. Six leagues 
S.S.W. of Cuzco. "House of 
production, '' correctly "Tavern 
of the Dawn." Place of origin of 
Manco Ccapac and his brethren, 
43, etc., 57. Visited by Pachacuti, 

Paco-pata, 208 

Pallata, third stage of the march of 

Manco Ccapac to Cuzco, 48 
Palpa, 208 
Paltas, V.L.B. Province conquered 

by Tupac Inca, 131, 235 
Pampacachu, 308 
Papris, v., near Urcos, 85 
Parcos, V. L.B., in Guamanga district, 

116, 208. See Urco-coUa 
Parumata, 232 
Paruro, 108 
Pastes, in rebellion, 159. Campaign 

against, 160. Their stratagem, 161. 

Subdued, 161. Organized, 166. 

Atahualpa's flight in campaign 

against, 170 
Patahuayllacan. See Huayllacans 
Patallata, hill near Cuzco. Buildings 

erected by Pachacuti, 124, 138 
Paucaray, flight of Huascar's general 

to, 174 
Paucar-tambo, 143-145, 218. Utu- 

runca Achachi waiting at, 145 
Paula-bamba. See Paulo 
Paulo, chief place of the Huayllacans, 

near Calca, 74, 75, 80 
Payta, Spaniards reported at, 186 
Paytiti river, frontier of Tupac Inca 

in the Anti-suyu montafia, 143 
Piajajalca, in Chachapoyas, taken by 

Tupac Inca, 131 
Pilcones, 220, 235, 236, etc., 239 
Pilcopata, route to Anti-suyu by, 142 
Pilcosones. See Pilcones 



Pillahuamarca, in Xauxa, taken by 

Tupac Inca, 131 
Pillauya, near Pisac, conquered by 

Yahuar-huaccac, 80 
Pinahua, b. Conquered by Inca 

Rocca, 71. Re -conquered for 

Yahuar-huaccac and by Viracocha, 

82,84 
Pisac, 80, 84, 99, 208 
Pi tecs, Vilcapampa, 216. In the 

province of Calca, Cuzco dept. 
Poconas, defeated by the Incas in the 

country of the Chichas, 125 
Pocaray, 208 
Pucara, v.l.b. Stone images in the 

ediflces of, 30. Fortress of, 145 
Puerto Vi6jo, Viracocha departed 

from, 36 
Puira. See Tangarara 
Pumacocha, Hua.scar sent troops 

against, 173 
Pumpu. See Bombon 
Puna island, 135. Submission to 

Huayna Ccapac, 167 
Puquiera, 208, 214 
Purumata, Vilcapampa, 232 
Puruvay, subdued by Huayna Ccapac, 

161 

Quichuas, v.l.b. Language, xvii, 
xix, 121. Conquest by Tupac Inca, 
130. Province in the valley of 
the Pachachaca, above Abancay 

Quillapampa, 236, 239 

Quilliscachis, 64. A spy on the 
Chancas from, 90, 91 

Quinchicaxa, fortress built by Tupac 
Inca in the Cafiari country, 131 

Quinti-cancha, division of land at 
Cuzco between the rivers, 58 

Quiquihazana, v.l. 5^^ Quiquijana 

Quiquijana, country between Cuzco 
and conquered for Viracocha, 85. 
A district in the province of 
Quispicanchi, Cuzco dept. 

Quirimanta, sixth stage of Manco 
Ccapac's march to Cuzco, 50. After- 
wards called Huanacauri 

Quisa, Tupac Inca at, 135 

Quisina, subdued by Huayna Ccapac, 
161 

Quispicanchi, v. Huayna Ccapac 
brought from, to be invested, 156, 
208, 225. Province in Cuzco dept., 
five districts — Marcapata, Quiqui- 
jana, Ocongata, Urcos (raj>.), 
Oropesa 

Quito, V.L., 38. Image of Manco 
Ccapac taken to, 62. Road to, 133. 
Conquest projected, 134. Con- 



254 



PLACE NAMES 



quest, 135. In rebellion, 159. 
March of Huayna Ccapac to, 160, 
Organixed, 160. Huayna Ccapac 
at, 165. Death at, 168. Atahualpa 
at, 176 
Quiuipay, headquarters of Atahu- 
alpa's generals near Cucco, 181 

Rarapa, body of Inca Rocca found 

at, 72 
Rimac-pampa, Huayna Ccapac at, 

156. The most S. square in Cuzco 
Rimac-tampu, 119, 209. See a/so 

Limatambo 
Rio, province in Anti-suyu, 143 
Riobamba, army of Huascar defeated 

by Atahualpa at, 171, 173 
Rondo-cancha. See Runta-cancha 
Runta-cancha, conquered for Vira- 

cocha, 84. Five leagues from 

Cuzco 
Ruparupa, b. Flight of the Chancas 

to, 117 

Sacsahuana (Surita, Caquia Xaqui- 
xahuana), 85, 86, 91, 95, 104, 184, 
109. Battle of, 118 

Sanaseras, first settlers in the valley 
of Cuzco, 40, 57, 62. 

Sanca-huasi, wild beasts kept in, 

"3 
San Geronimo de Carama, 309 
Saflo, B., wife of Sinchi Rocca a 

native of, 63 
San Salvador, Peru, 209 
San Sebastian, Cuzco ccrcado, 209 
Sauseray, 40, 57, 62 
Sayri-cancha, b. Division of land 

at Cuzco between the rivers, 58 
Sisiquilla-pucara, b. In Xauxa, 

taken by Tupac Inca, 131 
Simaponte, 221 
Socma, subdued by Viracocha Inca, 

85 
Soras, L.B. Province of, attacked by 

Pachacuti, 109, 174. In the 

province of Lucanas, dept. Aya- 

cucho 
Surita (Sacsahuana), 104, 218 
Susur-puquio, m. Pachacuti sees a 

vision there, 90 
Sutic-tocco, the side window at 

Tambo-tocco, out of which came 

the ay//u of that name, and also 

the Tambos, 44, 45, 46 

Tacucaray, native place of the wife 

of Mayta Ccapac, 68 
Tallanas, Indians brought news of 

the Spaniards to Atahualpa, 186 



Tambo, valley of, 103. 5^0Ilantay- 

tambu 
Tambo-quiro, l. Second stage of 

the march of Manco Ccapac to 

Cuzco. Sinchi Rocca bom there, 

48 
Tampucuncas, 64 
Tampu-tocco, b., at Paccari-tambo. 

A hill. Not, as Sarmiento says, 

**the house of windows," but 

**the window tavern." The 

three windows out of which issued 

Manco Ccapac, his brethren and 

followers. A legend, 49, 50. 

Visited by Pachacuti, 99. See 

also Paccari«tampu 
Tangarara, Spaniards at, 187. Name 

disappeared. SameasPuira? 
Taocamarca, conquered by Vahuar- 

huaccac, 8t 
Tiahuanacu, v.l.b., 34, 37. Viceroy 

resided at, 150. Huayna Ccapac 

at, 159 
Titicaca, island, v.l.b.m. ** Rock of 

lead.'* Viracocha created sun and 

moon, 32, 159. Huayna Ccapac 

at, 159 
Tococachi, v. Body of Pachacuti 

found in, 140 
Toguaro, six leagues from Huancara. 

Subdued by Pachacuti, 108 
Tohara, b., fortress occupied by 

Tupac Inca, 130 
Tono, v., river in Anti-suyu, 143, 

«39 

Truxillo, on the site of Chimu, 118, 
^l}\ '37» ^o^' Capital of dept. 
Libertad, six provinces, Huama- 
chuco, Otus-co, Pacasmayo, Patas, 
Santiago de Chuco, Truxillo 

Tumbex, v.l.b. Tupac Inca at, 135. 
Huayna Ccapac at, 161. Spaniards 
reported at, 186. *'A Littoral 
Province." 

Tumipampa, v.l.s., 30. Arrival 
of Tupac Inca at, 154. Huajrna 
Ccapac born at, 134, 158. Huayna 
Ccapac's buildings at, 160. Death 
of Ninan Cuyoche at, 168. Atahu- 
alpa remained at, 172. Surprise 
attack, 173, i8r 

Tunica, Tupac Inca at, 135 

Umasayus, become tributary to 
Pachacuti, 109, 177 

Urco-colla, b., near Parcos, in the 
Guamanga country. Inca army 
valoronsly resisted at, 116. Con- 
quered by Tupac Inca, 131 

Urcos, V.L.M.O. Viracocha at, 36. 



PLACE NAMES 



255 



Six leagues S. of Cuzco. The Inca 
took the name of Viracocha there, 
81, 81. Capital of the province of 
Quispicanchi, dept. Cuzco, 209 
Unipampa, city, and province, 209 
Urns, B. Order for, made by 
Huayna Ccapac, 159. A tribe in 
S.W. comer of lake Tilicaca living 
among the reed beds 

Vicchu, conquered by a son of Ya- 
huar-hnaccac, who took the name, 
80 

Vilcapampa, last province of the 
Incas, xxi, xxii, 203-347 

Vilcas, flight of Huascar's army to, 
175. Ruins. Now called Vilcas- 
buaman, in Cangallo province, dept. 
Ayacucho. 

Xaquixahuana, v.l.b. Massacre of 
the relations of Huascar on road 
to, 184. See also Sacsahuana 

Xauxa, V.L.B., 151. Viceroy resided 
at, 150. Flight of Huascar's general 
to, 174. Province in dept. ofjunin, 
ix, 8, 131, 196 

Yahuar-cocha, " Lake of Blood.*' 
Final rout of Cayambis at, 164 



Yanamarca, defeat of Huascar's 

army at, 174 
Yanamayu river, B. To be the 

limit of the first Chinchay-suyu 

campaign, 116. Murder of Huascar 

at, 189 
Yanaximes, tribe in the Anti-suyu, 

143 
Yanayacu, b. Origin of Yanaconas, 

i47» 148 
Yarambuy-cancha, division of land 

at Cuzco between the rivers, 58 
Yauira, a height near Cuzco, whence 
the scouts of Atahualpa's army 
viewed the city, 101, 181 
Yaurisca, province of Paruro, 209 
Yntip-cancha, Cuzco. House of the 
Sun, 42, 72. Manco Ccapac lived 
in, 58, 62. Sinchi Rocca lived in, 
63. Lloqui Yupanqui lived in, 65. 
Mayta Ccapac lived in, 68. En- 
riched by Pachacuti, 100, 114 
Yscaicuncas) r«u t: 

Yscaysingas} ?"""=«= °f '^^^ »36 
Yucay, v.L.o.B. Valley of, xvii, 104. 
Edifices built by Pachacuti, 121. 
Edifices built by Sinchi Rocca, 158. 
In dept. Cuzco, province of Uru- 
bamba, but not even a district now, 
xi, 209 




QUICHUA WORDS IN SARMIENTO. 



Aclla^ 151, 170, a 1 6. Viigin of the 

Sun 
Apu Maytay 6-;. Idol of Lloqui 

Yupanqui 
Aucca, 173. Traitor 
Ayuinto (Haybinto)^ 56. L.SP., 39. 

Stone fastened to a stone 
Aylluy 46, 61, etc. Lineage 
Aymuray^ 102, 103. A feast of the 

Sun 
Ayuscay^ 54. When a child is bom 

Calpa^ 89, 113, 158, 168. Augury 
Ca^ Cocha^ 56, io3, 133, 133, 136. 

Sacrifice 
Ccapacy 45, 61. Rich, Sovereign 
CcapaC'kongOy 136. A dress 
Ccapac Raymiy 53, I03, 139. Festival 

of the Sun 
Ccapac Tocco, 45, 49, 50, 55, 100. 

Rich window 
Catequilla^ 165, 166. Huaca 
Champiy 10 1. Sceptre 
Chasquiy 116. Messenger 
Chucoy 10 r, 308. Head-dress 
Chuqui illa^ \oi* Lightning 
Churiy 170. Son 
Coca, 130, 313, 331, 333. Coca 
Cocha^ 39, 168. Sea 
Cozcoy 55. A heap 
Curcua, 8,9, 39, 146-148, 158. Chief 
Cusi-curiy 154. Idol of Tupac Inca 

Huaca, 36, 51, 81, 100, 103, 3 13. 

Idol 
Huanacauri, 51, 56 
Huanachiri A maru, 63 . Idol of Sayri 

Tupac 
Huarachicoj 53, 53, 63, 73, 101, 103, 

137 
Huaraqui Inca, 1 69. Idol of Huayna 

Ccapac 
Huatiquisy 61,101. Idols of the Incas 
Apu Afayta (Lloqui .Yupanqui), 
65 



Ckuqui Ilia (Pachacuti), 10 1, 

138, 140 
Cusi Curi (Tupac Inca), 1 54 
Huanachiri Amaru (Sajrri Tu- 
pac). 63 
Huaraqui /ifftf (Huayna Ccapac), 

169 
Ituuo Amaru (Viracocha), 86 
fnli (Manco Ccapac), 61 
Huayna, 53. Young 
HuicochicOy 53. When girls reach 
maturity 
, Hunuy 146. (1,000) 
I 

I Indiy 48, 60, 61, 68. Falcon 

I Ucuolla^ 141. Mantle 

I Uasa-huasi, \j^. House of skulls 

I Llayiu, 130. Head -gear 

Mama-cuna, xxi, no, 157, 185, 3i6. 

Matrons of the Sun 
Afcucapaycha, 136, 316. Royal fringe 
Michocrimay I3i. Garrisons of forts 
Michuy 1 46. Tribute collectors 
MitimaeSy 119-131, 146, 159, 196. 

Colonists 
Mochanacoy 95. Ceremony of giving 

presents 
Maroy-urco, 103, 138. The great 

chain 
Afucha, loi Worship 

Napa^ 49, 60. A sacred figure of a 
llama. One of the royal insignia 

Pcuhacy 146. A hundred 
Pachacuti, 93. **Overtumer of the 

earth" 
Pamacay 63. Descent 
Pichca-pachacay xv, 146. Five hun- 

drai 
PHlaca-llayto, 136. Head-dress 
Purucaya, 10 1, 138, 315. Festival 

Quicochicuyy 53. Festival 



QUICHUA WORDS IN SARMIENTO 



257 



Quipu, 41. 
statistics 



System of record of 



Raymi^ 103. Sun festival 
RutuchUo, 54. First hair-cutting 

Samca-huasi, 113. Place for wild 

beasts 
StncAif 38. Strong. 
St/uOf I03. Moon festival 
StureSj 98. Terrace<l cultivation 
SurUur paucar^ 49, 60, 116. Brilliant 

circle 
Suyu, 131, 150, 160. Province 
Suyuyoc Apu^ 1 50. Viceroy 

Taguafxua^ 31, 37. Servant of Vira- 

cocha 
Ta^ui, 16$. Dance in honour of Sun 
Ticci, 29. Title of God 
Tocapu. See Viracocha 
Tocco^ 44, 45. Window 
Tucuyricoy xv, no, 120, 131, 132, 

i5«. 158, 159. Overseer 
Tucuyrico ApUy 149, 151. Governor 
Tupac, 124. Royal, beautiful 



Tupcu-cusiy 49. Golden vases 
Tupac-yauri^ 60. Sceptre 
Tupu, 150. Land measure 

67/1, 107. A jar 

Umuy 177. Wizard 

Ufiu PackacuH, 29, 32. Deluge 

Usuta^ 146, 212, 216. Shoe 

Uti^ 193. Weak minded, foolish 

Vira, 29. Grease 
Viracocka-iocapu, 86. Brocade 

Yahuavy 76, 79, 164. Blood 

Yauriy 101. Sceptre 

K«/», 48. Sun -god 

Ynti-caruha, 58, 62, 63, 65, 68, 89 

97, 100, 113, 114. House of the 

Sun 
Ynti Illapa, 140. Sun and lightning 
Ynli-Raymiy 102, 103. Sun Festiviu 
Yntip Apu, 97. Governor of the 

things pertaining to the Sun 
Yntip Churin, 97. Child of the 

Sun 
YntUj 48, 60, 61, 68. Partridge 




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INCAS LIVING IN 1572. 

Ayllu or Gens: 

The 10 Companies which came from Paccari-tampu with Manco Ccapac, 
46,47 

I. Chauin Cuzco, From Ayar Cachi ) Brothers of 

1. Arayraca Cuzco-Callan, From Ayar UchuJ Manco Ccapac. 

3. Tarpuntay, 

4. Huacaytaqui, 

5. Sanoc. 

6. SutiC'tocco. 

7. Maras, 

8. Cuycusa. 

9. Masca, 
10. Oro. 



The 1 1 Ayilus or Lineages from the 

1. Chima Panaca from 

2. Raura Panqca „ 

3. Avayni Panaca ,, 

4. 6^:rra Mayta Panaca „ 

5. y^/w Mayta Panaca ,, 

6. Vicaquirau Panaca ,, 

7. Aucaylli Panaca „ 

8. 5V7^j^ Pancua „ 

9. Jnaca Panaca ,, 

10. Ccapac Ayllu Panaca ,, 

11. Tumipampa Panaca 

1 2 . Huascar Panaca 



12 Incas 

Manco Ccapac, 62. 
Sinchi Rocca, 63. 
Lloqui Yupanqui, 65. 
Mayta Ccapac^ 68. 
Ccapctc Yupanqui, 70. 
/«f« Rocca, 72. 
Yahuar'kucu:cac, 81. 
Viracocka, 86. 
Pachacuti, 139. 
Tar^f Yupanqui, 154. 
Huayna Ccapac, 169. 
Huascar, 189. 



17 — 



83 INCAS LIVING IN 1572. 
(NAMES GIVEN BY SARMIENTO.) 



t Witnesses to the History, 39. 

t Witnesses also in the lists under each Inca, 



Aclari, Cri8t6val(Cuycusa Ayllu), 

46 
Amaru Titu (Socso Panaca), 86 
Ampura Llama Oca, Don Oon- 
zalo (Maras Ayllu), 46 
fAncay, Don Garcia (Avayni 
Panaca), 197 
^tAnti Hualpa Don Francisco 
(Socso Panaca), 198 | 

tApu Mayta, Don Juan (Apu 

Mayta Panaca), 198 
fApu Kiuti, Don Garcia, 199 
Avca Michu Avra Sutic, Don 
Francisco (Sutic-tocco Ayllu), 

46 
Avcaylli Titu Putisuc (Avayni 

Panaca) 65 
Ayachi, Don Garcia (Ccapac 
Ayllu), 154 
tAyallilla, Don Carlos, 199 

^tCayo, Don Diego (Inaca Panaca), 
198 

Cayo Hualpa, Don Diego (Raura 
Panaca), 197 
iffChalco Yupanqui, Don Fran- 
cisco (Socso Panaca), 86, 198 

Checo, bon Diego (Chima Pa- 
naca), 63 

Chima Huarhua, Don Juan 
(Chima Panaca), 62 

Chucumbi, Martin (Chima Cuzco 
Ayllu), 46 

Cocasaca, Don Francisco (Apu 
Mayta Panaca), 70 

Concha Yupanqui, Don Juan 
(Aucaylli Panaca), 81 

Conde Mayta, Don Agustin 
(Avayni Panaca), 65 
fCopca Mayta, Don Francisco 

(Apu Mayta Panaca), 198 
fCota Yupanqui, Don Francisco 
(Inaca Panaca), 198 



tCozco, Don Juan (Ccapac Aylla 
Panaca), 198 
Cusi Hualpa, Don Cristdval 
(Apu Mayta Panaca), 70 

fHachacoma, Don Pedro (Vica> 

quirau Panaca), 198 
fHuacanqui, Don Gonzalo (Inaca 
Panaca), 198 
Hualpa, Don Alonso (Sutic-tocco 
Ayllu), 46 
fHualpa, Hernando (Avayni Pa- 
naca), 107 
fHualpa Yupanqui, Don Juan 
(Inaca Panaca), 198 
Huaman Mayta, f>on Antonio 

(Vicaquirau Panaca), 73 
Huaman Paucar, Don Diego 

(Chauin Cuzco Ayllu), 46 
Huaman Rimachi Hachicona, 
Don Francisco (Vicaquirau 
Panaca), 73 

Iliac, Don Juan (Inaca Panaca), 

139 

Inguil, Don Felipe (Inaca Pana- 
ca), 139 

Inguil Tupac, Don Garcia 
(Tumipampa Panaca), 169 

Llama Oca, Don Alonso (Maras 
Ayllu), 46 

t Mayta, Don Diego (Vicaquirau 
Panaca), 198 

tNinan Coro, Don Francisco 
(Tumipampa Panaca), 198 

tPascac, Don Domingo (Inaca 
Panaca), 198 
Paucar Aucaylli, Don Gonzalo 
(Aucaylli Ayllu), 81 



83 INCAS LIVING IN 1 572 



261 



tPaucar Chima, Francisco (Chi- 

ma Panaca), 197 
fPaucar Sucsa, Don Garcia, 



auUu, 



Paullu, Don Carlos (Tumipampa 

Panaca), 169, 103 
Paullu, Don Felipe (Tumipampa 

Pamica), i6o« 193 
Pi9uy, Don Antonio ( Apu Maytu 
Panaca), 70 
^Pilco, Don Garcia (Ccapac 
Ayllu), 154 
fPilco Tupac, Don Garcia(Ccapac 

Ayllu), 198 
l^Pisac Tupac, Don Cristdval 

(Ccapac Ayllu), 198 
ittPuscon, Don Alonso (Raura 
Panaca), 63, 197 

tQuechua, Don Francisco (Inaca 

Panaca), 198 
tQuechua Sucso, Martin (Socso 
Panaca), 198 

Quiso Majrta, Don Baltasar 
(Usca Mayta Panaca), 69 

Quispi, Don Diego (Raura Pa- 
naca), 63 

Quispi, Don Francisco (Aray- 
raca Ayllu Cuzco-callan), 46 

Quispi, Juan (Masca Ayllu), 

47 
Quispi Conde Mayta, Juan 
Baptista ( Avayni Panaca), 65 
ttQuispi Cusi, Don Juan (Inaca 
Panaca), 198 
tQuispi Mayta, Don Juan (Apu 
Mayta Panaca), 198 

tRimac Tupac, Don Garcia 
(Tumipampa Panaca), 198 

tRimachi, Martin (Aucaylli Pa- 
naca), 198 
Rimaclii Chaco, Don Francisco 
(Inaca Panaca), 139, 198 



Rimaclii Mayta, Miguel (Avayni 
Panaca), 197 
Do 



(Apu 



Rupaca, Don Alonzo 
Mayta Panaca), 70 



l^Sayri, Don Francisco (Tumi- 
pampa Panaca), 198 
Sayri, Don Gonzalo (Tumipam- 
pa Panaca), 169 

itfTambo Usca Mayta, Don Juan 

(Usca Mayta Panaca), 68 

Tarma Yupanqui Alonso (Aray- 

raca Ayllu Cuzco-callan), 46 

:^Titu Atauchi, Don Alonso 

(Huascar Panaca), 189, 194, 199 

Titu Conde Mayta, Don Felipe 

(Avayni Panaca), 65 
Titu Rimachi (Avayni Panaca), 

65 
Titu Yupanqui, Don Martin 
(Aucaylli Panaca), 81 
t Tupac, Don Gonzalo, 190 
^Tupac Yupanqui, Don Andres 
(Ccapac Ayllu Panaca), 198 
Tupac Yupanqui, Don Felipe 
(Ccapac Ayllu Panaca), 154 

fUsca Majrta, Don Felipe (Usca 

Mayta Panaca), 197 
tUsca Mayta, Don Francisco 

(Usca Mayta Panaca), 197 

Vilcas, Don Garcia (Ccapac 
Ayllu Panaca), 154 
^rf-Viracocha Inca, Don Diego 
(Tumipampa Panaca), 169, 199 

tYUac Sebastian (Chima Panaca), 
197 

fYupanqui, Juan (Aucaylli Pa- 
naca), 1^8 
Yupanqui, Juan Pizarro (Aray- 
raca Ayllu Cuzco-callan), 46 




NAMES OF INDIANS IN SARMIENTO. 



Acamaqui, Sinchi of a town near 
Pisac slain by Inca Viracocha, 83 

Acolla Tupac of the lineage of 
Viracocha. Sent against the Pastos, 
160 

Ahua Panti, a captain in Huascar*s 
army, 177. Prisoner, 181 

Alcabisa, chief in Cuzco Valley, 40, 
67 

Alca-parihuana, Sinchi of Toguaro, 
killed, 108 

Amaru Tupac Inca, eldest son of 
Pachacuti. Disinherited, 114, 133, 
137, xiS, 140 

Anco Ayllo, Chanca prisoner, made 
a captain, 115. Escapes with his 
men into the montafta, 1 1 7 

Ancovilca, ancient chief of the 
Chancas. Embalmed and taken 
to their wars, 87. Mummy cap- 
tured, 93 

Antalongo, a chief of the Chilians, 

Antarqui, necromancer with Tupac 
Inca. Made a flying reconnais- 
sance of the ocean islands, re- 
porting well of them to Tupac Inca, 

135 
Apu Achachi, brother of Tupac 
Inca. Made a general visitation, 

149 
Apu Calla, son of Ccapac Yupanqui, 

69 
Apu Cautar Cauana, chief of Cunti- 

suyu. Sent aeainst the Pastos, 160 
Apu Chalco Yupanqui, priest of 

the Sun. Inaugurated Huascar. 

Browbeaten by the captains of Ata- 

hualpa, 181, 183 
Apu Chima-chaui, son of Ccapac 

Yupanqui, 69 
Apu Cunaraqui, Sinchi of the 

Cuzcos, 107 
Apu Cunti Mayta, son of Mayta 

Ccapac, 68, 69, 191 



! Apu Hilaquita, 160, 166, 167 

I Apu Mayta, Great General, 70, 

7'. 83-107, 140 
' Apu Paucar Asnu, son of Pacha- 
cuti. Left to subdue the Collas, 
I 133 etc. 

Apu Yanqui Yupanqui, son of 
Pachacuti. Served in Chincfaay- 
suyu campugn, 115, 136 

Arampa Yupanqui, captain in 
Huascar's army. Fatal disaster in 
a gorge, 177, 178 

Araua Ocllo, mother of Huascar, 
168. Cruel conduct to her soo, 
183, 183 

Ascascahuana, Sinchi of Huancara. 
Conquered and killed by Pacha- 
cuti, 108 

Astay-huaraca, chief of the Chan- 
cas, 88, 89, 95 

Atahualpa, 160-190 

Atoc, killed by Atahualpa, 173 

Auqui Huanca, unfortunate and 
unlucky brother of Huascar, 173 
etc. Always defeated, 18 x 

Auqui Toma, brother of Huayna 
Ccapac. Killed at the siege of the 
Cayambi fortress, 163 

Auqui Tupac Inca, sent against the 
Pastos by Huayna Ccapac, 157, 
160, 163, 166, 167 

Auqui Yupanqui, brother of Pacha- 
cuti. Served in the northern 
campaigns with Tupac Inca, 139, 
133. KUled, 137 

Ayan Quilla Lama, Sinchi of the 
Cuyos. Put to death, 107 

Ayar Auca, brother of Manco 
Ccapac, 45. 51. 55. 57 , , 

Ayar Cachi, brother of Manco 
Ccapac, 45 etc., 57. Murder, 50, 

53. 55. 191 
Ayar Ucnu, brother of Manco 
Ccapac, 45, 46, 53, 57- Becomes 
Huanacauri^ 51 



NAMES OF INDIANS IN SARMIENTO 



263 



Cacchon Chicya, seduced by Apu 

Mayta, 85 
Caiiar Ccapac, father of Don Elvira, 

186 
Cantahuancura, Anti chief. Made 

prisoner, 143 
Canto, chief of the Cayambis, 164 
Ccapac Chaui, Sinchi of Cayto. 

Killed by Viracocha, 84 
Ccapac Iluari, Pretender, after the 

death of Tupac Inca, 154, 155, 

191 
Ccapac Yupanqui, 83, 115, 140, 156 
Caruamaruay, Dofia Beatrix, saved, 

186 
Chachi, brother of Tupac Inca. In 

the Collao campaign, T44 
Chalco Chima, the enterprising but 

cruel general of Atahualpa, 154, 

171 etc., 181 etc. 
Chalco Pusayau, chief of the Soras. 

Captured, 109 
Chalco Yupanqui, a general in the 

Anti-suyu campaign, 142 
Chafian Cusi Coca, woman who 

fought the Chancas, 93 
Chihuay Ccapac, a Sinchi near 

Cuzco. Slain, 98 
Chima, founder of the ay/iu of 

Manco Ccapac, 63 
Chima chaui pata Yupanqui, 89 
Chimbo Cisa, sister of Huascar. 

Murdered, 186 
Chimbo Orma, woman of Anti, who 

rescued Yahuar-huaccac, 77 
Chimu Ccapac, 118, iia, 131, 137 
Chonay, Dofia Elvira, saved, f86 
Chuchi or CoUa Ccapac, iii, 113. 

Sons, 111-113 
Chucuy Huypa, wife of Huascar, 

182, 189 
Chuqui Ocllo, mother of Ccapac 

Huari, 154, 155 
Chuqui Sota, Sinchi of Chachapoyas, 

H9» '31 
Coaquiri, CoUa rebel, 144, 145 
Condin Savana, Sinchi in Anti- 
suyu. Great wizard, 143 
Copali Ma3rta, a chief at Cuzco, 40, 

57. 58, 62, 191 
Coya Miro, sister of Huascar. 

Murdered, 186 
Culumchima, a chief settled at 

Cuzco, 40, 59, 61 
Cuntl Mollo, chief of Cunti-suyu. 

Sent a^inst Pastos, 160 
Cunti Yupanqui, in campaign 

against the Collas, 136, 144 
Ccuri Chalpa, mother of Usco and 

Sucso, 83 



Ccuri -Hilpay, of Ayamarca. Wife 

of Ccapac Yupanqui, 69, 70 
Ccuri Ocllo, plotting for Ccapac 

Huari, 155 
Cusi, earliest name of Pachacuti, 85 
Cusi Hualpa. Set Tupac Cusi 

Hualpa 
Cusi Rimay Coya, wife of Huayna 

Ccapac, but childless, 160, 168 
Cusi Tupac Yupanqui, Priest of 

the Sun. At death of Huayna 

Ccapac, 161, 168 
Cusi Yupanqui, sent to Cuzco by 

Atahualpa to murder the relations 

of Huascar, 184 etc. 
Cuyo Ccapac, Sinchi of Cuyo. Put 

to death by Pachacuti, 107 

Ousmanco Ccapac, chief of Caxa- 
marca, 117, 118, iii 

Hancu, came to Tumipampa, killed 
by Atahualpa, 171 

Hatun Tupac Inca, name of Vira- 
cocha Inca when a child, 8 1 

Huacralla, chief of the Soras, 100 

Hualpa Rimachi, tutor of Vira- 
cocha Inca, who Brst called him by 
that name, 81, 81 

Hualpaya, guardian of Huayna 
Ccapac. Guilty of treason, 156, 157 

Huaman Achachi, brother of Tupac 
Inca, 136. Secured the succession 
of Hua3ma Ccapac, 155. Detected 
Hualpaya*s plot, 157. Left as 
Governor of Cuzco, 100 

Huaman Samo, chief of Huara in 
the time of Lloqui Yupanqui, 64 

Huaman Taysi Inca, son of Inca 
Rocca, 71 

Huaman Tupac, Sinchi of Pinahua 
time of Inca Rocca, 7 1 

Huanca Auqui, brother of Huascar. 
Often defeated, 173 etc., 181 

Huascar, Inca, 160-199 

Huayna Ccapac, succeeded, 154. 
Conquests, 157 etc. Death, 167- 
169. Body brought to Cuzco, 61, 
169 

Huayna Yupanqui, served in the 
first and second Chinchay-suyu 
campaigns, 115 

Humpiri, son of Ccapac Yupanqui, 
69 

Illacumpi, Sinchi of Cugma and 
Huata. Killed by Pachacuti, 85, 
108 

Inca Paucar, son of Inca Rocca, 71. 
Another of the same name, a 



264 



NAMES OF INDIANS IN SARMIENTO 



brother, 74. Betrayc*! the Incft*s 

son to the chief of Ayamarca, an 

enemy, 75 
Inca Rocca, 69-73 
Inca Yupanqui, name of Pachacuti 

Inca Yupanqui q.v, 
Incura Hualpa, one of Atahualpa's 

captains, 171 

Larico, one of the captains of 
Tupac Inca in the CoUao campaign, 

Lloqui Yupanqui, bom, 63. Suc- 
ceeds, 64-^ 

Mama Anahuarqui, a native of 
Choco. Wife of Pachacuti, 107, 

Mama Cava, wife of Lloqui Yupan- 
qui, 65, 66 

Mama Chicya, wife of Yahuar- 
huaccac, 79-81 

Mama Cuca, wife of Sinchi Rocca, 
56, 63, 64. A sister of Huayna 
Ccapac, 167 

Mama Huaco, 45, 47, 49, 54, 58, 
59»<58 

Mama Ipacura, 45 

Mama Micay, wife of Inca Rocca, 

7". 73. 76 
Mama OcUo, ^5, 48, 53. Ferocious 

conduct, j;6, 63 
Mama OcUo, wife of Tupac Inca, 

"9» >48. 153 
Mama Ralta, 45 
Mama Runtucuy, wife of Viracocha 

Inca, 81, 83 
. Mama Tacucaray, wife of Mayta 

Ccapac, 68, 69 
Manco Ccapac, 45--61 
Manco Inca, xvii, xxi, 108 
Manco Sapaca, eldest son of Sayri 

Tupac, 56, 58, 64, 191 
Marca Yutu, son of Yahuar-huaccac, 

80 
Mayta Ccapac, 40-69 
Mayta Yupanqui, one of Huascar's 

captains, 174 
Micni, one of the captains of Huayna 

Ccapac. Sent to take the Cayambi 

arm^ in rear, 160, 163 
Michinalongo, Chilian chief, 145, 

159 
Mollo Cavana, Colla chief sent 

aeainst the Pastos, 160 
Mollo Pucara, Colla chief sent 

against the Pastos, 160 
Muyna Pancu, Sinchi of Muyna. 

Killed by Viracocha Inca, 71 



Ninan Cuyoche, son of Huajma 
Ccapac. Named to succeed, but 
died, 160, 161, 168, 19a 

Nutanhuari, 143 

Ocacique, chief of the Acoa, 109 

Pachaculla Viracocha, a chief in 
the time of Lloqui Yupanqui, 64 

Pachacuti or Cusi or Inca Yupan- 
qui, 87-139 

Pacta Mayta, one of Huascar's 
captains, 177 

Pahuac Hualpa Mayta, son of 
Yahuar-huaccac, 80. Murdered by 
the Huayllacans, 81, 83 

Paucar Ayllu, eldest son of Yahuar- 
huaccac, 80 

Paucar Tupac, a Sinchi allied with 
lUacumpi, killed, 108 

Paucar usna, captain for Hua&car. 
Prisoner, 181 

PauUu Cusi Tupac Inca Yupan- 
qui, Don Cri8t6val, 160, 193, 
106, 114, H5 

PlUa Huaso, chief of Quito, 133 

Pinto, chief of the Cayambis, 165 

Pisar Ccapac, chief of Tumipampa 
orCaftaris, 131, 133 

Puma Lloqui, ally of lUacumpi. 
Killed, 85, 108 

Queco Avcaylli, son of Mayta 
Ccapac. 68 

Queco Mayta, a captain of Vira- 
cocha Inca. Accused of killing a 
messenger of the Chancas, 90 

Quihual Tupac, one of the captains 
in the Collao campaign of Tupac 
Inca, 1^6, 145 

Quiz -quiz, a captain of Atahualpa. 
Colleague of Chalco Chima, 171, 
173 etc., 181 etc. 

Rocca Inca, a son of Yahuar- 
huaccac, 80 

Rocca Inca, eldest son of Viracocha, 
83 f 85. Ever faithful to his brother 
Pachacuti, 84, 104, 105 

Rocca Yupanqui, son of Mayta 
Ccapac, 68 

Rumi-iiaui, captain of Auhualpa, 

171 
Rupaca, priest of the Sun. Prisoner 
of Atahualpa's captains, 181 

Sapaca. See Manco Sapaca 
Sayri Tupac, Don Diego, 103,311 
Sinchi Rocca, armed as a knight, 

i 53. Succeeds, 6a, 63 



NAMES OF INDIANS IN SARMIENTO 



265 



Sinchi Rocca, bastard son of Tupac 
Inca Yupanqui. Architect, 158 

SiticHuaman.chierofSafia. Father 
of Mama Cuca, 56 

S0C8O, bastard son of Viracocha. 
Brother of Urco, 83, 89 

Tampu-chacay, 49, 50/ 191 
Tampu Usca Mayta, a captain or 

Huascar. Sent against the people of 

PumaCocha, 173 
Tangalongo, chief of the Chilians, 

« '45. 159 

Tarco Huaman, son of Mayta 

Ccapac, 68 
Tilca Yupanqui, 119, 133, 136, 137 
Titu Atauchi, brother of Huascar, 

160, 173, 178, 181, 189 
Titu Cusi Hualpa, name of Yahuar- 

huaccac, 73 etc, 
Titu Cusi Hualpa, name of Iluayna 

Ccapac, 134, 153 
Titu Cusi Yupanqui, 193, 310 
Tocay Ccapac, chief of Ayamarca, 

7i» 73' 75. 79* 84, 106 
Tocto, Dofia Juana, rescued from 

the Atahualpa murderers, 186 
Tocto Coca, mother of Atahualpa, 

169, 170 
Tomay Huaraca, second chief of 

the Chancas, 88, 95 
Tupac Amaru, son of Manco Inca, 

193, 209-219 
Tupac Atao, brother of Titu Atauchi. 

A leader of the army of Huascar, 

led into an ambush, 1 78, 1 79 
Tupac Ayar Manco, son of Pacha- 

cuti. General in the Collao cam- 
paign, J 21 etc. 
Tupac Ccapac, appointed to the 

visitation by his brother Tupac 

Inca. Traitor, 147, 148 
Tupac Cusi Hualpa Inti lUapa, 

real name of Huascar a.v. 
Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 10, 39, 48, 

119, 123. Succeeds, 128. Reign, 

>»9-i54 



Tupac Yupanqui, second son of 
Viracocha, 83 



Uchu Cuna Scalla Rando, son of 

Ccapac Yupanqui, 70 
UfLo ChuUo, one of Atahualpa's 

captains, 171 
Urco Huaranca, one of Atahualpa's 

captains, 178 
Urco Huaranco, a chief remaining 

with Pachacuti at Cuzco, on 

approach of Chancas, 136 
Urco, favourite son of Viracocha Inca, 

S3« 85« S91 96* 191- DroMmed by 

his brothers, 104, 105 
Uscovilca, ancient chief of the 

Chancas, 87, 92 
Usica, DofLa Catalina, escaped from 

the massacre of Huascar's friends, 

186, 206 
Utu huasi, chief of the Acos, 109 
Uturuncu Achachi, one of leaders 

in the Anti-suyu campaign of Tupac 

Inca, 142, 145 



Vicaquirau Inca, son of Inca Rocca. 

A great general, with Apu Mayta 

founder of the Inca Empire, 70-72, 

80, 83 etc., 140 
Vicchu Tupac, son of Yahuar- 

huaccac, so named because he 

sulxlued Vicchu, 80 
I Vinchincayna, Sinchi, captured by 

Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 143 
Viracocha Inca, eighth Inca, 70, 

71, 79, 81-106 
Viracocha Inca Paucar, remained 

at Cuzco with Pachacuti on the 

approach of the Chancas, 89 



Yahuar-huaccac, 71-81 

Yasca, a captain sent by Huayna 

Ccapac to repel an inroad of 

Chirihuanas, 105, 166 




GODS— HUACAS— IDOLS OF INCAS. 



Apu Mayta, Lloqui Yupanqui's idol, | 
65 

Cataquilla, Huaca of Huamachuco, 

165, 166 
Chinchay-cocha, Huaca of, 166 
Chuqui Ilia, God of Lightning, also 

Pachacuti's idol, 101, 138, 140 
Curichaculla, Huaca of the Chacha- 

povas, 166 
Cusi Churi, Tupac Inca's idol, 154 

Huanacauri, Huaca of Ayar Uchu, 

5^56 
Huanachiri Amaru, Sayri Tupac's 

idol, 63 
Huaraqui Inca, Huayna Ccapac's 

idol, 169 



Inca Amaru, Viracocha's idol, 

86 
Inti, the Sun, 99 

Pachayachachi, title of God, 39 

Taguapacac, servant of Viracocha, 

Tarapaca, 33 

Ticci, title of God, 39, 34, 45, 81, 

8«, 94' 95t 159 
Tomayrica, 166 
Tonapa, 33 
Tuapaca, 33 

Viracocha, God, 38, 29, 8a 




BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PERU. 



A.D. 1526 — 1907. 
PART I. 

CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED. 

IVM the British Museum Press-marks. 

1907. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



Note, llie following Bibliography is not exhaustive, but is intended to 
elucidate references in this volume. 

15^6. 

I. Fernandez de Oviedo y Vald68, Gonzalo. — Oviedo de la natural 
hystoria de las Indias. ff. 53. 

Por industria de mtustre Renio de Petras: en la cibdad de Toledo^ 

MDXXVI. fol. 
[G. 6168.— With a large plate of the arms of Charles V on the title- 
page.] 

1537. 

3. Valera, Diego de. — La cronica de Espafia abreviada por mandado dla 

catholica & muy poderosa Scfiora dofta Isabel Reyna de Castilla &cetera. 

Por mossen Diego de Valera. ff. 100. [With the coat of arms of 

Charles V on the title.] MS. Notes. 

Fue impressa..,en Sevilla en casa de Juan varela de Salamanca^ 

1527. fol. 
[C. 62. f. 3. — With the coat of arms in gold, on the covers, and with 
the book-plate, of Joachim Gomez de la Cortina, Marques de 
Morante. — 1542. K. 179. f. 16. — 1562. 9180. h. 7.] 

1533. 

3. Pizarro, Hernando. — Carta de Hernando Pizarro a los magnificos 

seftores, los seftores oidores de la audiencia real de S. M., que reside en 
la ciudad de Santo Domingo. ([Nov. 1533.] Sacada de Oviedo, que 
la inserta en el cap. 15 de su parte tercera, 6 lib. 43 de su Historia 
General [which exists only in manuscript].) 
See 1535, No. II ; 1547, No. 21 ; 1830, No. 158. 

4. Sancho, Pedro. — Testimonio de la Acta de reparticion del rescate de 

Atahualpa, otorgado por el escribano Pedro Sancho. 1533. 
See 1830, No. 159. 

1534. 

5. Peru. — Copia delle Lettere del Prefetto della India la nova Spagna 

detta, alia Cesarea Maesta rescritte. Alia Sereniss. & Catho. Maestra 
Cesarea. E arrivata una nave, &c. (fol. 73 & 74 of " Isolario di 
Benedetto Bordone." ff. 74). [With the news of the Conquest of 
Peru by Francisco Pizarro.] 
Impresse in Vinegia per Nicolo d* Aristotile^ detto Zoppino, nel mese di 
Giugnoi del mdxxxiiii. fol. 

[571- i. «3-] 



270 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

6» Peru. — Nouvelles certaines des Isles du Peru. [An account of the 
Conquest of Peru by Francisco Pizarro.] 8 leaves. lEr.L 

On Us vend h Lyon ches Frdcoys JusU dtv&t NoUre dame de Confort^ 

1534- "**. 
[G. 649a. (I).] 

7. Spain. — Newe 2^ytung aus Hispanien und Italien. 4 leaves. ]S»iL. 

[With the news of the Conquest of Peru by Francisco Pizarro.] 
[Niimberg^ Mense Februarioy 1534. 4*'. 
[C. 31. d. 4.— Purchased July i, 1853.] 

8. West Indies.— Libro Ultimo del Summario delle Indie Occidental!. 

(Libro Ultimo del Summario de le cose de le Indie occidcntali, dove si 
nana di tutto quello ch' k stato fatto nel Arovar la provincia de Peru, 
over del Cusco, chiamata hoggi nuova Castiglia, dalli capitani dd 
Imperatore.) 15 leaves. 
In Vinegia^ Del nuse d^ Ottobre^ MDXXXiili. 4**. 
[G. 6907.— 9771. bb. 10. From the Library of Henry Stevens, of 
Vermont, F.S.A., with his book-plate, 1881, and with a facsimile 
by J. Harris of the rare map, *' La carta universale della terra 
ferma & Isole delle Indie occidetali...cavata da due carte da 
navicare fatte in Sibilia da li piloti della Majesta Cesarea. Del 
mese di Dicembre mdxxxiiii." 17^x11} inches. — The Libro 
Ultimo forms Book 111 of a Summary of Pictro Martire d' Anghiera, 
Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Vald^s, & other writers.] 

9. X6res, Francisco de. — [Verdadera Relacion de la Conquista del Peru, y 

Provincia del Cuzco, Uamada la nueva Castilla...£mbiada a su majestad 
por Francisco de Xerez, natural... de Sevilla, secretario del sobre dicho 
seftor (Francisco pi^rro), &c. — La relacio del viage que hizo el sefior 
capitan Hernftdo piyarro por mfldado del sefior govemador su hermano 
desde el pueblo de Caxamalca a Parcama y de alii a Xauxa. (Por 
Miguel de estete.)] With 41 five-line stanzas relating to the author, at 
the end, by Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes. 19 unnumbered 
leaves. 

Jmpressa en casa de Barthohtne perez en el mes deyulio: Sevilla^ '534* 

[C. 33. m. 4. — Wanting the title-page, which has been supplied in 
fecsimile by John Harris.] 

10. Zhaval. — Lei'Era de La nobil cipta : novamente ritrovata alle Indie 
con li costumi & modi del suo Re & soi populi : Li modi del suo 
adorare con la bella usanza de le donne loro : & de la dua p sone 
ermafrodite donate da quel Re al Capitano de larmata. El V. S. V. 
AI suo D. L. S. Data in Peru adL xxv. de Novembre. Del. 
MDXXXiiii. [4 leaves. Without the woodcut of the T535 edition.] 
J 534. 4°- 
[G. 7173. — There is a copy in the John Carter Brown Library, 

Providence, Rhode Island.] See 1535, No. 14; 1700, No. 119; 

1850, No. 171. 

1535- 
I f . Femdndez de Oviedo y Vald68, Gonzalo. — La historia general de las 
Indias. (Escripta por el capitan gon9alo hernandez de Oviedo y 
Valdes.) ff. 193. 
En la etnpreta de Juan Cromberger: SetnUa^ I535' fol. 
[C. 20. d. 4. — From the Library of Sir Joseph Banks. With a fine 
engraved title-page, with the arms of Charles V, and the Pillars 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 2/1 

of Hercules, surrounded by an ornamental border. On fol. cxciii 
is the autograph signature of the author, and on the verso is a large 
plate of the author's coat of arms.] 

12. X6re8, Francisco de. — Libro Primo de la Conquista del Peru & pro- 

vincia del Cuzco de le Indie occidentali (per Francesco de Xerez... 
Tradotta novamete in lingua Italiana per Dominico de Gaztelu gentil- 
homo Spagnolo de la citta de Tudela del reame de Navarra secretario 
del illustrissimo signor don Lope de Soria cosigliero & imbasciadore 
della prefata Cesarea Majesta. — La Relatione del Viaggio che fece il 
Signore capitano Ferdinando Picciarro per comandamento del signor 
Govematore suo fratello de la terra de Caxamaica fina a Parcama & de 
li a Xauxa. (Per Michael de Stette.) Con gratia & privilegio per 
anni x. 61 unnumbered leaves. 
StampcUo in Vinegia per Maestro Stephana da Sabio del MDXXXV. 

Nel mese di Marzo, 
[G. 6338. — K. 145. a. II. — On the title are the arms of Charles V, 
with the Pillars of Hercules, and on the verso of fol. % are the arms 
of Domenico de Gaztelu.] 

13. X6res, Francisco de. — Libro Primo de la Conquista del Peru & Provincia 

del Cuzco de le Indie occidentali. (Traducta novamente in lingua 
Italiana per Dominico de Gaztelu, gentilhomo Spagnolo, de la citta 
de Tudela, del reame de Navara, secretario de...don Lope de Soria, 
cosiglierio & imbasciadore de la pfata Cesarea Majesta... Alio illus- 
trissimo & Serenissimo Principe messer Andrea Gritti Dominico de 
G^telu salute & felicita perpetua.) — La relatione del viaggio che fece 
il Signore Capitano Ferdinando Piciarro per comildameto del signor 
Governatore suo fratello de la terra de Caxamaica fin a Parcama & de 
li a Xauxa. (Per Michael de Stette.) 40 unnumbered leaves. 

Impresso in Milano per Domino Gotardo da Ponte a compagnia de 

Domino lo. Ambrosio da Borsano nel Anno del Mille cinquecento 

e trentacinque. [1535.] 4°. 
[9781. b. 21. — With the arms of Charles V, and the Pillars of 

Hercules, on the title, and the arms of Dominico de Gaztelu on 

the verso of fol. 2. — Purchased June 10, 1857.] 

14. Zhaval.^Lettera de La nobil Citta nuovamente ritrovata alle Indie con 

li suoi costumi & modi del suo Re & soi popoli : Li modi del suo 
adorare con la bella usanza delle donne loro. Et de le dua persone 
crmafrodite donate da quel Re al Capitano della Armata. II V. S. V. 
Al suo D. L. S. Data in Zhaval. Adi xxv. di Settembre, MDXXXV. 
[4 leaves. With a woodcut on the title-page.] 1535. 4**. 

[G. 7174. — C. 32. h. 4. This copy is slightly cropped. — There is a 
copy in the John Carter Brown Library, Providence, Rhode Island.] 

See 1534, No. 10; 1700, No. 119; 1850, No. 172. 

1538. 

15. Beuter, Pedro Antonio. — Primera Part d'la historia de Valecia q tracta 

de les Antiquitats de Spanya, y fundacio de Valecia, ab tot lo discurs, 
fins al teps q lo inclit rey do Jaume primer la coquista. Copilada p lo 
reveret maestre, Pere Antoni Beuter, maestre en sacra theologia. ff. 70. 

MS. NOTES. 
Estampat en Valencia^ Anno MDXXXViii. fol. 
[593- g- 18.] 

16. Mercadillo, Alonso. — La Jornada del Capitan Alonso Mercadillo a los 

Indios Chupachos e Iscaicingas. 1538. 
See 1897, No. 272. 



272 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

17. Ravenna, Th. — Mali Galed sanandi, vini lignt, et aquae: unctionis, 
ceroti, suflfumigii, praecipitati, ac reliquoram modi omnes. [With an 
account of Peru.] 33 leaves. 

Per NicoHnis de Sabio : Venetis^ 1538. 40. 

[Not in the British Museum. — Karl W. Hiersemann, KeUalog 336. 
No. 1865. 1907. — Not in Bnxnct, Graesse, Harrisseor Lowndes.] 

1539. 
f8. Marineo, Lucio, Siculo. — Obra Compuesta por Lucio Marineo Siculo 
Coronbta iS sus Majestades de las cosas memorables de Espafia. if. 193. 
En casa de Juan de Brocar : en la ncble Villa de Akala de Henares, 

Ath de MDXXXix. fol. 
[K. 170. f. 20. — On the title-page are the arms of Charles V, with 
the Pillars of Hercules.] 

1540. 
19. Andagoya, Pascual de.— Relacion de los sucesos de Pedrarias Davila en 
las provincias de I'ierra firme 6 Castilla del oro, y de lo ocurrido en el 
descubrimiento de la mar del Sur y costas del Peru y Nicaragua, escrita 
por el Adelantado Pascual de Andagoya. 
See 1819, No. 154; 1865, No. aoi. 

1546. 
ao. Bcuter, Pedro Antonio.— Primera Parte de la Coronica general de loda 
Espafta, y especialmente del rcyno de Valencia... Compuesta por el 
Dotor Pero Anton Beuter, Maestro en sacra Theologia. flf. 118. 
Impresio en la muy noble ciudad de Valencia, en casa de yoan Mey 
Flandro^ AHo del Nascimiento de nuesiro sehor jfesu Ckristo-, 
MDXLVI. fol. 
[593. g. I. (i). — From the Library of King Edward VI.] 

1547- 
ir. Fernandez de Oviedo y Vald68, Gonzalo. — Coronica de las Indias. 
La hystoria general de las Indias agora nuevamente impresa corre^da 
y emendada. (Libros de los infortunios y naufragios de casos acaecidos 
en las mares de las Indias, yslas y tierra firme del mar oceano, con el 
qual se da fin a la primera parte de la general & natural h^rstoria 
de las Indias. — Libro xx. De la segunda parte de la general historia 
de las Indias... que trata del estrecho de Magallans.) Y con la conquista 
del Peru [por Francisco de Xeres]. (Br.il. Pts. i, 2. 
Juan de Junta: Salamanca^ 15471 Francisco Fernandez de C6rdova: 

Valladolid, 1557. fol. 
[C. 33. m. 3. (i). — ^This work was arranged for publication in 
three parts, forming together 50 "Libros," numbered consecutively. 
The '* Libro de los infortunios y naufragios," of which chapters 
I. — XI. only are here printed with Part i, was to form Libro L. 
No more was published after Book I of Part i, which forms 
" Libro XX." of the entire work. The ** Conquista del Peru " 
was bound up with this edition. — K. 146. e. 10. Another copy of 
Part I. — G. 0269. Another copy of Part 2. — On the title-pa^e of 
Part I is a large plate of the arms of Charles V, with the Pillars 
of Hercules.] 

22. X6re8, Francisco de. — Conquista del Peru. Verdadera relacion de la 
conquista del Peru & Provincia del Cuzco llamada la nueva Castilla 
conquistada por Francisco pi9arro : capitan de la S. £. C. M. del £m- 
perador nuestro senor. Embiada a su magestad por Francisco de 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 273 

Xerez, natural de la muy noble y leal ciudad de Sevilla : secretario del 
sobre dicho capitan en todas lais provincias 7 conquista de la nueva 
Castilla : y uno de los primeros conquistadores della. ^, It. flf. aa. 

Fue Impreso en Salamanca por yuan de Junta^ I547' fol. 

[C. 33. m. 3. (1). — After folio 13 is a leaf, containing stanzas addressed 
by the author to the Emperor Charles V.] 

1548- 

33. Medina, Pedro de. — Libro de grandezas ycosas memorables de Espafia. 

Agora de nuevo fecho ^ copilado per el Maestro Pedro de M<Klina, 
vezino de Sevilla. Dirigido al Serenissimo y muy esclarecido Sefior, 
Don Filipe, Principe de Espafia, &c. Nuestro sefior. [Widi wood- 
cuts.] 
Impresso en casa de Dominico IS Robertis : Sevilla, A Ho del yirgineo 
pario, MDXLVIII. fol. 

[573- 1* I* — With a second title-page, containing a coloured woodcut 
map of Spain. On the first title-page is a large plate of the arms 
of Charles V.] 

1549. 

34. Tiraquellus, Andreas. — Andrese Tiraquelli Regii in Curia Parisiensi 

Senatoris Commentarii. De Nobihtate, et jure Primigeniorum. 
pp. 690. 

Apudjacobum Keruer: Partsiis, 1549. fol. 

[Not in the British Museum. — In King George the Third's Library 
there is a copy of the 1573 edition, Apui Guliel Rcmllium: 
Lugdunu — K. 17. d. 4,] 

X55a- 

25. Casas, Bartolom^ de las, Bishop of Chiapa, — ^Aqui se contiene una 

disputa o controversia : entre el Obispo do fray Bartholome de las 

Casas o Casaus obispo q fiie dela ciudad Real de Chiapa que es en las 

Indias parte de la nueva Espafia ; y el doctor Gines de Sepulveda 

Coronista del Emperador nuestro sefior : sobre q el doctor contendia : 

q las conquistas de las Indias contra los Indios eran licitas : y el obispo 

por el cotrario dfendio y afllrmo aver sido y ser ipossible no serlo : 

Airanicas injustas & iniquis. La qual questio se vetilo & disputo en 

presencia d muchos letrados theologos & juristas en una cogr^acion q 

mando su magestad juntar el afio de mil & quietos y cincueta en la villa 

de Valladolid. Afio 1551. <1R. ft. 61 leaves. 

En casa de Sebastian Trugillo: Sevilla^ 155*- 4**- 

[G. 6342. (3).— K. 279. h. 27. (2).— 672. d. 14. (2).- 403. g. 13. (5).] 

This is no. 3 of the 9 Tracts by Las Casas, and Mr Thomas 

Grenville only knew of one other copy with the 9 tracts, the Duke 

of Grafton's, afterwards in Mr Richard Heber's Library.] 

26. L6pez de G6mara, Francisco. — La istoria de las Indias y conquista de 

Mexico. [Por Francisco L6pez de Gomara.] if. 139. 
Fue impressa en casa de Agustin Millan: (^aragofa, I553< fol. 
[983. g. 17. — On the title-page is a large woodcut of the arms of 
Charles V, with the Pillars of Hercules, 7x9} inches.] 

1553. 
37. Cieza de Leon, Pedro de. — Parte Primera de la chronica del Peru. 
Que tracta la demarcacion de sus provincias : la descripcion dellas. 
Las fundaciones de las nuevas ciudades. Los ritos y costumbres de los 

M. S. 18 



274 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

indios. Y otras cosas estranas dignas de ser sabidas. Fecha por Pedro 
i Ciefa de Leon, vezino de SeviUa. flf. i^. 

Imprtssa en Sevilla en casa de Martin de montesdoca, I553* fol. 

[G. 6416. — 983. g. 18. — From the Library of Sir Joseph Banks. 
With a laige plate of the arms of Charles Y on the title-page.] 

38. Ocampo, Florian de. — Los Cinco Libros primeros de la Cronica 
general de Espafta, que recopila el maestro Florian do Campo, 
Cronista del Rey nuestro seftor, por mandado de su Magestad, en 
Camon (que continuaua Ambrosio de Morales, natural de Cordova). 
4 tom. 
Im^esso en Medina del Campo por GuilUrmo de Millis; Ano 1553 ; 
en casa de Juan Ifiiqua de Lequerica : en Alcala de Henares^ en 
Setiembre^ del afko MDLXXIII; en Abril, dd aHo MDLXXVix; 
impresso en Cordoua por Gabriel Ramos Bejarano^ impressor de 
libro^ d costa de Francisco Roberte^ mercader de Kbros^ A Mo 1586. 
1553-86. fol. 
[686. h. 17-ao. — Tom. i has on the title a laree plate, coloured, of 
the coat of arms of Charles V, with the Pillars of Hercules.] 

1554. 

49. Alcocer, Pedro de. — Hystoria o Descripcion del Imperial cibdad de 
Toledo, &c. [Por Pedro de Alcocer.] ff. 134. 
Por Juan Ferrer: en Toledo, 1554. fol. 

[10161. f. 9. — 10161. g. 3. — 5^3. 1. II. — With a large plate of the 
arms of Charles Y on the title-page.] 

30. Cieza de Leon, Pedro de. — Parte Primera de la Chronica del Peru... 

Hecha por Pedro de Cie^a de Leon, vezino de Sevilla. Afiadiose de 
nuevo la descripcion y tra9a de todas las Indias, con una Tabla alpha- 
betica, &c. flf. 385. 

En casa de Juan Steelsio ; [impresso por Juan Lacid\ ; en Anzfers, 

MDLIIII. I2<». 

[G. 6310. — K. 179. a. 31. — 1061. b. ao. — 1196. b. 33.-1061. 
b. 19.] 

1555. 

31. Zarate, Aueustin de. — Historia del Descubrimiento y Conquista del 

Peru, con las cosas naturales que seftaladamente alii se hallan, y los 
sucessos que ha avido. La quai escrivia Augustin de (^arate, exerciendo 
el cargo de Contador general de cuentas por su Magestad en aquella 
provincia, y en la de Tienra firme. ff. 373. 

£n casa de Martin Nucio, a las dos CiguefUts: en Anvers, AHo 
M.D.LV. n». 

[G. 631 1. — 1061. b. M.] 

1557- 

3a. Franciscus, k Victoria. — Relectiones Theologicae tredecim partibus 
per varias sectiones in duos libros divisse. Authore R. P. F. Francisco 
a Victoria ordinis Pnedicatorum, &c. (Relectio v. De Indis.) pp. 531. 
Jac, Boyer: Lyon, 1557. 8^ 

[Not in the British Museum. — 1587. Expensis Petri Landry: 
Lugduni, 4374* aaa. 18.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 275 

X560. 

33. Domingo, de Santo Tomas, — Grammatica o Arte de la lengua general 

de los Indies de los Reynos del Peru. Nuevamente compuesta por el 
Maestro fray Domingo de S. Thomas, De la orden de S. Domingo, 
Morador en los dichos Reynos. ff. 96. 
Impresso en Valladolidy por Francisco Fernandez de Cordova^ 
Impressor de la M, ^., 1560. n*>. 

[C. 33- c. 39] 

34. Domingo, ele Santo Tomas. — Lexicon o Vocabulario de la lengua 

general del Peru. Copuesto por el Maestro F. Domingo de S. Thomas 
de la orden de S. Domingo, fi. 1 79. 
Impresso en Vatladolidy por Francisco Fernandez de Cordova.^ Im- 
pressor de la M. ^., 1560. ia<>. 

[C. 33- c. 39] 

35. Ondegardo, Polo de. — Report by Polo de Ondegardo on the lineage, 

conquests, edifices, fortresses, &c., of the Yncas. From the MS. in the 
Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid. B. 135. 1560. 
See 1873, ^o* ^^o* 

1563. 

36. Beuter, Pedro Antonio. — Primera Parte de la Coronica general de todo 

Espafla, y especialmente del reyno de Valencia... Compuesta por el 

Doctor Pero Anton Beuther, maestro en sacra Theologia. (Sqg[unda 

Parte, 1551.) a pts. [With woodcuts.] 

Impresso en la muy noble dudad de Valencia, en casa de yoan Mey 

Flandro^ A Ho del Nascimiento de nuestro seflor Jesu Christo, 15631 

1551. fol. 

[593- g- «•] 

1565. 

37. Benxoni, Girolamo. — La Historia del Mondo Nuovo, di M. Girolamo 

Benzoni, Milanese. La qual tratta dell' Isole, & Mari nuovamente 
ritrovati, et delle naove Cittii da lui proprio vedute, per acqua & per 
terra in quatordeci anni. [With wocnicuts, among others " Come gl' 
Indian i del Peru adorano il Sole, & lo tengono per il suo principal 
Iddio" (f. 166); & "II modo che tengono gli orefici nel lavorare, & 
fondere T oro, & 1' argento." (ff. 169). ff. 175. 

Appresso (Fr, Rampazetto, ad instantia di) Gabriel Bensoni: in 
Venetia, MDLXV. 8«. 

[K. 278. a. 39. — Another edition. — 1061. a. 7.] 

1569. 

38. Toledo, Francisco de. Viceroy of Peru, — [Documents relating to the 

appointment and administration of Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy of 
Peru, 1569-1581. — Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid. MS. J. 113.] 
See 1867, No. 107. 

X570- 

39. Molina, Christoval de. — An Account of the Fables and Rites of the 

Yncas. By Christoval de Molina. 1570-1584. 
See 1873, No. a 30. 

1571- 

40. FemAndez, Diego« de Palencia. — Primera y Segunda Parte de la 

Historia del Peru, que se mando escrevir k Diego Fernandez, vezino de 

18—2 



276 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

la cittdad de Palencia. Cotiene U primera, lo snccedtdo en la Nnera 
Espafia y en el Peril, sobre la execucion de las nuevas leyes: y el 
allanamiento, y castigo, aue hizo el Presidente Gasca de Goncalo 
Pi9arro v sus sequaces. La Segunda, contiene la Tyrannia y Ai9a- 
mtento de los Contreras, y don Sebastifl de Castilla, y de Francisco 
Hernfldez Giron : con otros machos acaescimientos y successes. Dirigido 
JL la C. R. M. del Rey Don Philippe nuestro Seftor. a parts. 

Fue impresso tn Sevilla en casa de Hernando diaz en la calle de la 

Sierpe^ Alio de 1571. fol. 
[G. 6392. — K. 147. d. 8. — 601. 1. 6.— This book was prohibited by 
the Council of the Indies, and never reprinted, and is now very 
rare. The author served in Peru a^inst Pizarro. There is a 
copy in the John Carter Brown Library, Providence, Rhode 
IsUnd. On the title-page of each part is a large plate of the arras 
of Philip II, and at the end of Part 3 is the author's autograph 
signature.] 

41. Incaa. — Infonnacion de las Idolatrias de los Incas e Indios y de como se 
enterraban, etc, Afio de 157 1. 
See 1874, No. laa. 

43. Ondegardo, Polo de.— Reladon de los Fundamentos acerca del notable 
Dafio que resulta de no guardar k los Indios sus fueros. Junio a6 
de 1571. 
[Por Polo de Ondegardo. — Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid. Manuscritos 
de Indias, T. 9.J 

See 1872, No. ai8. 

43. Toledo, Francisco de. Viceroy of Peru, — Memorial que D. Francisco de 

Toledo di6 al Rey nuestro Sefior del estado en que dejo las cosas 
del Piru despues de haber sido en 61 virey y capitan general trece afios, 
que comenzaron el de 1569. 
Su 1855. No. 180. 

1572. 

44. Benzoni, Girolamo. — La Historia del Mondo Nuovo, di M. Girolamo 

Benzoni, Milanese... Nuovamente ristampata, et illustrata con la giunta 
d* alcune cose notabile dell* Isole di Canaria. [Dedicated to Scipio 
Simoneta, Senator.] ff. 179. MS. Notes. 

Appresso gli Heredi di Giavan Maria Bonelli, ad instantia di Pietro 
&* Francesco Tini^ fratelli : in Venetia^ mdlxii. 8°. 

[G. 6903. — 978. a. 11. From the Library of Sir Joseph Banks.] 

45. Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro. — Segunda parte de la Historia general 

Uamada Indica, la cual por mandado del excelentisimo sefior Don 
Francisco de Toledo, virrey, gobernador y capitan general de los reinos 
del Piru y mayordomo de la casa real de Castilla, compuso el capitan 
Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa. MS. 1571. 
See 1906, No. 389; 1907, No. 390. 

1577- 

46. Zarate, Augustin de.— Historia del Descubrimiento y Conquista de las 

Provincias del Peru, y de los successes que enella ha avido, desde que se 
conquist6, hasta que el Licenciado de la Gasca Obispo de Siguen^ 
bolvio a estos reynos : y de las cosas naturales que en la dicha provincia 
se hallan dignas de memoria. La qual escrevia Augustin de (^arate. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 2/7 

Contador de mercedes de su Magestad, siendo Contador general de 
cuentas en aquelU provincia, y en la de Tierrafirme. Imprimiose el afio 
de cincuenta y cinco en la villa de An vers, &c. (Tabla.) ff. 117. 

£ft casa de Alonso Escrivano: en Sevilla, Aflo de M.D.LXXVII. fol. 

[601. k. 19.] 

X5«i. 

47. Zarate, Augustin de. — The strange and delectable History of the dis- 

coverie and Conquest of the Provinces of Peru, in the South Sea. And 
of the notable things which there are found : and also of the bloudie 
civill warres which there happened for government. Written in foure 
bookes, by Augustine Sarate, Auditor for the Emperour his Maiestie 
in the same provinces and firme land. And also of the ritche Mines of 
Potusi. Translated out of the Spanish tongue, by T. Nicholas. [Dedicated 
to Thomas Wilson, D.C.L., one of the principal Secretaries to Queen 
Elizabeth.] ff. 93. [With woodcuts.] 
Imprinted at London by Richard Jkonts^ dwelling aver against the 

Fawlcon, by Holbume bridge^ 1581. ^, 
[G. 6337. — 1061. b. 23. — With a second title, and woodcut of " The 

Riche Mines of Potossi.*' The second copy is cropped, and is 

imperfect, wanting ff. 17-30, sig. F.] 

1584. 

48. Catecisma. — [Catecismo y Doctrina Cristiana en los Idiomas Castellano, y 

Qquechua, y Aymara. Ordenado por autoridad del Concilio Provincial 
de Lima dd afio de 1583.] ff. 84. 
Impresso en la Ciudad de los Reyes, por Antonio Ricardo, primoro 

Impressor en estos Reynos del Piru. AHo de MDLXXXIIII. 40. 
[C 53. c. 26. (i). — ^The first book printed in Peru, according to the 
British Museum Catalogue. But see 1604, No. 67; and 1829, 
No. 155. This copy wants the title-page. At the back of the 
colophon is a plate with the arms of Philip II, and the Pillars 
of Hercules. Purchased October 13, 1891.] 

1585. 

49. Indios. — Confessionario para los Curas de Indios. Con la instrucion 

contra sus Ritos : y Exhortacion ptara ayudar a bien morir : y summa de 
sus Privilegios : y forma de Impedimentos del Matrimonio. Compuesto 
y traduzido en las Lenguas Quichua, y Aymara. Por autoridad del 
Concilio Provincial de Lima, del afio de 1583. ff. 65. 

Impresso con Licencia de la Real Audiencia^ en la Ciudad de los 
Reyes, por Antonio Ricardo, primero Impressor en estos Reynos del 
Piru, Ano de MDLXXXV. 40. 
[C. 53. c. 59.— C. 53. c. 26 (2). — In this work is contained : •* In- 
strucion contra las Ceremonias y Ritos que usan los Indios conforme 
al tiempo de su infidelidad."] 

50. Catecismo. — Tercero Cathecismo y Exposicion de la Doctrina Christiana, 

por Sermones. Para que los Curas y otros ministros prediquen y 

ensefien a los Yndios y a las demas personas. Conforme a lo que en el 

Sancto Concilio Provincial de Lima se proveyo. ff. 1-207. 

Impresso con licencia de la Real Audienciaj en la Ciudad de los Reyes, 

por Antonio Ricardo, primero Impressor en estos Reynos del Piru, 

AHo de MDLXXXV. 4°. 

[C. 53. c 26 (3). — At the bottom right-hand corner of the title-page is 
written: Joseph de Acosta, which may be the autograph of the 
famous historian of the Indies. This copy wants all after fol. 207. — 
C. 53. d. 8. — This b a perfect copy, with 213 folios.] 

See 1774, No. 139. 



2/8 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1536. 

51. Cavello Balboa, Miguel.— Miscellanea austral. [Part in. Historiadel 
Peni.] MS. 1586. 
See 1840, No. 163. 

5a. Quichua.— Arte y Vocabulario en la lengua general del Peru Ilamada 
Quichua, y en la lengua es|>aflola. £1 mas copioso y elegante que 
hasta agora se ha impreso. pp. 333. 
For Antonio Ricardo: en Los Reyes^ Aflo de MDLXXXVi. S^. 
[Not in the British Museum. — There is a copy in the Biblioteca 
Nacional, and the Biblioteca del Museo de Ultramar, Madrid.] 
Su 1614, No. 85. 

55. Sarmiento de Qamboa, Pedro. — Copy of a Letter translated from the 
English, written in London, loth November 1586, taken by Pedro 
Sarmiento de Garoboa, and with a note of his visit to Queen Elizabeth 
at Windsor Castle. 
Ste 1896, No. 471. 

1590. 

54. Acosta, Joseph de, S,y, — Historia natural y moral de las Indias, en que 

se tretan las cosas notables del cielo, ^ elementos, metales, plantas, y 
animales dellas : y los rttos, y ceremonias leyes, y goviemo, y ^erras de 
los Indios. Compuesta por el Padre Joseph de Acosti, Keligioso de la 
Compaftia de Jesus. Dirigida a la Serenissima Infanta Dofia Isabella 
Clara Eugenia di Austria, pp. 535. 

Impresso en SeviUa en casa de Juan de Lecn^ AAo de 159a 4®. 

[G. 6341.— K. 146. a. 3.] 

55. Valera, Bias, ^'.^'.^Historia imperii Peruani. MS. c. 1590. 

[The author went to Spain, to superintend the printing of this work, 
but the greater part of the MS. was lost in the siege of Cadiz by the 
English m 1596. Father Pedro Maldonado de Saavedra, Professor 
of Theology at Cordova, in 1600, gave some leaves of the MS. 
to Garcilasso de la Vega.] 

X591. 

56. Acosta, Joseph de, 5'.7— Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias... 

Compuesta por el Padre Joseph de Acosta, Religioso He la Compafiia de 

Jesus. Dirigida al lUustrissimo Sefior Don Enrique de Cardona, 

Govemador por su Magestad en el Principado de Cathalufta. pp. 345. 

Acosta de Ltlio mnrini, Veneciano, al Carrer de la Boqueria: en 

Barcelona^ I59i> i^*** 
[978. a. 13. — Two pages of the Introduction are supplied in MS. — 
From the Library of Sir Joseph Banks.] 

1593. 

57. Jesuits. — Lettres du Japon, et de la Chine, des annte 1589 & 1590. Et 

certains advis du Peru, des annees 1588 & 1589. Envoyezau Reverend 
Pire G^n^ral de la Compagnie de J^sus. pp. 310. 
Par Jean Pillehotte, h tenseigne du nom de Jisus: h Lyon^ 

M.D.XCIII. 8^ 
[G. 6685. (i).— Formerly in the Library of Richard Heber.— On the 
covers are the Crown and Cipher of Louis XIII, King of France, and 
his wife, Anne of Austria, with the later addition of the arms 
of Paulin Prondre de Guermante.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 2/9 

Z594- 

58. Jesuits. — Recudl de Quelques Missions des Indes Orientales, & Ocd- 

dentales : extratct d'aucuns Avertissemens escrits 6s ann^es 1590 & 1591, 
par les P^res Pierre Martinez, Provincial de I'lnde Orientale, jean 
d'Atienza, Provincial du P^ni, & Pierre Diaz, Provincial du Messic. 
Att R^v^rend P^re Claude Aqua viva, G^n^ralde laCompagniedeJdsus. 
Traduict maintenant d'lta'ien en Fran9ois. (Table.) pp.173. 

Par Jean PUlehoUe: d Lyon, M.D.XCilli. 8°. 

[G. 6685. (cr).— Bound up with 1593, No. 57.] 

1598. 

59. Or6, Luis Ger6nimo de. — Symholo Catholico Indiano, en el qua! se 

dedaran los mysterios de la F^ contenidos en los tres Symbolos 
Catholicos, Apostolico, Niceno, y de S. Athanasio. Contiene assi 
mesmo una descripcion del nuevo orbe, j de los naturales del. Y 
un orden de ensefiarles la doctrina Christiana en las dos lenffoas 
Generales, Quichua y Aymara, con un Confessionario breve y Catechismo 
de la Communion. Todo lo qual esta approbado por los Reveren- 
dissimos sefiores Ar9obispo de los Reyes, y Obispos del Cuzco, y de 
Tucuman. Compuesto por el Padre Fray Luis Hieronymo de Orrf, 
predicador de la orden de sant Francisco, de la provincia de los doze 
Apostoles del Piru. [On the verso of the title is : ror el Sefior don Luys 
de Velasco Vissorrey del Piru esta tassado a real el pliego.] S. 193. 
Impresso en Lima por Antonio Ricardo; a costa de Pedro Fernandez 

de Falenfuela^ Afio 1598. \^. 
[C. 58. e. 9. — The Permission to print from the Viceroy, the Marquis 

de Cafiete, is signed by Alvaro Kuyz de NavamueU] 

Z599- 

60. Vargas Machuca, Bernardo de. — Milida y Descripcion de las Indias. 

Por el Capitan don Bernardo de Vargas Machuca, Cavallero Castellano, 
natural de la villa de Simancas. Dirigido al Licenciado Paulo de 
Laguna, Presidente del Consejo Real de las Indias. (Compendio de la 
Sphera.) ff. 186. 

En casa de Pedro Madrigal: en Madrid^ AOo MDXCIX. 

[G. 7I59-— K. 178. f. 23.-1046. c. I. (a).] 

x6ox. 

61. Herrera Tordesillas, Antonio de.— Historia General de los Hechos 

de los Castellanos en las Islas i Tierra Firme del Mar Oceano. Escrita 
por Antonio de Herrera, Coronista Mayor de su M** : de las Indias y sn 
Coronista de Castilla. En quatro [or rather, nine] Decadas desde el 
Ano de 149a hasta el de 1531. Al Rey Nu*^ Sefior. 
En Met': en la Emplenta Pedil'\; por yuan de la Cuesia; 1601, 
16 1 5, 1601. fol. 

[G. 7206-8.-601. k. 12-15.-601. k. 8-11.— The Decades have 
finely engraved title-pages, with medallion portraits, and battle- 
scenes, &c. — Decade 5 has 13 medallion portraits of the Incas of 
Peru, which Dr Richard Pietschmann thinks ma^ have been copied 
from the three cloths sent by Sarmiento to Philip II, as on p. ix 
of the Introduction to the present volume, where there is a repro- 
duction of the Herrera title-page. 

See 1859, No. 188; 1906, No. 289 ; 1907, No. 290. 



280 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

z6oa. 

61. Avalos y Pi^eroa, Diego d'.— Primen Parte de U Miscelanea Austral 
de Don Diego d' Avalos y Figueroa, en vmrios Coloqaios, Interlocutores, 
Delto, y Cilena. Con la Defensa de Damas, Dirigida a V excellentiasimo 
sefior Don Luys de Velasco, Cavallero de la Orden de Santiago, Visoreyt 
y Capitan general de los Reynos del Piru, Chile, y Tierra firme. i yoIs. 
C^ff Luencia de su ExceUmia: Impresso en Lima par Antonio 

Ricardo^ AHo M.DCII., M.DCiii. 4«. 
[C. 58. e. 15.] 

1603. 

63. Bertonio, Ludovioo. — Arte Breve de la Lengna Asmara. Para intro- 

duction del Arte Grande de la misnia Lenpua. c5ompue$ta por el P. 
Ludovico Bertonio, Romano de la compafiia de Jesus en U Provincia 
del Pini, de la India Occidental, pp. 30. 

En Roma por Luis ZannetH, AHo de 1603. 9f*, 

[a 33. d. 19.] 

64. Bertonio, Ludovico. — Arte y Grammatica muy copiosa de la Lengua 

Aymara. Con muchos, y varios modos de hablar para su mayor 
doclaracion, con la tabla de los capitulos, y cosas que en elU se con- 
tienen, &c. Compaesta por el P. Ludovico Bertonio, Romano de la 
compafiia de Jesus en la Provincia del Pirn, de U India Occidental. 
(Registro.) pp. 348. 

En Roma por Lids Zannef/i, AHo de 1603. 9^. 

[C. 33. d. 19.] See 1879, No. 131. 

65. Torres Rubio, Diego de, 5.7.— Grammatica y Vocabulario en la 

Lengua general del Peru, Uamada Quichua y en la Lengua Espaftola, 
el mas copioso y elegante que hasta agora se ha impresso. [Por Diego 
de Torres Rubio.] 

CUmente Hidalgo: Sevilla, 1603. ia<». 

[Not in the British Museum.— 5Vv Aug. & AL de Backer. BiM. 
Comp. de Jisus, torn. 8. 1898. col. 135. — See also Bernard 
Quaritch, Catalogue No, iia, May 1891, No. 1633.] 

Z604. 

65. AcoBta, Joseph de.— The Naturall and Morall Historic of the East and 
West Indies. Intreating of the remarkeable things of Heaven, of the 
Elements, Mettalls, Plants and Beasts which are proper to that Country : 
Together with the Manners, Ceremonies, Lawes, Govemements, and 
Warres of the Indians. Written in Spanish by Joseph Acosta, and 
translated into English by E. G[rimston]. pp. 590. 

Printed by Val: Sims for Edward Blount and William Aspley : 

London^ 1604. 4^ 
[G. 15020.— K. 279. h. 35.-978. f. 9. From the Library of Sir 
Joseph Banks.} 

67. Catecismo. — Catecismo en la Lengua Espaftola, y Aymara del Piru. 
Ordenado por autoridad del Concilio Provincial de Lama, y impiesso 
en U dicha ciudad el afto de 1583. ff. 49. 

En Seuilla^ por Bartolome Gomez, AiUt de 1604. 13^. 
[C. 58. a. 14. (a).— With the crest and initials of Henri Temaux- 
Compans on the covers.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 28 1 

68. Quichua. — ^Vocabulario en la Lengua General del Peru, llamada 

Quichoa, y en la lengua B^paftola. Nuevamente emendado y afiadido 
de algunas cosas que fidtavan por el Padre Maestro Fray Juan Martinez, 
Cathedratico de la Lengua, de la orden del sefior Saint Augustin. 
(Arte de la Lengua General del Peru, &c.) 3 pts. 

Por Antonio Ricardo : en Us Reyts^ Afio de MDCiiil. S". 

[C. 63. a. 13.] 

Z607. 

69. Garcia, Gregorio. — Origen de los Indies de el Nuevo Mundo, e Indias 

Occidentales. Averiguado con discurso de opiniones por el Padre 
Presentado Fray Gregorio Garcia, de la orden de Predicadores... 
Dirigido al Angelico Dotor Santo Thomas de Aquino, pp. 535. 

En icLsa do Pedro Patricio Mey^ junto a San Martin : en Valencia^ 
MDCVII. ia». 

[106 1, b. II.] See 1729, No. 135. 

70. Gonzalez Holguin, Diego, S.J. — Gramatica y Arte Nueva de la 

Lengua General de todo el Peru, llamada lengua Qquichua, o lengua 
del Inca. Afiadida y cumpHda (Dedicada al Doctor Hernando Arias 
de Ugarte)...Compuesta por el Padre Diego Gonzalez Holguin, de la 
Com^iAia de Jesus, natural de Ca9eres. ff. 144. 

Impressa en la Ciudad de los Reyes del Peru por Francisco del Canto 
impressort AHo MDCVii. 4°. 

[C. 58. e. 14] See 1842, No. 165. 

71. Peruvian Ritual. — Rituale, seu Manuale Penianum, et Forma Brevis 

Administrandi apud Indos sacrosancta Baptismi, Poenitentise, Eucbaristise, 
Matrimonii, & Extremae unctionis Sacramenta. Juxta ordinem Sanctse 
Romans Ecclesise. Per R. P. F. Ludovicum Hieronymum Orerium, 
Ordinis Minorum Concionatorem, & Sacrae Theologiae Lectorem 
accuratum : et quae indigent versione, vulgaribus Idiomatibus Indicb, 
secundum diversos situs omnium Provinciarum novi orbis Peru, aut per 
ipsum translata, aut ejus industria elaborata. pp. 418. 

Apud Jo. JcuohuM Carlinum, ^ Constantinum Vitalem : NeapoH^ 
1607. 4°. 

[C. 53. c. 13. — 3365. g. 3. This copy is printed on thin paper, and 
has been cropped in binding.] See 1894, No. 165. 

z6o8. 

71. Acosta, Joseph de, S.J, Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias... 
Compuesta por el Padre Joseph de Acosta, Keligioso de la Compania 
de Jesus, Dirigida a la Serenissima Infanta Dofla IsabeU Clara Eugenia 
de Austria. (Tabla de las Cosas.) pp. 535. 

Impresso en Madrid en casa de Alonso Martin ; a costa de Juan 

Berrillo^ mercader de libros^ Aflo 1608. 4^. 
[978. k. 6.] 

73. Avila, Francisco de. — A Narrative of the errors, false gods, and other 

superstitions and diabolical rites, in which the Indians of the province 
of Huarochiri lived in ancient times. By Dr Francisco de Avila. i(So8. 
See 1873, No. a so. 

74. Gonzalez Holguin, Diego, 5.y.— Vocabulario de la Lengua General 

de todo el Peru llamada len^a Qquichua, o del Inca. Corregido y 
renovado conforme a la propriedad cortesana del Cuzco. Dividido en 
dos libros...Van aftadidos al fin los privilegios concedidos a los Indios. 
Compuesto por el Padre Diego Gon9alez Holguin, de la Compafiia de 



282 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Jesus, natural de Ca^eres. Dedicado al Doctor Hernando Arias de 
Vgarte, &c. (Sunimario de los Privilegios y Facultades conoedidas 
para los indios.) i pts. 

Impresso en la Ciudad de los Reyes. For Francisco del Canlo, Aflo 
MDCVIII. 4<'. 

[C. 58. e. 5. — With the crest and initials of Henri Temaux-Compans 
on the covers.] 

Z609. 
75. Qarcilasso de la Vega, el /itrtf.— Primera Parte de los Commentaries 
Reales, que tratan del Origen de los Yncas, Reyes que fueron del Pern, 
de su Idolatria, Leyes, y goviemo en paz y en guerra : de sus vidas y 
conauista«, y de todo lo que fiie aquel Imperio y su Republica, antes 
que los Espafioles passaran a el. Kscritos por el Ynca Garcilasso de U 
Vega, natural del Cozco, y Capitan de su Magestad. Dirigidos a la 
Serenissima Princesa Dofta Catalina de Portugal, Duqueza de Baiiganfa, 
&c. IT. 364. [The colophon is dated : MDCViii.] 

Con licenda de la Sastcta Inquisicion^ Ordinario^ y Fofo : en la officina 
de Fedro Crasbeeck : en Lisboa^ AfU> de MDCIX. 4<>. 

— Segunda Parte de los Comentarios Reales que tratan del Origen de los 
Incas, Reyes que fueron del Peru, de su Idolatria, Leyes, y Goviemo 
en paz, y en guerra ; de sus Vidas, y Conquistas, su Descubrimiento, y 
como lo ganaron los Espafioles; las Guerras Civiles (jue huvo entre 
Pizarros, y Almagros, sobre la partiga de la Tiena ; Castigo, y Levanta- 
miento de Tyranos, y de todo lo que fue aquel Imperio, y Republica, 
antes que los Espafioles passaran k il. Escritos por el Inca Garcilasso 
de la Vega, Natural del Cozco, y Capitan de su Magestad. Dir^da a 
la Limpissima Virgen Maria Madre de Dios, y Sefiora Nnestra. n. 300. 

En la Oficina de Fedro Crasbeeck : en Lisboa^ Afh MDCIX. 4°. 

[601. i. 15, 16.] See 1733, No. 134; 1839, No. 156. 

76. — [Another copy of Primera Parte. — With a large plate, 61 X9i inches, of 
the arms ot Garcilasso de la Vega, as on his memorial chapel at Cordova, 
showing the coats of the families of Vargas, Figueroa, Counts of Feria, 
Saavedra, Counts of Castellar, Mendoza, Counts of Tendilla, and the 
coat of the Incas, granted bv the Emperor Charles V.— This plate has 
been reproduced in facsimile by Mr Donald Macbeth for the Hon. 
Secretary of the Hakluyt Society, from whom copies can be obtained 
at If. each. 
[601. i. 17.] 

77.— [Another edition of Segunda Parte : entitled :] Hlstoria General del Peru. 
Tiata el Descubrimiento del ; y como lo ganaron los Espafioles. Las 
Guerras civiles (jue huvo entre Pifarros, y Almagros, sobre la partija de 
la tierra. Castigo y levantamieto de tiranos : ^ otros sucessos par- 
ticulares que en la Historia se contienen. Escnta por el Ynca Gar- 
cilasso de la Vega, Capitan de su magestad, etc. Dirigida ii la 
Limpissima Virgen Maria, Madre de Dios, y Sefiora nuestra. ff. 300. 
For la Viuda de Andres Barrera^ y a su costa^ en Cordova^ AfUf 

MDCXVIl. fol. 
[601. 1. 7. — From the Library of King James I.] 

x6xo. 
78. Lopez de Caravantes, Francisco. — Noticia General del Peru, Tierra 
firme y Chile. Por Francisco Lopez de Caravantes, Contador de 
Cuentas en el Tribunal de la Contadurfa mayor de las mismas pro- 
vincias. MS. c. 1610. 
['* Esta obra estuvo antes en la libreria del colegio mayor de Cuenca de 
Salamanca, y ahora existe en la particular de S. M."J See 1830, 
No. 159. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 283 

79. Muiiiz, Pedro. — Discurso del Dr Mufiiz, decan de Lima, sobre el 

servicio de los indios en el beneficio de obrajes, trapiches, villas, 
sementeras, guarda de ganados, beneficio de las minas de Azogue en 
Guancabelica de la Plata en Potosi. [Holograph MS. with the signa- 
ture of the author.] c. 1610. 
[B.M. Sloane MSS. 3055, fol. 30. See Gayangos, P. de, Catalogue^ 
vol. 2, p. 477. 1877.] 

80. Ocampo, Baltasar de. — Descripcion de la provincia de Sant Francisco 

de la Vitoria de Villcapampa (Vilcabamba), por el capitan Baltasar de 
Ocampo, dirigida al Marques de Montesclaros [Don Juan de Mendoza y 
Luna], virrey, gobemador y capitan general de los Reynos del Peru y 
Chile, ff. 36. MS. c. 1610. 

[Add. MSS. 17,585. Tract 1 in a volume: Peru : Tratados Varios. 
1557-1610. From the Bauza Collection. This MS., of which an 
English translation now first appears, gves an account by an eye- 
witness of the execution of the Inca Tupac Amaru, 1571. This 
volume belonged originally to Don Juan Bautista Mufioz, the 
historian of Spanish America (i 745-1799). The MS. in question 
appears to be a copy made at the end of the i8th century. See 
Gayangos, Pascual de. Catalogue^ vol. II p. 461. 1877. 8<'. 
There are many other MSS. on Peru in the same catalogue, which 
are at present lost in the absence of a complete general index of 
authors, titles, and subjects, as is also the case with the MS. maps 
of Peru and South America, in the British Museum. The printed 
Catalogue (1844-1861) ends at vol. 3, 1861, and is not yet com- 
plete, and even for these three volumes there is no Index.] 

81. Suarez de Salazar, Juan Bautista. — Grandezas y Antiguedades de la 

Isla y Ciudad de Cadu... Por Joan Baptista Suarez de Salazar, Racionero 
en la santa Iglesia de Cadiz. Dirigido al illustrissimo Cardenal don 
Antonio (^apata. pp. 317. 

Impresso for CUmente Hidalgo: en CeuUt^ Afko i6io. 4**. 

[K. a8i. g. 26.-574. f- «o.] 

X6l2. 

8a. Bertonio, Ludovico.— Arte de la Lengua Aymara. Con una silva de 
Phrases de la misma lengua, y su declaracion en Romance. Por el 
Padre Ludovico Bertonio, Italiano de la Compafiia de Jesus en la 
Provincia del Peru natural de Rocca Contrada de la Marca de Ancona. 
Dedicado al Illustrissimo y Reverendissimo seflor don Hernando de 
Mendofa Obispo del Cuzco de la mesma Compafiia. pp. 163. 
Impresso en la casa de la CdpaHia de Jesus de Juli en la Provincia de 

Chueuyto, Por Francisco del Canio^ it 12, 8<». 
[C. 33. a. 51.— With the book-pUte of Sir Woodbine Parish, F.R.S.] 

83. Bertonio, Ludovico. — Vocabulario de la Lengua Aymara. Primera 
parte, donde por Abecedario se ponen en primer lugar los Vocablos de 
la lengua Espafiola para buscar los que les corresponden en la lengua 
Aymara. Compuesto por el P. Ludovico Bertonio, Italiano, de la 
Compafiia de Jesus, en la Provincia del Piru, de las Indias Occidentales, 
Natural de la Roca contrada de la Marca de Ancona. Dedicado al 
Illustrissimo y Reeverendissimo Sefior Don Fray Domingo Valderrama 
Centeno Maestro en sancta Theologia, Ar9obispo, y primer obispo de 
la Paz, del Consejo de su Magestad. a pts. 
Impresso en la ccua de la Compahia de Jesus de Juli Pueblo en 

la Provincia de Chucuito. Por Francisco del Canto^ 161 a. 4<». 
[C. 58. e. 6. — With the crest and initials of Henri Temaux-Compans on 
the covers.] See 1879, ^^' *3*" 



284 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

94. Villegas, Alonso de.— Ubro de la Vida y Milagrot de Nuestro Sefior 
Jesu Christo en dos Lenguas, Ayman, j Romaoce, tfaduddo de d que 
recopilo el Licenciado ^onso de Villegas, quitadas, y afiadidas algunas 
cosas, y acomodado a la capacidad de los Indios. Por el Padre 
Lttdovico Bertonio, Italiano de la Compafiia de Jesas en la Provinciade 
el Piru, natural de Rocca Contrada de la Marca de Ancona. Dedicado 
al Illostrissimo y Reverendissimo Sefior don Alonso de Peralta primer 
Ar9obispo de los Cbarcas. (Tabla.) pp. 659. 

Impresso en la Casa de la CompaHia de Jesus de JuU Pueblo tm 
la Prcvincia de Chucuyto por Francisco del Canto^ 161 3. 4". 

[C. 58. d. 43. — Purchased Augnst 3, 1893.] 

16x4. 

85. Quichua.— Arte, y Vocabulario en la Lengua General del Peru, Ilamada 

Quichua, y en La lengua Espafiola. £1 mas copioso y elegante, que 
hasta agora se ha impresso. 3 pts. 
En los Reyes, Con Ucencia del Excdleniissimo SeMor Marques de 
Mantes Claros, Virrey del Ptrut por Francisco del Canlo, Ano 
de MDCXiiii. \i9* 
[C. 58. b. 3. (i).] See 1586, No. 5a- 

16x6. 

86. Huertaf Alonzo de. — Arte de la Lengua Quechua General de los Yndios 

de este Reyno del Pirn. Dirigido al Illustrissimo Sefior Don Bartholome 
Lobo Guerrero, Ar^obispo Tercero del. Compuesto por el Doctor Alonso 
de Huerta Cleiigo Presbytero Predicador de la dicha Lengua en esta 
Sancta Yglesia Cathedral,... natural de la mny noble y muy leal Ciudad 
de Leo de Huanuco. fT. 35. 
Impresso por Francisco del Canto: en los Reyes^ AHo ifDCXVi. 4®. 
[C. 58. e. 4.— The last leaf has a large Printer's Device, with the 
Cross, three nails, and a skull at the base. — ^The crest and initials of 
Henri Temaux-Compans are on the covers.] 

87. Torres Ruble, Diego de, 5. T"-— Arte de la Lengua Aymara. Compuesto 

por el Padre Diego de Torres Rubio, de la Comoafiia de Jesus. Con 
Licencia del Sefior Principe de Esquilcahe Virrey destos Reynos. flf. 98. 

En Lima, por Francisco del Canto^ Alio de 1616, 12®. 

[C. 58. a. 14. (i).— With the crest and initials of Henri Temaux- 
Compans on the covers.] 

16x9. 

88. Torres Rubio, Diego de, S.J. — Arte de la Lengua Quichua. Compuesto 

por el Padre Diego de Torres Kubio, de la Compafiia de Jesus. Con 
Licencia del Senor Principe de Esquilache Virrey destos Reynos. 3 pts. 

For Francisco Lasso: en Lima, AHo de 16 19. 16°. 

[C. 33. a. *fi,—See 1700, No. 118 ; 1754, No. 134. 

x6ao. 

89. Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqul, Juan de.— Relacion de Antigttedades 

deste Reyno del Piru. Por Don Juan de Santacruz Pachacuti Yamqui. 
1620. 
See 1873, No. aao ; 1879, No. 335 ; 1893, No. 359. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 285 

z6ai. 

90. Arriaga, Pablo Joseph de, S,y. — Extirpacton de la Idolatria del Piru. 

Dirigido al Rey >f.S. en su Real Conseio de Indias. Por el Padre- 
Pablo Joseph de Arriaga, de U Compafiia de Jesus, pp. 147. 
Por Ceronymc de Contreras^ Impressor de Libros: en Lima^ Awh 

i6ai. 8«. 
[C. 35. e. 5. — The MS. was in the Library of Ephraim George Squier 
in 1876. (No. 723, Catalogue of the Library of E. G. Souier. 
Edited by Joseph Sabin. Bangs, Merwin & Co. : New York,. 
1876. 8».— 01 1899. k. 25.)] 

91. Ramos Qavilan, Alonso. — Historia del Celebre Santuario de Nuestra 

Seftora de Copacabana, y sus Milagros, k Invencion de la Cruz de 
Carabttco. A Don Alonso Bravo de Sarabia y Sotomayor, del Abito de- 
Santiago, del Consejo de su Magestad, Consultor del Santo Oficio, y 
Oydor de Mexico. Por el P. F. Alonso Ramos Gavilan, Predicador,. 
del Orden de N. P. S. Agustin. (Tabla. Soneto.) pp. 433. 

Por Geronymo de Contreras: en Lima, Aflo i6ai. 4°. 

[4744. dd. 10.] 

z6a2. 

9a. Lopez de Haro, Alonso. — Nobiliario Genealogico de los Reyes y Titulos. 
de Espafia. Dirigido a la Magestad del Rey Don Felipe Quarto- 
nuestro sefior. Compuesto por Alonso Lopez de Haro, Cnado de su 
Magestad, y Ministro en su Real Consejo de las Ordenes. 3 torn. 
Por Luis Sanchez, Impressor Real: en Madrid, AHo MDCXXii. fol. 
[K. 136. c. la, 13.— 607. k. 17, 18. — II 19. f. — Tom. ii, pp. 40-44. 
Coat of arms and pedigree of Don Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy of 
Peru, 1569-1581. 

1625. 

93. Leon Pinelo, Antonio de. — Libros Reales de Goviemo y Gracia de. 

la Secretaria del Peru, que por mandado del Real Consejo de las 
Indias, y orden del sefior Licenciado don Rodrigo de Aguiar y Acufta, a. 
cuyo cargo est^ la Recopilacio de leyes dellas, ha leydo y passado el 
Licenciado Antonio de Leon. ff. 1 1 . 

[Madrid, 1625.] fol. 

[1324- i- '3- W-] 

94. Matienzo de Peralta, Juan. — Reladon del libro intitulado Goviemo de 

el Peru, oue hizo el Lic<^. Matien90, oydor de la audiencia de la. 
ciudad de la Plata, a pts. fT. 137. 
[Pt. 1, in 5a chapters, treats of the history of Peru before the Spanish. 

Conquest. Pt. a has 3a chapters.] MS. c. 1635. 
[B.M. Add. MSS. 5469. See Gayangos, P. de, Catalogue, vol. a,, 
p. 470. 1877.] 

1627. 

95. Simon , Pedro. — Primera Parte de las Noticias historiales de las Conquistas- 

de tierra firme en las Indias Occidentales. Compuesto por el Padre 
Fray Pedro Simon, Provincial de la Serafico Orden de San Francisco, 
del Nuevo Rey no de Granada en las Indias... Natural de la Parrilla 
Obispado de Cuenca. Dirigido a nuestro invictissimo y major Monarca 
del Antiguo y nuebo Mundo, Philippo quarto en su Real y supremo* 
Consejo de las Indias. pp. 671. 
En Cuenca por Domingo de la Iglesia, Afio de i6a7. fol. 



286 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

[G. 6418. — 601. 1. ao. — With a fine engraved title, representing the 
King of Spain holding the crown of the Indies on his knees l^fore 
the Pope. — K. 147.' d. n. This copy wants the original title. In 
place of this, has been substituted a theolc^cal engraved title 
by Marcus de Orosco, 1660, representing Veritas, Si>\ Justitiae, 
Aurora Consuigens, &c. The last fly-leaf has the tax stamp of 
Philip V, with the Spanish arms.] See 1861, No. 194. 

1630. 

96. Salinas y Cordova, Buenaventura de.— Memorial des las Historias 

del Nuevo Mundo: Pirn. Meritos, y Excelencias de la Ciudad de 
Lima, cabe9a de sus ricos, y estendidos Rejmos, y el estado presente en 
que se hallan. Para inclinar a la Magestad de su Catolico Monarca 
Don Felipe IV. Rey poderoso de Espafia, y de las Indias, a que pida 
a su Santidad la Canonizacion de su Patron Solano. Por el Padre 
F. Buenaventura de Salinas, de la Orden de nuestro Serafico Padre san 
Francisco, Letor de Teologia, en el Convento de Jesus de Lima, y 
Calificador del Santo Oficio. pp. 308. 

Impresso en Lima^ Por Geronymo de Contreras : AHo de 1630. 4°. 

[1061. g. 46.] 

163X. 

97. Oliva, Anello, 5. 7. — ^Vidas de varones ilustres de la Compafiia de Jesus 

de la Provincia del Peru. Repartidas en cuatro libros : En el primero 
se trata del Reyno y Provincias del Peru, de sus Incas, Reyes, des- 
cubrimiento y conquista por les Espaftoles de la corona de Castilla con 
otras singularidades concemientes Jk la historia, y en los otros tres 
las vidas de los dichos Padres. Por le R. P. Anello Oliva, de la 
Compafiia de Jesus. 9 torn. 

MS. Umay 1631. fol. 

[B. M. Add. MSS. 15337. Uma, Feb. 35, 1631. Part i only.] 

5.?^ 1857, No. 184. 

X633. 

98. Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca.—ht CommenUire Royal on L'Histoire 

des Vncas, Roys du Peru; contenant leur origine, depuis le premier 
Ynca Manco Capac, leur Esublisseroent, leur Idolatrie, leurs Sacrifices, 
leurs Vies, leurs Loix, leur Gouvemement en Paix h en Guerre, leuis 
Conquestes ; les merveiiles du Temple du Soleil ; ses incroyables 
richesses & tout TEstat de ce grand Empire avant que les Espagnols 
s'en Assent maistres, au temps de Huascar, & d'Atahuallpa. Ensemble 
une description particuliere des Animaux, des Fruicts, des Mineraux, 
des Plantes, & des singularitez du Pais. Oeuvre curieuse & tout k faict 
necessaire k Tintelligence de THistoire des Indes. Escritte en langue 
Peruvienne, par rVnca Garcillasso de la Vega, natif de Cozxo ; & 
fidellement traduitte sur la version EspagnoUe [160^], par J. Baudouin. 
Avec deux Tables, fort amples, Tune des Chapitres, & Tautre des 
principales Mati^res. 1 torn. 

A Paris y chet Augustin Courbi^ Libraire &* Imprimeur de Monseigneur 
Frire du Royy au Palais^ dans la petite Salle^ d la Palme. 
MDCXXXIII. 4°. 
[There is a copy in the John Carter Brown Library, Providence, 
Rhode Island; and two copies in the Biblioth^que Nationale, 
Paris: Ol. 774. & P. Angrand 354. — Mr Henry N. Stevens, 
F.R.G.S., had a fine copy, with the arms of the Duke of Sutherland 
stamped on the covers.— There is a second engraved title, with 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 287 

a view of the Temple of the Sun, and portraits of the Inca Manco 
Capac, & Coya Mama Oclho. — This copy has been acquired by 
the British Museum, July g, 1907. — See Karl W. Hiersemann, 
KatcUog 336, No. 1803, 1907.] 

99. Olmos, Diego de.— Gramatica de la Lengua General. Por Fr. Diego de 

Olmos, Franciscano, Natural del Cuzco. 
En Utna^ 1633. 4°. 

[Not in the British Museum. — Ant. de Leon Pinelo, Epitome^ 
col. 717. 1737] 

X634. 

100. Cardenas, Bernardino de, Bishop of Paraguay, — Memorial y Relacion 
verdadera para el Rei N.S. y su Real Consejo de las Indias, de cosas del 
Reino del Peru, mui importantes k su Real servicio, y conciencia. Por 
el P. F. Bernardino de Cardenas, Predicador general de la Orden de S. 
Francisco, y Legado del Santo Concilio Provincial Argentino. ff. 64. 

Por Francisco Martinez: en Madrid, A no M.DC.xxxiv. 4°. 
[8180. e. 14.] 

Z638. 

Id. Calancha, Antonio de la. — Coronica Moralizada del Orden de San 
Augustin en el Peru, con Sucesos egenplares en esta Monarquia. 
Dedicada a Nuestra Sefiora de Gracia, singular Patrona i Abogada de la 
dicha Orden. Compuesta por el muy Reverendo Padre Maestro Fray 
Antonio de la Calancha, de la misma Orden, i Difinidor actual. Primer 
tomo. 
Por Pedro Lacavalleria^ en la calle de la Libreria : en Barcelona, 

1638. foL 

[K. 303. f. 6. — With a second engraved title-page, larger than the 
book, with many illustrations.] 

1639- 
loa. Calancha, Antonio de la. — Chronica Moralizada den Orden de 
S. Augustin en el Peru, con sucesos exemplares vistos en esta 
Monarchia...Por el P" M? F. Antonio de la Calancha... Dedicada a 
Nfa S^ de Gratia Virgen Maria, Madre de Dios, Patrona de la Religion 
de Nro. P* S. Augustin. (Tomo Segundo. [Edited by Bernardo de 
Torres.]) 
Por Pedro LacavaUeria, en la Calle de la Libreria: en Barcelona, 

1639, 1653. fol. 

[493. k. 1 1. — Tom. I has a second engraved title-page, larger than 
the book, with many illustrations.] 

164Z. 

103. AcuAa, Cristoval de. — Nuevo Descubrimiento del Gran Rio de las 
Amazonas. Por el Padre Chrstoval [sic] de Acufia, Religioso de la 
Compafiia de Jesus, y Calificador de la Suprema General Inquisicion, 
al qual fue y se hizo por orden de su Magestad, el afio de 1639, P^^^ ^^ 
Provincia de Quito en los Reynos del PeiS. Al £xceIentis.simo Sefior 
Conde Duque de Olivares. ff. 46. 
En Madrid, en la Imprenta del Reyno, AHo de 1641. 4°. 
[G. 6936. — C. 7. a. 19. On the covers of this copy are two Austrian 
coats of arms, the one with the Bohemian crown, the double- 
headed eagle, and the arms of Austria and Ragusa ; the other, an 
Archducal crown, and the arms of the Archduchy of Unter der 
Ens, and of Austria.] — 10480. b. 19. (i). This copy was purchased 
February 5, 1849.] 
See 1859, No. t88. 



288 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

X644. 

104. Carrcra, Fernando dc la. — Arte de la Lengua Yonga de los Valles 
del Obispado de Truxillo del Peru, con nn Confessonaho, y todas las 
Oraciones Christianas, tiaducidas en la lengua, y otras cosas. Autor el 
Beneficiado Don Fernando de la Carrera, natural de La dicba cindad de 
Truxillo, &c....Dirigido al Rey N. Sefior en su Real Consejo de las 
Indias. pp. 965. 

Impresso en Lima^ por Joseph de CorUreras^ AMo de 1644. 16°. 
[C. 58. b. 4.] 

1647- 

105. Escalona Aguero, Caspar de. — Gazophilatium Regium Perubicum. 
I. Administrandum. II. Calculandum. III. Conservandum. (Gaxo- 
filado Regio Perubico, en Latin, y Raroance.)...£dytum a Gaspare 
d' Escalona Aguero... nunc Senatore ChilensL 3 parts. 

[Matriti, 1647.] fol. 

[501. g. 8. — With a fine engraved title-page, with a border of 11 
types of Indians, engraved by Juan de Noort. This copy wants 
pp. I— 10, and the title and prefatory leaves are mutilated.] 

Z648. 

106. Avendaiio, Fernando de. — Sermones de los Ministerios de Nuestra 
Santa Fe CatoUca, en len^a Castellana y la General del Inca. Im- 
pugnanse los errores particulares que los Indios han tenido. Parte 
Priniera. Por el Doctor Don Fernando de Avendafto, Arcediano de 
la Santa Iglesia Metropolitana de Lima, Calificador del Santo Oficio, 
Catedratico de Prima de Teologia, y Examinador Sinodal. Dedicase 
al Illustrissimo Sefior Doctor Don Pedro de Villagomez, Arcobispo de 
Lima, del Consejo del Rey N. S. Part I, 139 leaves. Part ii, 94 
leaves. 

Impresso ett Lima^ por Jorge Lope% de Herrera^ Impressor de Libros^ 

en la Calle de la Carcel de Corte, 1648. fol. 
[Not in the British Museum. — A copy in the John Carter Brown 

Library, Providence, Rhode Island.] 

107. Solorzano Pereyra, Juan de.— Politica Indiana. Sacada en lengua 
Castellana de los dos tomos del Derecho, i Govierno Municipal de las 
Indias Occidentales que mas copiosamente escribio en la Latina el Dotor 
Don Juan de Solorzano Pereira, Caballero del Orden de Santiago, 
del Consejo del Rey Nuestro Sefior en los Supremos de Castilla, i de 
las Indias. Por el mesmo Autor. Dividida en seis Libros. [With a 
second fine engraved title-page dated 1647.] (Indice.) pp. 1040. 

Por Diego Dtaa de la Carrera: en Madrid^ Aflo mdcxlviii. fol. 
[K. 23. b. 16. — 521. 1. II. — 1703. 521. m. 10.— 1776. a torn. 
711. h. 16, 17.] 

1650. 

108. Soleto Pemia, Alonso. — Alonso Soleto Pemia. Memoria de lo que 
han hecho mis padres y yo en busca del Dorado, que ansi se llama esta 
conquista, y dicen que es el Paytiti. MS. Archivo de Indias, c. 
1650. 

See 1905, No. 386. 

1653. 

109. Cobo, Bemab^.— Historia del Nuevo Mundo. Por el P. Bemab^ Cobo» 
de la Compafiia de Jesus. 1653. 

Su 1890, No. 154. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 289 

X658. 

1 10. Leon Pinelo, Antonio de. — Politica de las Grandezas y Govierno del 
Sapremo y Real Consejo de las Indias. Dirigida al Rey Nuestro 
Sefior en el mlsmo Real Consejo, &c. For el Licenciado Antonio de 
Leon. ff. ao. 

[Madrid, 1658.] 40. 

[8155. c. 45.] 

i66x. 

111. Padilla, Juan de. Alcalde. — Carta, mie tiene por titulo, Trabajos, 
agravios, e injusticias, que padecen los Indios del Peru, en lo espiritual, 
y temporal. [Por Juan de Padilla. — Ordered to be printed by Don Luis 
Enriquez de Guzman, Conde de Alva, Virrey destos Reynos del Peru, 
September 31, 1660.] ff. 70. 

[Lima, 1661.] fol. 

[600. 1. 14. — ^With the book-plate of the Duke of Sussex.] 

1668. 

112. Avendaiio, Diego de. — R. P. Didaci de Avendafio Societatis Jesu, 
Segoviensis, in Peruvio jam pridem publici & primarij S. Theologiae 
Professoris, & in Sacro Inquisitionis Sanctse Tribunali adlecti Censohs, 
Thesaurus Indicus, seu Generalis Instructor pro regimine conscientiae, 
in iis qufle ad Indias spectant. Tom. i, 1, 

Apudjacobum Meursium: Antverpia, Anno MDCLXViir. fol. 
[K. 14. c. 6. — ^Tom. 3-6, 1675, ^c mentioned by Antonio de Leon 
Pinelo, Epitome i col. 675, 1737.] 

1677. 

113. Courtot, Fran9ois. — La Vie du bien-heureux p^re Francisco Solano, 
religieux de 1' ordre de Saint Franjois, Patron du P^rou, composee sur 
les memoires presentees au Saint Si^ge pour sa beatification, et le 
recit du Martyre d'onze Religieux du mesme Ordre... I'an 1572. pp. 
xvi. 157. 

Paris y 1677. I2<'. 

[Not in the British Museum. — Karl W. Hierseroann, Leipzig, 
/Catalog 336, No. 1791. 1907.] 

114. Kellen, Ludovicus. — Erzehlung des Lebens, Tugenden, und Wunder- 
wercken des Apostels von Peru, des S. Vatters Francisci Solani, 
S. Francisci Ordens, erwehlten Patrons der Haupt- u. Koniglichen 
Stadt Limae in Peru. 14 plates, pp. 378. 

Maeynit, 1677. fol. 

[Not in the British Museum. — Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig. 
Kaialog 336, No. 1810. 1907.] 

z688. 

115. Fernandez de Piedrahita, Lucas, successively Bishop of Santa 
Maria and of Panama. — Historia general de las Conquistas del Nuevo 
Reyno de Granada. A la S. C. R. M. de D. Carlos Segundo, Rey de 
las Espafias, y de las Indias. Por el Doctor D. Lucas Fernandez 
Piedrahita. Primera Parte, pp. 599. 

Por Juan Baptista Verdussen : Amberes, [1688]. fol. 

[9781. f. 29. — 601. 1. 14. — Two engraved title-pages, with medallion 
portraits of Chiefs of Bogota. These are apparently only copies 
of the portraits of the Incas, in *' Historia general de los Hechos 

M. S. 19 



290 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

de los Castellanos en las Islas y Tierra Finne del Mar Oceano," 
by Antonio de Herrera Toidesillas, Madrid^ 1615. Lucas 
Fernandez de Piedrahita's great-grandmother, Francisca Nosta, 
was a niece of the Inca Huayna Ccapac] 
See 1601, No. 61 ; 1906, No. 189; 1907, No. 390. 

116. Oarcilasso de la Vega, El Ima. — The Royal Commentaries of 
Peru. In two Parts. The First Part treating of the Original of their 
Incas or Kings : of their Idolatry : of their Laws and Government both 
in Peace and War : of the Reigns and Conquests of the Incas : with 
many other Particulars relating to their Empire and Policies before 
such time as the Spaniards invsuied their Countries. The Second Part 
describing the manner by which that New World was conquered by 
the Spaniards. Also the Civil Wars between the Pio^rrists and the 
Almagrians, occasioned by Quarrels arising about the Uivision of that 
Land. Of the Rise and Fail of Rebels ; and other Particulars con- 
tained in that History. Illustrated with Sculptures. Written originally 
in Spanish, by the Inca Garcilasso de la Vega, and rendred into 
English, by Sir Paul Ricaut, Kt. pp. 1019. 

Printed by Miles FUsher, for Jacob Tonson at the Judges-Head in 
Chantery-I^ane near FUetsireet : London^ MDCLXXXVIII. fol. 

[K. 146. g. 8. — King Geoigc the Third's copy, with a second title- 
page : Printed by Miles Flesher^ for Christopher Wilkinson at the 
Black Boy against St. Dunstan's Church in Fleetstreet: London^ 
1688. — G. 2875. With the autograph and book-plate of George 
Grenville. — Without the Jacob Tonson title-page.] 

1691. 

117. Melgar, Estevan Sancho de. — Arte de la Lengua General del Ynga, 
llamada Qquechhua. Compuesto por el Bac. D. Estevan Sancho de 
Melgar, natural de esta Ciudad de los Reyes... Consagrale a Don 
Francisco de Oyague, Cavallero del Orden de Santiago, &c. flf. 55. 

Jmpresso de Lima, en la Calle de las Mantas^ por Diego de Lyra, Aho 

de 1691. ia<*. 
[13943. aa. 13. — 11907. a. 43. This copy wants fol. i, i of the 

Dedication.] 

X700. 

118. Torres Ruble, Diego de, S.J, — Arte de la Lengua Quichua. Por 
el P. Diego de Torres Rubio, de la Compaflia de Jesus. Y nueva- 
mente van afiadidos los Romances, el Catnecismo pequefio, todas las 
Oraciones, los dias da fiesta, y ayunos de los Indios, el Vocabulario 
afladido, y otto Vocabulario de la lengua Chinchaisuyo. Por el M. P. 
Juan de Figueredo Professo de la misma Compaflia... Consagrale al 
Senor D. D. Miguel Nufiez de Sanabria...A Costa de Francisco Farfan 
de los Godos, Mercader de Librus, &c. ff. 11 4. 

En Lima por Joseph de Contreras y Alvarado, Impressor Peal, de el 

S. OnciOf de la Santa Cruzatla, [1700]. 11^. 
[C. 33. a, 49.] See 1619, No. 88; 1754, No. 134. 

119. Zhaval. Letera de la nobil cipta : novamente ritrovata alle Indie 
con li costumi & modi del suo Re & soi populi : Li modi del suo 
adorare con la bella usanza de le donne loro : & de le dua persone 
ermafrodite donate da quel Re al Capitano de larmata. El V. S. V. 
Al Suo. D. L. S. Data in Peru adi. xxv. de Novembre. Del. 
MDXXXiin. 4 leaves. 

[Florence, 1700.] 4<>. 

[697. g. 34. (6). — Purchased Nov. 6, 1841.] See 1534, No. 10. 
1850, No. 173; 1535, No. 14. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 29 1 

1706. 

ISO. Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca. — Histoire des Guerres Civiles des 
Espagnols dans les Indes, entre les Pi9aiTes & les Almagres, qui les 
avotent conquises. Traduite de TE^pagnol de TYnca Garcillasso de 
la Vega [Comentarios Reales^ Ft. a], par J. Baudouin. [With two 
maps of North and South America.] a vols. 

Ckex Gerard Kuyper^ Marchand Lilfraire h cdti de la Maison de Ville: 

d Amsterdam, MDCCVi. 8°. 
[K. 178. a. 37, «8. — With a second engraved title.] See 1633, No. 
98; 1715, No. im; 1737, No. H7; 1830, No. 157. 

1709. 

121. Cieza de Leon, Pedro de.— The Seventeen Years Travels of Peter de 
Cieza, through the mighty Kingdom of Peru, and the large Provinces of 
Cartagena and Popayan in South America, from the city of Panama, on 
the Isthmus, to the Frontiers of Chile. Now first translated from the 
Spanish [by John Stevens], and illustrated with a Map, and sevc^ 
Cuts. [Dedicated to the Honourable Edmund Foley, of Badley, 
Suffolk.] pp. 244. 

London : Printed in the Year MDCCIX. 4°. 

[981. c. 18. — From the Library of Sir Joseph Banks.] See 1553, 
No. 17. 

1715. 

122. Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca. — Histoire des Yncas, Rois du P^rou, 
contenant leur origine, depuis le premier Ynca Manco Capac, leur 
Etablissement, leur Idolitrie, leurs Sacrifices, leurs Loix, leurs Con- 
quotes ; les merveilles du Temple du Soleil ; & tout I'Etat de ce grand 
Empire, avant que les Espagnols s'en rendissent Mattres. Avec une 
Description des Animaux, des Fruits, des Min^raux, des Plantes, &c. 
Traduite de I'Espagnol de I'Ynca Garcillasso de la Vega [Cotnentarios 
Reales, Ft. i], par Jean Baudouin. [With a map of Peru, and three 
plates.] 2 tom. 

Chez Jaques Desbordes, sur le Pant de la Bourse: d Amsterdam, 

MDCCXV. 8°. 
1196. b. 24, 25. — With a second engraved title.] 

17 16. 
X23. Zarate, Augustin de. — Histoire de U D^ouverte et de la ConquOte du 
P^rou. Traduite de TEspagnol d'Augustin de 2Uirate, par. S. D. C. 
[Samuel de Bro^, Seigneur de Citry & de La Guette]. 2 tom. 
Par la Compagnie des Libraires: h Paris, MDCCXVI. 8°. 
K. 278. a. IX, 12. — The names of 10 booksellers, of the Compagnie 
des Libraires, occur on the verso of the title-page. — Tom. i has 
one map and eight plates.] See 1555, No. 31. 

1723. 
1 24. Garcilasso de la Vega, El /nea.—FnmenL Parte de los Commentarios 
Reales que tratan de el Origen de los Incas, Reies, que fueron del Peril, 
de su Idolatria, Leies y Goviemo en Paz y en Guerra, de sus Vidas, y 
Conquistas y de todo lo que fue aquel Imperio y su Republica, antes que 
los Espafioles pasaran, k h\. Escritos por el Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, 
Natural del Cozco, y Capitan de su Magestad. Dirigidos a el Rei 
Nuestro Sefior. Segunda Impresion, enmendada, y afiadida la Vida de 
Inti Cusi Titu lupanqui, Penultimo Inca. Con dos Tablas; una, de los 
Capitulos, y otra, de las Cosas Notables. ([Segunda Parte :] Historia 
General del Peru, trata, el Descubrimiento de el, y como lo ganaron los 

19 — 2 



292 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Espafioles : las Guerras Civiles, que huvo entre Pizanos y Almagros 
sobre la Partija de la Tierra. Castico, y Levantamiento de Tyranos, j 
otros sucesos pArticulares, que en la Historia se contienen...Dirigida a 
la Limpisima Viigen Maria, Madre de Dios, y Seflora Nuestra. Scgunda 
Impresion, &c. 1729.) [Edited by Gabriel de Cardenas, pseud., t.e. 
Andr^ Gonzalez de Barcia Carballido y Zufiiga.] 

En la Oficina Real, y d Costa di Nicolas Rodrigun Franco, Jmpresor 
de Ltbros: en Madrid, cniDCCXXiii, 1731. fol. 

[K. 145. f. 13.-688. h. 7, 8. From the Library of the Rev. Clayton 
Mordaunt Cracherode.] See 1609, No. 75; 1819, No. 156. 

1729. 

125. Garcia, Gregorio. — Origen de los Indios de el Nuevo Mundo, e Indias 
Occidentales. Averiguado con discurso de opiniones por el Padre 
Presentado Fr. Gregorio Garcia, de la Orden de Predicadores... 
Segunda Impresion. Enmendada, y afiadida de algunas opiniones 6 
cosas notables, en major pnieba de lo aue contiene...Dirigido al Angelico 
Doct. S*° Tomas de Aqumo. pp. 330. 

En la Imprenta de Francisco Martinet Ahad: en Madrid, AfUt de 
1739. fol. 

[G. 7115.— K. 146. e. 4.] See 1607, No. 69. 

173a. 

126. Pcralta Bamuevo Rocha y Benavides, Pedro Jose de. — Lima 
Fundada, o Conquista del Peru. Poema Heroico. En que se decanta 
toda la Historia del Descubrimiento, y sugecion de sus Provincias por 
Don Francisco Pizarro, Marques de los Atabillos Inclyto y Primer 
Governador de este vasto Imperio. Y se contine la serie de los Reyes, 
la historia de los Virreyes y Arzobispos, que ha tenido ; y la memoria de 
los Santos, y Varones ilustres, que la Ciudad y Reyno han producido. 
La qual ofrece, dedica, y consagra al Excelentissimo Sefior I>on Joseph 
de Armendariz, Marques de Castelfuerte, Commendador de Chiclana y 
Montizon en el Orden de Santiago, Capitan General de los Reales 
Exercitos de S. Magestad, y Virrey de estos Reynos del Peru, Tierra 
firme, y Chile. El Doctor D. Pedro de Peralta Barnuevo Rocha y 
Benavides, &c. 1 pts. 

En la Imprenta de Francisco Sobrino y Bados: en Uma, 1732. 4°. 
[G. II, 318.— K. 87. b. II, 12.] See 1863, No. 196. 

1737- 

127. Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca. — Histoire des Yncas, Rois du P^rou, 
depuis le premier Ynca Manco Capac, Fils du Soleil, jusqu'^ Atahualpa, 
dernier Ynca: oil I'on voit leur Etablissement, leur Religion, leurs Loix, 
leurs Conquetes ; les merveilles du Temple du Soleil ; & tout TEtal de 
ce grand Empire, avant que les Espagnols s'en rendissent mattres. 
Traduite de I'Espagnol \Comentarios Reales, Pt. i] de TYnca 
Garcillasso de la Vega. [Par Jean Baudoin.] On a joint k cctte 
Edition I'Histoire de la Conqu^te de la Floride. Par le m6me Auteur, 
&c. [1605. — Translated by Pierre Richelet.] Avec des Figures 
dessinees par feu B. Picart, le Romain. [Three maps, and fourteen 
plates.] — (Nouvelle D^couverte d'un Pays plus grand que TEurope, 
situe dans TAm^rique. [By Louis Hennepin.]) 2 tom. 

Chez Jean Frederic Bernard: h Amsterdam, mdccxxxvii. 40. 
K. 145, b. 3, 4. — The date on the imprint of tom. 2 is misprinted: 
MDCCXXVii.] See 1609, No. 75. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 293 

138. Leon Pinelo, Antonio de. — Epitome de la Bibliotheca oriental y 
occidental, nautica y geografica de Don Antonio de Leon Pinelo, del 
Consejo de su Ma^. en la Casa de la Contratacion de Sevilla, y Coronista 
Major de las Indias. Afiadido» y enmendado nuevamente, en que se 
contienen los Escritores de las Indias Orientales y Occidentales v Reinos 
convecinos...Al Rey Nuestro Seftor. Por Mano del Marques de Torre- 
Nueva, su Secretario del Despacho Universal de Hacienda, Indias y 
Marina. [Edited by Andres Gonzalez de Barcia Carballido y Zufliga.] 
En la Oficina de Francisco Martinet Abad: en Madrid^ AHo de 

MDCCXXXVII.-VIII. fol. 

[G. 489.— K. 115. g. 14.-^20. i. 5.] 

I74I. 

119. Alcedo y Herrera, Dionysio de. — Aviso Historico, Politico, 
Geographico, con las Noticias mas particulares del Peru, Tierra-Firme, 
Chile, y Nuevo Reyno de Granada, en la Relacion de los Sucessos de 
105 afios, por la Chronologia de los Adelantados, Presidentes, Govema- 
dores y Virreyes de aquel Reyno Meridional desde el afto de 1535 hasta 
el de 1740* &c. Dedicado al Rey Nuestro Sefior...y escrito en virtud 
de Real Orden de S. M. por Don Dionysio de Alcedo y Herrera. 
pp. 38«. 

En la Oficina de Diego Miguel de Peralta: Madrid^ [1741]* 4°> 

[9772. bbb. 3.] 

1744. 

130. Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca. — Histoire des Incas, Rois du P^rou. 
Nouvellement traduite de TEspagnol de Gardllasso de la Vega. £t 
mise dans un meilleur ordre; avec des Notes & des Additions sur 
r Histoire Naturelle de ce Pays. [Translated by Thomas Fran9ois 
Dalibard. With two maps, by Philippe Buache.] 2 torn. 

Chet Frault filsy Qttai de Conlit zn's-^-vis la descente du Pont-Neuf, 
d la Chariti: h Paris, mdccxliv. 8". 

[9773. de. I.] 

1747. 

131. Campbell, John, ZZ.ZP.— The Spanish Empire in America; containing 
a succinct relation of the discovery and settlement of its several colonies ; 
a view of their respective situations, extent, commodities, trade, ttc.^ and 
a full and clear account of the commerce with Old Spain by the Galleons, 
Flota, etc. ; as also of the contraband trade with the English, Dutch, 
Frendi, Danes and Portuguese. With an exact description of Paraguay. 
By an English Merchant. [John Campbell, LL.D.] 

yohn Stagg and Daniel Browne : London, 1747. 8°. 

[Not in the British Museum. — This is another edition of Dr John 

Campbell's *'A Concise History of the Spanish America," pp. viii. 

330. John Stagg and Daniel Browne: London, i-f^i, 8". — io6i. 

c. 18.] 

1748. 

[32. Ulloa, Antonio de, Admiral, — Relacion Historica [by Antonio de 
Ulloa] del Viage a la America Meridional, hecho [1735- 1746] de orden 
de S. Mag. para medir algunos grados de Meridiano Terrestre, y venir 
por ellos en conocimiento de la verdedera Figura, y Magnitud de la 
Tierra, con otras varias Obscrvaciones Astronomicas, y Phisicas. Por 
Don Jorge Juan, Comendador de Aliaga, en el Orden de San Juan...y 
Don Antonio de Ulloa, de la Real Sociedad de Londres, ambos 



294 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Capitanes de Fragata de la Real Armada. (Resumen Historico del 
Origen, y Succession de los Incas, v demas Soberanos del Peru, con 
Noticias de los Sucessos mas notables en el Reynado de Cada Uno. 
pp. cxcv. With an engraved plate, 14 x 17J inches, of the 14 Incas, 
and 8 Kings of Spain, from Charles V to Ferdinand VI, in 3 a 
numbered medallions. '*Didacus Villanova invenit et delineavit. I*. 
Palom**. sculp'. Regius inv^ excudit, et Iconibus incidit. Mat^. Anno 
MDCCXLViii.*') 5 torn. [With maps, charts, and plans.] 
Impressa de Orden del Rey Nuestro SeAar en Madrid por Anionio 

Marin^ AHo de M.DCC.XLVIII. fol. 
[983. g. 19, ao. — From the Library of Sir Joseph Banks. This copy 
has inserted, in Vol. I, an engraved plate, 8} x 13I inches, ** Dame 
Creole du Perou v^tue scion Tusage de Lima. S"- Criolla de 
Lima. 1 )edicado al S^'- D"- Joseph Perfecto de Salas . . . por . . . Pedro 
M***. Julian Davila Lim. Pinx. Ingouf Junior Parisinus sculpsit 
anno 1774." — K. 215. a. (5-9. King George the Third's copy 
wants Vol. 5, .1748. — K. 144. e. 14 is the 1773 folio edition of 
Vol. 5. — 687 k. 10-14. From the Library of the Rev. Clayton 
Mordaunt Cracherode. — 568. g. 1-4, wanting Vol. 5.] 

175a. 

133. Ulloa, Antonio de, Admired. — Voyage Historique de TAm^rique 
Meridionale fait par ordre du Roi d*Espagne, par Don George Juan... 
et par Don Antoine de Ulloa...Ouvrage ome des figures, plans et cartes 
n^essaires, et qui contient une Histoire des Yncas du P^rou, et les 
Observations Astronomiques & Physiques, faites pour determiner la 
Figure & la Grandeur de la Terre. [Dedicated to **Son Altesse Royale 
Monseigneur le Prince Royale de Pologne [Friedrich Christian, Elector 
of Saxony.]" Translated by El^azar de Mauvillon.] 2 torn. 

Chez ArkstSt and Merkus: d Amsterdam et (t Leipzi^y MDCCLII. 4°. 
[K. 211. c. 7,8.] 

1754. 

134. Torres Rubio, Diego de, 5'.y.— Arte y VocaWario de la Lengua 
Quichua General de los Indios de el Peru. Que compuso el Padre 
Diego de Torres Rubio, de la Compaflia de Jesus. Y afiadio el 
P. Juan de Figueredo, de la misma Compaftia. Ahora nuevamente 
Corregido, y Aumentado...Por un Religioso de la misma Compafiia. 
Dedicado al Doct. D. Bernardo de Zubieta y Roxas, &c. If. 254. 

Reimpresso en Lima^ en la Imprenta de la Plazuela de San Ckristeval, 

AAcdei-js^. I20. 
[G. 7452.-826. a. 13.] See 1700, No. 118. 

X762. 

135. American Gazetteer.— The American Gazetteer. Containing a distinct 
Account of all the parts of the New World : their Situation, Climate, 
Soil, Produce, Former and present Condition ; Commodities, Manufac- 
tures, and Commerce. Together with an accurate Account of the 
Cities, Towns, Ports, Bays, Rivers, Lakes, Mountains, Passes, and 
Fortifications. The whole intended to exhibit the Present State of 
Things in that Part of the Globe, and the Views and Interests of the 
several Powers who have Possessions in America. Illustrated with 
proper Maps. 3 vols. 

Printed for A, Millar, and J, &* R. Tonson, in the Strand: London, 

1762. 12°. 
[798. d. 2-4.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 29S 

i7«3. 

136. American Gazetteer. — II Gazzettiere Americano. Contenente un 
distinto ragguaglio di tutte le parti del Nuovo Mondo della loro 
Situazione, Clima, Terreno, Prodotti, Stato antico e moderno, Merci, 
Manifatture, e Commercio. Con una esatta descrizione delle Cittk, 
Piazze, Porti, Baje, Fiumi, Laghi, Montagne, Passi, e Fortificazione. 
II ttttto destinato ad esporre lo stato presente delle cose in quella parte 
di Globo, e le mire, e interessi delle diverse Potenze, chc hanno d^li 
stabilimenti in America. Tradotto dall' Inglese [1761] e arricchito di 
Aggiunte, Note, Carte e Rami. 3 torn. 78 maps. L^* 

Per Marco Coltellini^ cUV Insegna delta Verita: in Livomo 
MDCCLXIII. 40. 

[K. 145. f. 1-4. — Tom. I has an engraved frontispiece, by Carlo 
Coltellini & F. Gregorii, of foar Indians offering homage to 
Pizarro.] 

137. £1 Conocimiento de los Tiempos.— [Descripcion del Reyno 
del Perii, y de el de Chile por Obispaidos y provincias, y en 
igual conformidad de las del Rio de la Plata, y sus respectivas 
Dependencias, que en los 15 afios contados de 1763 ^ 177^1 y de 
1774 a 1778. Di6 k luz en la Ciudad de los Reyes, Capital del 
Virreynato, el Doctor Don Cosme Bueno, Catedratico de Prima de 
Matematicas, Cosmografo mayor de dicho Reyno, y socio de la Real 
Academia Medica Matritense. 1763 aflo prlmero comprehensibo del 
Catalogo de los Ex»«- S**- Virreyes del Perii-l 

\^^ El Conocimiento de los Tiempos^'* : Lima^ 1763-78.] n°. 
[C. 28. a. 17. — Bound in red silk, ribbed, with two metal clasps. — 
Purchased February 5, 1849.] See 1863, No. 196. 

138. — [Another copy, with the addition of "Dissertacion Physico experimental 
sobre la Naturaleza del Agua, y sus propriades " ; " Continuacion de la 
Disertacion del Agua"; and *' Dissertacion sobre los Antojos de las 
Mugeres Preflades." With a manuscript note by Robert Southey: 

"This book, of which perhaps a duplicate is nowhere to be found, 
was given me by Mr Murray. It contains the fullest account which 
has yet been published of the old Viceroyalty of Peru, Province by 
Province. The information was obtained from the respective Corregi- 
dores, and printed for many successive years in the Lima Almanack \_El 
Conocimiento de los Tiempos\ from whence some Curioso cut out the 
whole collection, and formed them into this most valuable little volume. 
Even the Catalogue of Viceroys contains some facts which I have not 
seen elsewhere. 

*' There are a few physical essays at the end, printed in the same 
almanack. Some curious notices are to be found in them. 

*'R. Southey. 

*'I have frequently been beholden to this book, in writing the History 
of Brazil."] 

[C. 28. a. 2. — Purchased July 27, 1844.] 

"774. 
1 39. Catecismo. — Tercero Catecismo y Exposicion de la I>octrina Christiana 
por Sermones. Paraque los Curas, y otros Ministros prediquen, y 
ensefien It los Indios, y it las dem^s Personas: Conforme a lo que 
se proveyo en el Santo Concilio Provincial de Lima el afio pasado de 
1583. Mandado reimprimir por el Concilio Provincial del aflo de 1773. 
pp. 515. 
En la Oficina de la CaUe de San Jacinto: [Lima, 1774]. 4**. 
[4425. aa. 14.] Sfe 1585, No. 50. 



296 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1777. 

140. Marmontel, Jean Fran9ois. — Les Incas, ou La Destruction de TEmpire 
du P^rou. Par M. Marmontel, Historiographe de France, Tun des 
Quarante de T Academic Fnui9oise. [Dedicated to Gustavus III, King 
of Sweden.] 7 torn. 

CA€t Lacombe^ Librairey rue de Tournon^ pris le Luxembourg: d 

Paris, M.DCC.LXXVii. ia». 
[11513. aaa. 9.] 

1783. 

141. Antonio, Nicholas. — Bibliotheca Hispana Nova... 1500 ad 1684. 
[Edited by T. A. Sanchez, J. A. Pellicer, and R. Casalbonus.] 2 torn. 

Apud yoachimum de Ibarra : Matriti, 1 783-88. 4^ 
[G- 53-— K. ia8. h. 4, 5.— K. n6. h. 5, 6.— 3049. «•] 

1785. 
141. Gronovius, Abrahamus. — Bibliothecae Gronovianae pars reliqua et 
prsestantissima... quorum publice fiet auctio...Die 30 Majii et seqq. 
1785. 
Haak and Co,: Lugduni Bai,, 1785. 8<». 

[Not in the British Museum. — There is a copy in the Gottingen 
University Library. The Sarmiento MS., 1571, is No. 60 on p. 7 
oftheMSS.] 

1789. 

143. Velasco, Juan de. — Ilistoria del Reino de Quito. 1789. 

See 1840, No. 164. 

1791. 

144. Eder, Franciscus Xavier, S.y, — Descriptio Provinciae Moxitarum in 
Regno Peruano, quam e scriptis posthumis Franc. Xav. Eder e Soc. 
Jesu annis xv. sacri apud eosdem Curionis digessit, expolivit, & 
adnotatiunculis illustravit Abb. & Consil. Reg. Mako. [With 9 plates 
& I map.] pp. xviii. 383. 

Typis Universxtaiis : Buda, 1791. 8°. 
[10480. e. 5.] 

145. Mercurio Peruano, — Mercurio Peruano de Historia, Literatura, y 
Noticias Publicas que da a luz la Sociedad Academica de Amantes 
de Lima, y en su nombre D. Jacinto Calero y Moreira. 12 torn. 

En la Imprenta Real de las NiHos Huhfanos : Lima, 1791-95. 4®. 
[P. P. 4095. — This publication was suppressed by the Spanish 
Government.] See 1861, No. 193. 

179a. 

146. Acosta, Joseph de.— Ilistoria Natural y Moral de las Indias...Por 
el Padre Joseph de Acosta, de la extinguida Compaflfa de Jesus. Daia 
a luz en esta sexta edicion. D. A. V. C. 3 tom. 

Por Pantaleon Aznar : Madrid^ Afko de MDCCXCil. 8<». 
[9551 f. 3.] 

1793. 

147. Bombelli, Pietro. — Breve ed esatta notizia della miracolosa immagine 
di Maria Santissima di Copacavana nel Peru, cavata dalla raccolta 
delle immagini della BAa vergine. pp. 13. 

Roma^ 1793. 11°. 

[Not in the British Museimi. — Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig, 
Kalahg 336, No. 1781. a. 1907.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 297 

x8oo. 

£48. Hervis y PandurOf Lorenzo. — Catalogo de las Lenguas de las 
Naciones Conoddas, y numeracion, division, y dases de estas s^^un 
la diversidad de sus idiomas y dialectos. Su Autor el Abate Don 
Lorenzo Hervis, Te6logo del Eminentfsimo Seflor Cardenal Juan 
Francisco Albani, Decano del Sagrado Colegio Apost61ico, y Canonista 
del Eminentfsimo Seflor Cardenal Aurelio Roverella, Pro-datario del 
Santo Padre. 6 vols. 

En la Imprenta de la Administracum del Real Arbitrio de Beneficencia: 
Madrid, Afio 1800- 1805. 40. 

[633. h. 6-8.] 

1807. 
149. Humboldt, Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von, Baron. — Voyage de 
Humboldt et [Aim^] Bonpland. [Aux Regions ^uinoxiales du 
Nouveau Continent, fait en 1799-1804.] 6 pts. in 24 vols. 

Chez Fr, Schoell: Paris; et chez J, G. Cotia : Tiibingue, 181 4, 

1 807- 1 833. 4° and fol. 
[K. 149. h. i-io ; i. I, 1 ; and K. 148. i. i-ia.] 

1808. 

15a Beauchamp, Alphonse de. — Histoire de la Conquete et des Revolutions 
du Perou. Par Alphonse de Beauchamp, avec Portraits. [Dedicated 
to Madame Louise de Salaberry, au Chiteau de Meslay, pr^ Venddme.] 
1 tom. 

Chez Lenormant^ Imprimeur-Libraire^ rue des Prilres Saint-Germain' 
tAuxerrais, No, 17; Lerouge^ Libraire^ Cour du Commerce: h 
Paris^ M.DCCC.viii. 8°. 
rio6i. c. ^4, 15.] 

x8ai. 

151. Tupac -Amaru, Juan. — Ventajas de la Constitucion Espafiola. En la 
Tertulia patriotica de la Isle de Leon se inserta una noticia muy 
interesante sobre la suerte de D. Juan Tupac- Amaro, descendiente de 
los antiguos Incas del Peru, que encerrado durante 35 aftos en el 
presidio de Ceuta, acaba de ser restituido a la libertad por los ciudad- 
anos de buenos principios que hay en aquella plaza. (Miscelanea, 
numeros 333 y 334.) pp. 8. 

Imprenta de L Sancha : Madrid; Reimpresa en la Imprenta Imperial: 

Mixico^ 1831. 4*>. 
[9180. dd. 3. (10). — Tract 10 in a volume, lettered : Papeles Varios. 

II. — Historia de Espafla, ii.] 

i8a6. 

152. Juan y Santacilla, Jorge. — Noticias Secretas de America, sobre el 

estado naval, militar, y politico de los Reynos del Peru y Provincias 
de Quito, Costas de Nueva Granada y Chile : Gobierno y Regimen 
particular de los Pueblos de Indios : Cruel Opresion y Extorsiones de 
sus Corregidores y Curas : Abusos escandalosos introducidos entre estos 
habitantes por los misioneros : Causas de su origen y motivos de su 
continuacion por el espacio de tres siglos. Escritas Belmente segun las 
instrucciones del Excelentisimo Seflor Marques de la Ensenada, Primer 
Secretario de Estado, y presentadas en informe secreto & S. M. C. el 
Sefior Don Fernando VI por Don Jorge Juan, y Don Antonio de 
UUoa, Tenientes Generales de la Real Armada, Miembros de la Real 
Sociedad de Londres, &c. Sacadas a luz para el verdadero cono- 
cimiento del Gobierno de los Espafioles en la America Meridional. 



298 ^ BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Por Don David Barry. [Wiih portraits of D. Jorge Jnan, and D. 
Antonio de UUoa, engraved by Edwd. Scriven, after j. Maea.] a pts. 

En Ul Imprenta de R, Taylor: Londres^ t8a6. fol. 
[G. 6270. — 795. m. 5. This copy has on the title-page the imprint 
oiyohn Murray y Albtmarlt Street : London^ 

Z827. 

155. Ranking, John.— Historical Researches on the Conquest of Peru, 
Mexico, Bc^ta, Natchez, and Talomeco, in the Thirteenth Century, 
by the Mongols, accompanied with Elephants... containing... History of 
Peru and Mexico, to the Conquest by Spain. — Grandeur of the Incas, 
and of Montezuma... With two Maps, and Portraits of all the Incas, 
and Montezuma. By John Rankmg. (Bibliography. — Supplement.) 
PP- 479- 5 »• 

Longman, Rees, Omte and Co.: London, 1837-34. ^* 

[1061. i. 31. — 1061. i. 32.] 

1829. 

154. Andagoya, Pascul de. — Relacion de los sucesos de Pedrarias Davila en 
las provincias de Tierra firme 6 Castilla del oro, y de lo ocurrido en el 
descubrimiento de la mar del Sur y costas del Peru y Nicaragua, escrita 
por el Adelantado Pascual de Andagoya. [1540.] (Orig. en el Arch, 
de Ind. en Sevilla, Relac. y Descripc., leg. 11. — In Tom. iii, Num. vii, 
PP* 393~459f " Coleccion de los Viages y Descubrimientos, que hicieron 
por Mar los E^pafioles desde fines del siglo xv...Coordinada € ilustrada 
por Don Martin Fernandez de Navarrete.'*) 

En la Imprenta Real: Madrid^ Aho 1839. foL 
[G. 6816.— 790. g. 3.] 

155. Catecismo. — Catecismo y Doctrina Cristiano en los Idiomas Castellano, 

y Qquechua. Ordenado por autoridad del Concilio Provincial de Lima, 
e impreso en dicha ciudad el afto de 1583. Le da nuevamente a luz 
(habiendole ajustado con el mayor cuidado a su orijinal) el D. D. Carlos 
Gallegos, &c. pp. 34. 

Imprenta del Gobiemo: Cuzco, 1829. 4*. 

[350^- c. 31.] 

156. Garcilasso de la Vega, el /nra.— Primera (Segunda) Parte de los 
Comentarios Reales, que tratan del origen de los Incas, reyes que 
fueron del Peru, de su idolatria, leycs y gobiemo, en paz y en guerra, 
de sus vidas y conquistas, y de todo lo que fue aquel imperio y su 
republica antes que los espafioles pasiran & ^1. Elscritos por el Inca 
Garcilaso de la Vega, natural del Cozco, y capitan de S. M. Nueva 
edicion. 4 torn. (Tom. 2-5, "Ilistoria de la Conquista del Nuevo 
Mundo.") 

Imprenta de los Hijos de DoHa Catalina PiHnela : Madrid, 1829. 8<'. 
[1196. b. 10, II.] See 1609, No. 75 ; 1723, No. 124. 

X830. 

157. Garcilasso de la Vega, el /vra.— Histoire des Incas, Rois du Peroo. 
(Histoire des Guerres Civiles des Espagnols dans les Indes.) Par 
Garcillasso de la Vega. [Translated from the Comentarioi Reales by 
Jean Baudoin.] 7 torn. 

Impritnl aux /rats du Gouz/emement pour procurer du travail aux 
Ouvriers Typographes: Paris, Aout 1830. 8®. 

[790. e. 17-19. — The Printed Catalogue of the Bibliotheque Nationale 
ascribes this translation to Jean Baudoin.] See 1633, No. 98 ; 1706, 
No. 120; 1715, No. 122; 1737, No. 127. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 299 

158. Pixarro, Hernanda — Carta de Hernando Pizarro a los magnificos 
sefiores, los seAores oidores de la audiencia real de S. M. que reside en 
la ciudad de Santo Domingo. [Nov. 1533.] (Sacada de Oviedo, que 
la inserta en el cap. 15. de su parte tercera, 6 lib. 43 de su Historia 
General [which exists only in manuscript].) [Apendice v. pp. 393-406. 
Tom. II, '*Vidas de Espaftoles Celebres. (Francisco Pizarro.) Por 
Don Manuel Josef Quintana." 3 torn. 1807- 1833.] 

Imprenta de Don Miguel de Burgos : Madrid^ ^o Julio 1830. 99. 
[614. b. 19, 3a — Another edition: **Coleccion de los Mejores 

Autores Espafioles.'* Tom. xxxiv. Baudry: PariSy 1845. 8<'. 

II ISO. i.] 

159. Sancho, Pedro. — Testimonio de la Acta de reparticion del rescate 
de Atahualpa, otorgado, por el escribano Pedro Sancho. [1533.] 
(Extractado de la obra inWita, Noticia general del Penl, Titrrefirme y 
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tribunal de la contadurfa mayor de las mtsmas provincias. Esta obra 
estuvo antes en la libreria del colegio mayor de Cuenca de Salamanca, 
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Tom. II, ''Vidas de Espafioles Celebres. (Francisco Pizarro.) Por 
Don Manuel Josef Quintana." 3 torn. 1 807-1833.] 

Imprenta de Don Miguel de Burgos: Madrid ^ y} Julio 1830. 8°. 
[614. b. 29, 30. — Another edition: *'Coleccion de los Mejores 

Autores Espaftoles.'* Tom. xxxiv. Baudry: Paris, 1845. 8°.— 

11230.1.] 

X836. 

160. Tupac Amaru, Jose Gabriel. — Relacion Historica de los Sucesos de la 
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Imprenta del Estado : BuenoS'Aires, 1836. fol. 

[600. m. 12. (3, 4)-l— -^^ i8^3» No. 197. 

1837. 

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1840. 

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Arthus Bertrand: Paris, 1840. 8°. 

[G. 15817.— 1196. i. 8.] See 1586, No. 51. 



300 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

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[G. 15819.— 1 196. i. 9.] See 1881, No. 144. 

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i860. 

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i860. 8°. 

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[2356. e. 13.] 

1863. 

196. Odriozola, Manuel de. — Coleccion de Documentos Literarios del Peru. 
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197. Odriozola, Manuel de. — Documentos Historicos del Peru en las 
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Tipografia de Aurelio Alfaro: Lima, 1863-64. 80 and 4®. 

[9772. f. 25. — Tom. I contains: '* Relacion Historica de los 
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M. S. 20 



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199. Markham, Sir Clements Robert, IC.C.B,, /?;/?. 5: —Contributions 
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203. John Carter Brown Library, Providence, Rhode Island.— Bibliotheca 
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306. Paz Soldan, Mariano Felipe. — Atlas G^ographique de la R^publique 
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Auguste Durand: Parisy 1865. fol. 

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1867. 

207. Toledo, Francisco de, Viceroy of /Vr«. —[Documents relating to the 
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posesiones Espaflolas de America y Oceania, sacados de los Archivos 
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Imprenta de Frias y compaHia : Madrid, 1867. 8°. 
[9551- g] 

1868. 

208. Squicr, Ephraim George. — Quelques Remarques sur la G^graphie et 
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Imprimerie de E, Martinet: Paris j 1868. 8°. 
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Z869. 

209. Qarcilasso de la Vega, el Inca.— First Part of the Royal Com- 
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20 2 



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310. Paz Soldan, Mariano Felipe. — Atlas G^ogriphico de la Republica del 
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1870. 

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314. Squier, Ephraim George. — The Primeval Monuments of Peru, Com- 
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Triibner and Co.: London, 1871. 80. 
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219. Paz Soldan, Mariano Felipe. — Diccionario Geografico Estadistico del 
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Vifiaza. Obra premiada por la Biblioteca Nacional en el C^oncurso 
Publico de 1891 ^ impresa a expensas del Estado. pp. xxv. 427. 

Sucesores de Rivadeneyra : Madrid, 1892. 8*'. 

[11900. i. 38-] 

262. StUbel, Alphons. — Die Ruinenstaette von Tiahuanaco, im Hochlande 
des alten Peru. Eine kulturgeschichtliche Studie auf Grund selbstaen- 
diger Aufhahmen von A. StUbel und M. Uhle. Mit einer Karte und 
42 Tafeln in Lichtdruck. 2 Thie. 

C. T. Wiskott: Breslau, 1892. fol. 

[1706. c. 15.] 



3l6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1893. 

163. Meyer, Wilhelm, Professor in G6Ctingm.—T>\t in der Goettinger 
Bibliothek erhaltene Geschichte des Inkareiches von Pedro Sanniento 
de Gamboa. [1572.] Von Wilhelm Meyer, aus Speycr. (In Nach^ 
rkhten von der Koniglichen Gesellschafl der WissenschafUn und der 
Gearg'AufptstS'Universitat zu Gottingen, No. i. 18 Januar 1893. 
pp. I -1 8.) 

Dieterichscke Verlags-Buchhandlung: Gottingen^ '893. 8*». 

[P. P. 4673. — The MS. was sent to Philip II in 1571, was purchased 
by Gottingen University in 1785, remained unnoticed for 108 years, 
was edited with German notes, but without a translation, in 
August 1906, and was translated into English in September 1906.] 

164. Prussia. — Verzeichniss der Handschrifteu im Preussischen Staate. I. 
Hannover. 1. Gottingen. 3. (Hannover. Die Handschrifteu in 
Gottingen. 1, Universitats- Bibliothek.) 

A, Bath: Berlin, 1893. ^, 

[01 1 910. g.— pp. 268-9. ffistor, 809 gives the first notice in print 

since 1 785 of the MS. of the Indica^ by Pedro Sanniento de Gamboa, 

1573, with a collation.] 

1894. 

165. Peruvian Ritual. — Langues Americaines. Langue Puquina. Textes 
Paquina, contenus dans le Rituale seu Manuale Peruanum de Geronimo 
de Ore, public 4 Naples en 1607, d'apres un exemplaire trouve ^ la 
Biblioth^ue Nationale de Paris. Avec texte espagnol en regaid, 
traduction analytique interlin^aire, vocabulaire et essai de grammaire. 
Par Raoul de la Grasserie. pp. 67. 

K* F, Koehler: Leipzig \Vannes '^x\iiX.e\\ 1894. 8<*. 
[12910. dd. 35.] Su 1607, No. 71. 

266. Prussia. — Verzeichniss der Handschriften im Preussischen Staate. I. 
Hannover. 3. Gottingen. 3. (Hannover. Die Handschriften in 
Gottingen. 3. Universitats- bibliothek, &c.) 

A. Bath: Berlin, 1894. 8°. 

[01 1 90 1, g. — pp. 540-1. Jurid, 160 b. Spanish MS. 14-15 cent., and 

leaves relating to the Decrctum Gratiani, found in the binding of the 

Sarmiento 1572 MS. (ffistor, 809.)] 

1895. 

267. Martens, Oscar. — Ein sozialistischer Grossstaat vor 400 Jahren. Die 
geschichtliche, soziale und politische Grundlage des Inkareiches 
Tahuantinsu^u, das Staatswesen der Incas auf dem sUdamerikanischen 
Hochlande. 2 Aufiage. pp. 84. 

E. Streisand: Berlin, 1895. 8°. 
[Not in the British Museum.] 

268. Philippi, Rudolph Amandus. — Descripcion de los Idolos Peruanos de 
Greda Cocida. Por el Dr R. A. Philippi. Con 7 Laminas [coloured]. 
(Anales del Museo Nacional de Chile, Publicados por Orden del 
Gobierno de Chile. Entr. 11.) pp. 22. 

Imprenta de F, A. Brockhaus: Leipzig; Santiago de Chile^ 

1895. 4". 
[Ac. 3092. b.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 317 

269. Sarmiento dc Gamb6a, Pedro. — Narratives of the Voyages of Pedro 
Sarmiento de Gamb6a to the Straits of Magellan. Translated and 
edited, with notes and an introduction, by Clements R. Markham, 
C.B., F.R.S. With a map. pp. xxx. 401. (Hakluyt Society 
Publications. Series i. Vol. 91.) 

Printed for the Hakluyt Society: London^ 1895. 8*>. 
[Ac. dxiilii, — Page xxi notes the re-discovery of the Indica MS. 
of 157a.] 

X896. 

270. Ren6-Moreno, Gabriel. — Biblioteca Peruana. Apuntes para un 
Catalogo de Impresos. I. Libros y FoUetos Peruanos de la Biblioteca 
del Instituto Nacional. [Por Don Gabriel Ren^-Moreno.] pp. viii. 
558. 

En la Biblioteca del Instituto National: Santiago de ChilCy 

1896. 8^ 
[11899. dd.] 

371. Sanniento de Gamboa, Pedro. — Copy of a Letter translated from the 
English, written in London, loth November 1586, taken bv Pedro 
Sarmiento de Gamboa, and with a note of his visit to Queen Elizabeth 
at Windsor Castle. (In *' Calendar of Letters and State Papers relating 
to English Af&irs, preserved principally in the Archives of Simancas. 
Vol. III. Elizabeth. 1580-1586. Edited by Martin A. S. Hume." 
No. 505. pp. 651-6.) 

H.M, Stationery Office: London, 1896. 80. 

L2076. f.— 9507- a. 13.] See 1586, No. 53. 

X897. 

373. Jimenez de la Espada, Mircos. — La Jornada del Capitdn Alonso 
Mercadillo a los Indios Chupachos € Iscaicingas [1538]. Al Excmo. 
Sr. D. Eugenio Larrabure y Undnue. [Por] >1. Jimenez de la Espada. 
pp. 40. 

Imprenta de Fortanet: Madrid [i%i^'j'\. 8°. 

[10412. gg. 11. (6).] 

373. Meyer, Wilhelm, Professor in Gottingen, — Die Buchstaben-Verbin- 
dungen der sogenannten gothischen Schrift. Von Wilhelm Meyer, aus 
Speyer, Professor in Gottingen. Mit fiinf Tafeln. pp. 124. (Abhand- 
lungen der Kbniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften %u Gottingen, 
Phil. hist. Klasse. Neue Folge. Band I. Nro. 6.) 
IVeidmannsche Buchhandlung : Berlin, i897' 4°- 
[Ac. 670. — Cf. pp. 91, 92. and Tafel i, No. 5.] 

I8g8. 

274. Dorscy, George Amos. — A Bibliography of the Anthropology of Peru. 
By George A. Dorsey, Acting Curator, Department of Anthropology. — 
Field Columbian Museum. Publication 23. Anthropological Series. 
Vol. II. No. 2. fpp. 51-206. Vol. II. Anthropological Series. 
Publications of the Field Columbian Museum. '\ 
Chicago, U.S.A., January 1898. 8°. 

[Ac. 1738/6. — A most valuable and exhaustive list, including 
historical works on Peru, arranged by Authors. There is one 
curious misprint on p. 121: Heredes (Homanianos). This entry 
should be on p. 125, and should read : Homann, Johann 
Baptista. ] 



3l8 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Z900. 

375. Helps, Sir Arthur, K,C.B. — The Spanish Conquest in America, and 
its relation to the history of Slavery and to the government of Colonies. 
By Sir Arthur Helps. A new edition. Edited, with an introduction, 
maps and notes by M. Oppenheim. 4 vols. 

John Lane: London and Neio York, 1900-4. 9*. 

[3598. b. 10.] Sf^ 1855, No. 179. 

976. Patr6n, Pablo. — Origen del Kechua y del Ajrmura. — Universidad 
Mayor de San Marcos. Faculdad de Letras.— Discurso de Recepdon 
del Miembro Honorario Pablo Patron, pp. 151. 
Librerla i Imprenta Gil: Lima, 1900. 8«. 
[12910. e. 47.] 

1901. 

377. Lafone y Quevedo, Samuel Alexander. — Supuesta Derivacion Sumero- 
Asiria de las Lenguas Kechua y Aymara. Por Samuel A. Lafone 
Quevedo, M.A. Con una Nota complementaria jpor F^lix F. Outes. 
(Articulo publicado en los Annies de la Sociedad Ciattlfica Argentina, 
Tomo LI. Paginas 123 y siguientes.) pp. 11. 
Imprenia y Casa Editora de Coni Herntanos: Buenos Aires ^ 

1901. 80. 
[12901. h. 27. (4).— Ac. 3083.] 

178. Viscarra, J. — Copacabana de los Incas. Documentos auto-linguisticos 
^ isografiados del Aymaru-Aymara, protogonos de los Pre-americanos. 
pp. viii. 552. 

La Paz^ 1 90 1. 8<». 

[Not in the British Museum. — Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig, Katalog 
336, No. 1896. 1907.] 

X902. 

179. Baessler, Arthur. — Ancient Peruvian Art. Contributions to the 
Archxology of the Empire of the Incas. From his collections. By 
Arthur Baessler. Translated by A. li. Keane. 4 vols. 

A. Asher and Co,: Berlin; Dodd, Mead and Co,; New VffrJk, 

1901-3. fol. 
[K. T. C. 114. b. I.) 

180. Mendiburu, Manuel de. — Apuntes Historicos del Peru (por el General 
don Manuel de Mendiburu, Correspondiente de la Real Academia 
Espaftola), y Noticias Cronologicas del Cuzco. (Gobiemo incasico y 
primer siglo de la Conquista. A.D. 1043-1595.) [By the author of 
** Anales del Cuzco desde 1600 hasta 1750."] (Ap^ndice. El Aprendiz 
de Rico. Poemata en Silva por Espinosa Medrano, el Lunarejo.) 
1 pts. 

Imprenta del Estado: Lima^ 1901. 4**. 
[9770. f. 19.1 

181. Santiago de Chile. — Biblioteca Nacional. Catdlogo de la Seccion 
Americana. America en General, pp. 154. 

Imprenta Universiiaria: Santiago de Chiles 1901. 8**. 
[011907. i.] 

181. Stuart, Maria del Rosario, Duquesa de Benvick y de Alba, — Nuevos 
Autografos de Cristobal Colon y Relaciones de Ultramar. Los publica 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 319 

la Dnquesa de Berwick y de Alba, Condesa de Siniela. [No. 68, p. 69, 
relates to the Inca Princess, Beatrix Clara Coya.] pp. 294. 

Sucisoris de Rvvadetuyra: Madridy 190a. fol. 

[9551. k. II.] 

1904. 

983. Guti6rrez de Santa Clara, Pedro. — Historia de las Guerras Civiles 
del Peru (i 544-1 548), y de otros sucesos de las Indias. [Quinquenarios.] 
Por Pedro Gutierrez de Santa Clara. [Edited by Manuel Serrana y 
Sanz.] Tom. 1-3. (Coleccion de Libros y Documentos referentes k la 
Historia de America. Tom. 2-4.) 

Vicioriano Suarez: Madrid^ 1904-5. 8°. 
[977a. df.] 

1905. 

284. Enock, C. Ranald. — C. Reginald Knock's Journeys in Peru. Read... 
Tan. 9, 1905 by Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., President R. G. S. 
With Sketch Map of Part of Peru. Showing the Routes of C. R. Enock. 
1903-4. (In The Geographical Jottrtuil, Vol. xxv. pp. 610-633.) 

Royal Geographical Society: London^ 1905. 8<». 

[1058. a. and Ac. 6170.] 

185. Enock, C. Reginald. — The Ruins of "Huanuco Viejo," or Old 
Iluanuco, with notes on an Expedition to the Upper Marafion. 
By Reginald Enock. Illustrated. (In The Geographical JoumcU, 
Vol. XXVI. pp. 153-179. For map: see vol. xxv, p. 700.) 

Royal Geographical Society : London^ 1905. 8°. 

[1058. a. and Ac. 6170.] 

a86. Soleto Pemia, Alonso. — Alonso Soleto Pemia. Memoria de lo que 
han hecho mis padres y yo en busca del Dorado, que ansi se llama esta 
conquista, y dicen que es el Paytiti. [c. 1650. In the Archivo de 
Indias.] (pp. 477-483. *'Autobioerafias y Memorias. Coleccionadas 
i ilustradas por M. Serrano y Sanz. pp. clxvi, 545. — Nueva Biblioteca 
de Autores Espafioles bajo la direccion del Exmo. Sr. D. Marcelino 
Menendez y Pelayo.) 

Bailly Baillih-e / Hijos: Madrid, 1905. 8^ 

[10632. g. 27.] See 1650, No. 108. 

Z906. 

287. Baessler, Arthur. — Altperuanische Metallgerate. Nach seinen Samm- 
limgen von Arthur Baessler. Mit 570 Abbildungen auf 40 Tafeln. 
pp. vi. 142. 

Georg Reimer: Berlin, 1906. fol. 
[7709. v. 5.] 

288. Baessler, Arthur. — Peruanische Mumien. Untersuchungen mit X- 
Strahlen. Fiinfzehn Tafeln nebst erlauterndem Text. Von Arthur 
Baessler. 

Georg Reimer: Berlin, 1906. fol. 
[7709. V. 4.] 

289. Sanniento de Gamboa, Pedro. — Geschichte des Inkareiches. Von 
Pedro Sanniento de Gamboa. (Segunda Parte de la Historia general 
Uamada Indica, la cual por mandado del excelentisimo sefior Don 
Francisco de Toledo, virrey, gobernador y capitan general de los reinos 
del Pirii y mayordomo de la casa real de Castilla, compuso el capitan 
Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa.) [From the 1572 MS. in the Gottingen 



490. 



320 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

University Library. (Cod. MS. hist. 809.)] Herausgegeben von 
Richard Pietschmann. pp. cxviii. 161. (Abnandlungen der Konig- 
lichen Geseltschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. Philologisch- 
Historische Klasse. Neue Folge. Band vi. Nro. 4.) 

Weidmannscke Btuhhandlung: Berlin^ 1906. 4^ 

[Ac. 670.] See 1907, No. 191. 

Torres Lanzas, Pedro.— Relaci6n Descriptiva de los Mapas, Pianos, 
etc,^ del Virreinato del Peru (Peni y Chile) existentes en el Archivo 
General de Indias (Sevilla). Por Pedro Torres Lanzas, Jefe de dicho 
Archivo. pp. 135. 

Imp, Henrichy C'*, en Comandita: Barcelona^ 1906. 8°. 

[Maps 59. c. 25.] 

1907. 
191. Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro.— History of the Incas. By Pedro 
Sarmiento de Gamboa. [157^.] And The Execution of the Inca 
Tupac Amaru. By Captain Baltasar de Ocampo. [i6ia] Translated 
and edited, with notes and an introduction, by Sir Clements Markham, 
K.C.B., President of the Hakluyt Society. [With a map of Central 
Peru, and of Vilcapampa, and lo illustrations. Bibliograpny.] 

Printed for thf Hakluyt Society: [University /Vwx,] Cambridge, 
1907. 8°. 

[Ac. 6171/94.] See 1610, No. 80; 1906, No. 189. 



ADDENDA. 
1890. 

393. Middendorf, £. W. — Die einheimischen Sprachen Penis. (Bd. I. 
Das Runa Simi oder die Keshua-Sprache, wie sie gegenwiLrtig in der 
Provinz von Cusco gesprochen wird. Unter Berlicksichtigung der 
frUheren Arbeiten nacn eigenen Studien dargestcUt.— Bd. 11. Worter- 
buch des Runa Simi oder der Keshua-Sprache. — Bd. ill. Ollanta. 
Ein Drama der Keshua-Sprache. Ubersetzt und mit Anmerkungen 
versehen. Nebst einer Einleitung iiber die religiosen und staatlichen 
Einrichtungen der Inkas. — Bd. iv. Dramatische und lyrische Dich- 
tungen der Keshua-Sprache. Gesammelt und Ubersetzt mit erklarenden 
Anmerkungen. — Bd. v. Die Aimark-Sprache. Mit einer Einleitung 
iiber die friihere Verbreitung der dieser Sprache redenden Rasse und 
ihr Verhaltnis zu den Inkas. — Bd. vi. Das Muchik oder die Chimu- 
Sprache. Mit einer Einleitung Uber die Culturvolker, die gleichzeitig 
mit den Inkas und Aimaras in Siidamerika lebten, und einem Anhang 
iiber die Chibcha-Sprache. ) 6 Bde. 

F, A, Brockhaus: Leipzig, 1890-93. %^. 

[12910. f. 31.] 

1893- 
193. Middendorf, E. W. — Peru. Beobachtungen und Studien Uber das 
Land und seine Bewohner, wahrend eines 15 Jahrigen Aufenthalts. 
Von E. W. Middendorf. Band i. Lima. Mit 21 Textbildern und 
31 Tafeln. Band ii. Das KUstenland von Peru. Mit 56 Textbildern 
und 38 Tafeln nach eigenen photographischen Aufnahmen. Band ill. 
Das Hochland von Peru. Mit 79 Textbildern und 93 Tafeln nach 
eigenen photographischen Aufnahmen so wie einer Karte. 3 Bde. 

Boberi Oppenheim {Gustav Schmidt): Berlin, 1893-95. 8«. 

[010480. h. I.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PERU. 



A.D. 1526 — 1907. 

PART II. 
INDEX OF AUTHORS, EDITORS, TRANSLATORS, etc. 



M. s. 21 



INDEX OF AUTHORS, EDITORS, 
TRANSLATORS, etc. 



Acosta, Joseph de, S.y., Autograph of 



Acuiia, Cristoval de 

Adams, William Henry Davenport 
Aguiar y Acuxia, Rodrigo de 
Aguirre, Lope de . 

Agustinos . 

Alcedo y Herrera, Dionysio de 
Alcocer, Pedro de . 
Almagro, Diego de 



American Gazetteer 

American Geographical Society 
Anchorena, Jos^ Dionisio 
Ancon .... 
Andagoya, Pascual de 



Andes .... 

Angelis, Pedro de . 
Anghiera, Pietro Martire d' 
Anne, of Austria, Queen of France . 
Anonymous Jesuit, The . 
Anthropological Society of London 
Antonio, Nicolas . 
Aqua viva, Claude, S,J, . 



Year 

1585 
1590 

1591 
1604 
1608 
1792 
1880 
1 641 
1859 
1885 
1625 
1627 
1861 
1865 



No. 
50 

*5^ 

66 

72 

146 

436 

188 

^48 

93 

95 
194 

300 



I74I 


129 


'554 


29 


1609 


75 


1688 


116 


1869 


209 


1879 


^33 


1762 


'35 


1763 


136 


J 870 


"3 


1874 


221 


1880 


241 


1540 


'9 


1829 


'54 


1865 


201 


1884 


246 


1836 


160 


1534 


8 


'593 


57 


1879 


^35 


1865 


202 


1783 


141 


1594 


58 



324 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Archivo de Indias .... 

Arias d' Avila, Pedro .... 
Arias de Ugarte, Feniando, Archbishop of Lima 



Armendariz, Jos^ de, Marques de Casttl Fuerte^ Viceroy 

of Peru. 
Arriaga, Pablo Joseph de, S,J, .... 
Astete, Miguel de . 



Atahualpa . 



Atienza, Juan de, S,y. . 
Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex 
Austria, Archduke of. Coat of arms 
Auteo, Bartolom^ . 
Avalos y Figueroa, Diego d' 
Avendaiio, Diego de 
Avendafio, Fernando de . 
Avila, Francisco de 

Aymara .... 



Baessler, Arthur . 

Balboa, Miguel Cavello. 

See Cavello Balboa, Miguel. 
Banks, Sir Joseph, Bart, . 



Year 


No. 


1650 


108 


1865 


"54 
300 


1867 


307 


187a 


318 


1874 


333 


1905 


386 


>540 


19 


1839 


«54 


1865 


30I 


1607 


70 


1608 


74 


1841 


«65 


I863 


136 


196 


1631 


90 


«534 


9 


1535 


n, 13 


1871 


317 


1533 


4 


1830 


159 


1845 


159 


187a 


317 


'594 


58 


1661 


III 


1 641 


103 


i860 


189 


1603 


63 


1668 


III 


1648 


106 


1608 


73 


1873 


3 30 


1584 


48 


1585 


49 


1598 


59 


1603 


63,64 


1604 


67 


l6l3 


82,83 


I6I6 


87 


1870 


311 


I87I 


"§ 


1900 


376 


I90I 


«77 


1903 


379 


1906 


387, 388 


'535 


II 


1553 


»7 


157^ 


44 


'59' 


56 


1604 


66 


1709 


T3I 


1748 


'3» 



INDEX OF AUTHORS, EDITORS, TRANSLATORS, ETC. 325 



Barrera, Daniel 
Barry, David 
Bartlett, John Russell 
Baudoin, Jean 



Baudouin, Jean. 

Se€ Baudoin, Jean. 
Bauzi Collection of Spanish MSS. 
Beatrix Clara Coya, Inca Princrss 
Beauchamp, Alphonse de 
Benzoni, Girolamo 



Bertonio, Ludovico 



Berwick y de Alba, Duquesa de. 

See Stuart, Maria del Rosario, Duquesa de Berwick y 
de Alba, 
Betinzos, Juan de ..... 

Beuter, Pedro Antonio ..... 



Biblioteca del Escorial ..... 
Biblioteca del Instituto Nacional, Santiago de Chile 

Biblioteca del Museo de Ultramar, Madrid . 
Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid .... 



Bibliothique Nationale, Paris 

Blasco Nuiiez Vela 
Bogota, Chiefs of . 
BoUaert, William, F,R,G.S. 



Bombelli, Pieiro ...... 

Bonpland, Aim^ ...... 

Bordone, Benedetto ..... 

Borja Queipo de Llano, Francisco de, Conde de Toreno 
Borja y Acevedo, Francisco de, Principe de Esquilache 



Year 


No. 


1873 


219 


1816 


141 


.865 


303 


.111 


98 

120 


I7I5 


122 


1737 


127 


1830 


>57 


161O 


80 


1903 


282 


1808 


150 


1565 


37 


»57« 


44 


1857 


182 


1603 


63,64 


i6ia 


82, 83, 84 


1879 


^3^ ^3^ 


1880 


^37 


1538 


15 


1546 


20 


15.S1 


36 


1563 


36 


1879 


«3S 


1896 


270 


1902 


281 


1586 


5« 


1560 


35 


1569 


38 


1571 


4« 


1586 


5^ 


1867 


207 


187a 


218 


1873 


220 


1879 


m 


1633 


98 


1830 


i.')7 


1894 


^65 


1870 


212 


1688 


115 


1854 


178 


i860 


190 


1861 


194 


1865 


202 


1793 


147 


1807 


'49 


^534 


5 


1879 


^35 


1616 


87 


1619 


88 



326 BIBLIOGRAPHY 








Year 


No. 


Boston Public Library . 


. 1847 


168 


Bouffard, L. . . . . . 


. 1850 


171 


Bravo de Sarabia y Sotomayor, Alonso 


. 1611 


91 


Brehm, Reinhold Berahard 


. 1885 


249 


British Museum, Add. MSS. 5469 


. 1625 


94 


Add. MSS. 17,585 . 


1610 


80 


Add. MSS. 15,327 . 


. 1631 


97 


British Museum, Books not in . 


. 1538 


'7 




1549 


14 




^f>hl 


3» 




1586 


5^ 




1603 


65 




'633 


99 




1648 


106 




1668 


III 




1677 


"3. "4 




»747 


i3» 




1785 


142 




1793 


147 




1847 


168 




1858 


186 




1865 


204 




189,') 


267 




1901 


278 


British Museum, Department of MSS. . 


. 1875 


226 


British Museum, Sloane MSS. 3055 . 


. 1610 


79 


Prtt6, Samuel de, Seigneur de CUry et de La Gt 


ietie 17 16 


>^3 


Buache, Philippe .... 


. >744 


130 


Bueno, Cosme .... 


. 1763 


137. 138 




1863 


.96 




1872 


196 


C, S. D. [Samuel de Bro^, Seigneur de Ciiry e 


t de La 




Guette] ..... 


. 17.6 


123 


Calancha, Antonio de la . 


. 1638 


lOI 




1639 


102 


Calero y Moreira, Jacinto 


. 1791 


145 


Campbell, John, LL.D. . 


. 1741 


i3« 




"747 


'3> 


Cafiete, Marquis de. 






See Hurtado de Mendoza, Garcia, 4M Marquis c 


fc Canete. 




Cardenas, Bernardino de, Bishop of Paraguay 


• 1634 


100 


Cdrdenas, Francisco de . 


. 1865 


200 


Cardenas, Gabriel de, pseud, i.e. Andres Gon 
Barcia Carballido y Zufiiga 


zalez de 




. 1723 


124 


Cardona, Enrique de . . . 


• '591 


.^6 


Carrera, Fernando de la . 


. 1644 


104 


Casalbonus, Raphael 


. 1783 


14' 


Casas, Bartolom^ de las, Bishop of Chiapa 


. '55« 


25 




1892 


258 


Castelnau, Fran9ois de, Comte 


. 1850 


»7i 


Castilla, Ramon .... 


. 1865 


206 


Castilla, Sebastian de . . 


. 1571 


40 


Castro y Rossi, Adolfo de 


. 1858 


•85 



INDEX OF AUTHORS, EDITORS, TRANSLATORS, ETC. 327 



Catalina, de Portugal, Duqutta de Braganza 
Catecismo ...... 



Cavello Balboa, Miguel . 

Champin, Jean Jacques 
Charles V, Emperor of Germany 

Coat of arms, TvUh the Pillars of Hercules 



Coat of arms, without the Pillars 

Chile, Oficina Hidrogrdfica 

Chinchaisuyo 

Chupachos 

Cieza de Leon, Pedro de 



Cobo, Bemab^ 

Col6n, Cristobal 

Coltellini, Carlo . 

Comit6 d' Arch6ologie Am6ricaine 

Compans, Henri Temaux. 

See Ternaux-Compans, Henri. 
Copacabana 



C6rdova y Urrutia, Jos^ Maria 



Courtot, Francois . 
Cracherode, Clayton Mordaunt 

Criolla, Seftora, de Lima . 

Cusi Titu Yupanqui, Inca 
Cuzco 



Dalibard, Thomas Fran9ois 
Davila, Julian 



Year 


No. 


1609 


75 


• '584 


48 


1585 


50 


1604 


67 


1839 


155 


. 1586 


5' 


1840 


161 


. 1850 


171 


• 1547 


12 


. 1526 


I 


15^7 


2 


1535 


II, 12, 13 


'539 


18 


1547 


21 


1548 


^? 


i55« 


26 


1553 


28 


• 1553 


«7 


1544 


29 


. 1880 


^38 


1700 


118 


. '538 


II 


1897 


272 


. 1553 


27 


1554 


30 


1709 


121 


1864 


198 


1877 


227, 228 


1880 


239 


. 1653 


109 


1890 


«54 


1902 


282 


■ 1763 


136 


. 1865 


204 


. 1621 


91 


1793 


147 


1901 


278 


. 18^4 
1863 


196 


196 


1875 


196 


. 1677 


"3 


. I7«3 


124 


1748 


I3« 


. «774 




^e 1748 


132 


. 17^3 


124 


. 1879 


233 


1902 


280 


. 1744 


no 


. 1774 




fe 1748 


132 



328 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Divila, Pednrias. 

See Arias d' Avila, Pedro. 
Desjardins, Antoine l^mile Ernest 
Diax, Pedro, S.J. . 
Domingo, de Sanio Tamos 

Dorsey, George Amos 

Bder, Franciscus Xavier, S.J, 

Edward VI, King of England . 

El Dorado. 

Encyclopedias 

English Merchant 

Enock, C. Reginald 

Enriquez de Guzman, Luis, Conde de Alva de LisU y 

Villaflory Viceroy of Peru 
Ensenada, Maraud de la. 

See SomodeviUa y Bengoechea, Zen6n de, Marquh 
de la Ensemida, 
Escalona Aguero, Caspar de . 
Esquilache, Principe de. 

See Borja j Acevedo, Francisco de, Principe de Esqui- 
lache. 
Estete, Miguel de. 

See Astete, Miguel de. 
Ethnological Society of London 



Falb. Rudolf .... 

Ferdinand VI, King of Spain 

Femdndez, Diego, dSr Palencia 

Fernandez de Navarrete, Martin 
Femdndez de Oviedo y Vald6s, Gonzalo 



Fernandez de Piedrahita, Lucas, successively Bishop 

of Santa Marta and of Panama 
Field Columbian Museum, Chicago 
Figueredo, Juan de, S,J, 

Forbes, David, F,RS. 
Francisca Nusta, Inca Princess . 
Francisco [SOLANO], Saint 

Franciscus, ^ Victoria 



Year 



No. 



. 1858 


186 


. 1594 


58 


. .560 


35. 34 


I89I 


ilf, 


. 1898 


274 


. 179' 


144 


. 1546 


10 


. 1861 


194 


. 1887 


350 


. 1747 


13' 


. 1905 


184, 285 


'. .66. 


III 



1647 



»05 



1854 


178 


.870 


11. 


1883 


»45 


.748 


132 


1826 


'5« 


I57I 


40 


1863 


196 


1876 


196 


1829 


154 


.851 


»74 


.526 


. 


1533 


3 


1534 


8,9 


1535 


11 


1547 


21 


1830 


158 


.688 


115 


1898 


274 


1700 


118 


1754 


134 


1870 


311 


1688 


>I5 


1630 


96 


1677 


"3. "4 


1557 


3« 


1587 


3^ 



INDEX OF AUTHORS, EDITORS, TRANSLATORS, ETC. 329 



Year 
Friedrich Christian, Elector of Saxony . . . 1752 

Fuensanta del Valle, Marqu6s de la. 

See Ramirez de Arellano, Feliciano, Marquis de la 
Fuensanta del Valle. 
Fuentes, Manuel Atanasio . . . .1861 



No. 
133 



193 



G., E. [Edward Griinston] 

G alleges, Carlos . 
Garcia, Gregorio . 

Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca . 



Coat of Arms . 
Gasca, Pedro de la, Bishop of Siguenza 
Gaydngos, Pascual de . * . 
Gaztelu, Domenico de 
Gin6s de Sepulveda, Juan 
Giron, Francisco Hernandez. 

See Hernandez Giron, Francisco. 
Gomez de la Cortina, Joachim, Marquis de Morante . 
Gonzalez de Barcia Carballido y Zufiiga, Andr^. 

[Gabriel de Cardenas.] 

Gonzalez Holguln, Diego, S.J, . 



Gttttingen University Library . 



Grafton, Duke of . 

Qregorii, F. . . . . . 

Grenville, George ..... 

Griinston, Edward .... 

Gronovius, Abrahamus .... 
Gustavus III, King of Sweden . 
Gutierrez de Santa Clara, Pedro 

Guzmdn, Gaspar de, Conde de Olivares y Duque de 
Sanliicar de Barrameda 



. 


1604 


66 




1880 


136 


, 


. 1829 


155 


, 


1607 


69 




1729 


'»5 




. 1590 


55 




1609 


75» 7<5 




I6I7 


77 




1633 


98 




1688 


116 




1706 


110 




1715 


111 




iin 


124 




'737 


127 




1744 


130 




1829 


156 




1830 


^^l 




1843 


166 




1859 


188 




1869 


209 




1609 


76 




. 1577 


40, 46 




. 1875 


226 




. ».'^35 


12, 13 




. '55« 


H 



«5«7 



. 17^3 


"1 


1737 


128 


1607 


70 


1608 


74 


1842 


165 


. 1785 


142 


1893 


263, 264 


1894 


266 


1906 


289 


1907 


291 


. i55» 


n 


. '763 


136 


. 1688 


116 


1604 


66 


1880 


236 


. 1785 


142 


■ i777 


140 


. 1904 
fe 

1641 


^83 
103 



330 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Hakluyt Society . 



Harper^ s New Monthly Magazine . 
Harris, John 
Hauff, Hermann 
Hawks, Francis Lister 
Heber, Richard 

Helps, Sir Arthur, K.CB, 

Hennepin, Loais . 
Hernandez Giron, Francisco 

Herrera Tordesillas, Antonio de 



Herv^s y Panduro, Lorenzo 

Huanuco Viejo ..... 

Huarochiri ..... 

Huayna Ccapac, Inta .... 
Huerta, Alonzo de .... 

Humboldt, Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von, Baron 
Hume, Martin Andrew Sharp 

Hurtado de Mendoza, Garcia, 4M Marquh de CaHete 
Hutchinson, Thomas Joseph 

Inca Tupac Amaru .... 

Incas ...... 

Incas. Portraits ..... 



Indias, Archivo de 



Year 


No. 


. 1857 


183 


1859 


188 


1861 


>94 


1864 


198 


1865 


201 


1869 


209 


1871 


209 


187a 


217 


1873 


220 


1880 


236 


1883 


198 


1895 


269 


1907 


291 


. '853 


,76 


• 1534 


8,9 


. 1843 


166 


• 1853 


175 


. i55« 


^5 


»593 


57 


. 1855 


»79 


1900 


«75 


• «737 


127 


• '571 


40 


1879 


234 


1601 


61 


1688 


»i.S 


1859 


188 


1906 


289 


1907 


290 


1800 


148 


• 1905 


^85 


. 1608 


73 


1873 


220 


. 1688 


"5 


. 1616 


86 


. 1807 


M9 


. 1896 


271 


f 1598 


53 


. 1873 


219 


1610 


80 


1907 


290 


. 1571 


4' 


1601 


61 


1633 


98 


1748 


I3> 


1827 


»53 


1850 


171 


1907 


290 


1650 


108 


1829 


154 


1865 


200 


1867 


207 


1872 


218 


1874 


222 


1905 


286 



INDEX OF AUTHORS, EDITORS, TRANSLATORS, ETC. 33 1 

Year No. 



Indios 

Ingouf, Fran9ois Robert 



5« 



Ingouf, Junior^ Parisinus. 

See Ingouf, Fran9ois Robert. 

Inwards, Richard ...... 

Isabella, Queen of Castile .... 

Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain^ Consort of 
Albert y Archduke of Austria^ Governor of the Nether- 
lands, 

Iscaicingas ...... 



James I, King of Aragon . 

James I, King of Great Britain and Ireland 

Jesuit, The Anonymous . 

Jesuits ..... 



Jim6nez de la Espada, Mircos 



John Carter Brown Library, Providence, R.I. 



Juan, Jorge. 

See Juan y Santadlla, Jorge. 
Juan y Santacilla, Jorge . 



Jtilg,.Bernhard . . . . 

Keane, Augustus Henry . . . . . 

Kellen, Ludovicus ...... 

Kdnigliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gttt- 
tingen. 

KUlb, Philipp Hedwig . . . . . 

Lafone y Quevedo, Samuel Alexander . 

La Grasserie, Raoul de . 

Laguna, Paulo de . 

Larrabure y Undnue, Eugenio . . . . 

Leon, Antonio de. 

See I^on Pinelo, Antonio de. 



1585 


49 


1774 




1748 


'3» 


1884 


246 


1527 


2 


1590 


54 


1608 


72 


1538 


16 


1897 


272 


1538 


15 


1609 


77 


1879 


nh 


1593 


57 


'594 


58 


1877 


228 


1879 


235 


1880 


«37. ^39 


1882 


244 


1890 


254 


1891 


m 


1892 


^58 


1897 


272 


1534 


10 


1535 


14 


1571 


40 


»633 


98 


1648 


106 


1865 


203 


1748 


'3^ 


i75« 


'.^3 


1826 


'5» 


1847 


170 


1880 


«4i 


1902 


279 


1677 


'03 


1893 


263 


1897 


273 


1906 


289 


1843 


166 


1892 


259 


1901 


277 


1894 


165 


'599 


60 


1897 


272 



332 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Leon Pinelo, Antonio de 



Leopold II, King of the Belgians 
Libreria del Colegio Mayor de Cuenca de Salamanca 
Libreria Particular de S. M. el Rey de Bspalia 
Lima Almanack ...... 

Lima, Concilio Provincial de (1583) 



(1773) 
Lobo Guerrero, Bartolom^, Archbishop of Lima 
Lope de Soria, Spanish Ambassador at Milan 
Lopez de Caravantes, Francisco 



L6pez de G6mara, Francisco 
Lopez de Haro, Alonso . 
Louis XIII, King of France 
Ludewig, Hermann Eduard 



M. 



Pedro 



Maea, J 

Mako de Kerck-Gede, Paul 
Maldonado de Saavedra, Pedro 
Mama Ocllo, Coya 
Manco Capac, Inca 
Marineo, Lucio, Siculo 
Markham, Sir Clements Robert, IC.C.B., F,R,S., D,Sc, 
(Camb.). 



See 



Marmontel, Jean Fran9ois 
Martens, Oscar 
Martin de Moussy, V. . 
Martinez, Juan 
Martinez, Pedro, S.J. 



Year 


No. 


1615 


93 


1633 


99 


1658 


no 


1668 


112 


»737 


128 


1879 


«3» 


1830 


*59 


1830 


'59 


1763 


137 


1583 


48 


1584 


48 


1585 


49. 50 


1604 


67 


1829 


'55 


1774 


'39 


1616 


86 


'535 


", 13 


1610 


78 


1830 


'59 


i55» 


16 


1622 


92 


1593 


57 


1858 


187 


1774 




.748 


'3» 


1826 


'52 


1791 


'44 


1590 


55 


»633 


98 


1633 


98 


1539 


18 


1856 


181 


1859 


[88 


1861 


'94 


1862 


'95 


1864 


198, 199 


1865 


201 


1869 


209 


)7i 209 


.215,116 


,872 


217 


'873 


220 


1874 


223 


1880 


236, 240 


1883 


198 


1892 


260 


1895 


269 


1907 


191 


1777 


140 


1895 


267 


1865 


204 


1604 


68 


1594 


58 



INDEX OF AUTHORS, EDITORS, TRANSLATORS, ETC. 333 



Mary, The Virgin . 



Matienzo de Peralta, Juan 
Mauvillon, El^azar de 
Medina, Pedro de . 
Medrano, Espinosa, el Lunarejo 
M cigar, Estevan Sancho de 
Mendibuni, Manuel de 



Mendoza, Hernando de, Archbishop of Cuzco 
Mendoza y Luna, Juan de, yd Marquis <U Monies Claros 



Menendez y Pelayo, Marcelino . 
Mercadillo, Alon!«o 

Mercuric Peruano . 

Meyer, Wilhelm, Professor in GoUingen 

Middendorf, E. W. 

Ministerio de Fomento, Spain . 

Molina, Christoval de 



Montes Claros, Marquis de. 

See Mendoza y Luna, Juan de, yd Marquis de Montes 
Claros. 
Montesinos, Fernando de 



Morales, Ambrosio de 
Moreno, Gabriel Rene. 

See Ren^- Moreno, Gabriel. 
Mossi, Miguel Angel 
Mossi de Cambiano, Honorio 

Mouqueron, P. Ars^ne 
Mufiiz, Pedro 
Mufioz, Juan Bautista 



Muxioz Manzano, Cipriano, Conde de la 
Museo de La Plata 
Museo Nacional de Chile 

Nicholas, Thomas 
Noort, Juan de . 
Nuestra Sexiora de Gracia 



ViOaza 



Year 


No. 


1609 


75 


1617 


77 


1638 


101 


1639 


102 


nn 


124 


1793 


147 


1625 


94 


175^ 


133 


1548 


^3 


1902 


280 


1691 


'>7 


1874 


224 


1903 


280 


i6ji 


82 


1610 


80 


1614 


85 


1907 


290 


1905 


286 


1538 


16 


1897 


272 


1 791 


145 


1861 


»93 


'893 


26s 


1897 


273 


1890 


292 


'893 


»93 


1879 


235 


1881 


«43 


'570 


39 


1873 


220 


1840 


163 


1882 


«44 


1553 


28 


1889 


252 


1857 


'83 


i860 I 


91, 192 


1865 


206 


1610 


79 


1610 


80 


1865 


200 


189a 


261 


1892 


259 


1895 


268 


1581 


47 


1647 


105 


1638 


lOI 


1639 


102 



334 BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Nufiez de Sanabria, Miguel .... 
Nuftez Vela, Blasco. 

Set Blasco Nuftez Vela. 

Ocampo, Baltasar de • . . . • 

Ocampo, Florian de . . . . . 
Odriozola, Manuel de . . . . . 
Oficina Hidrogrifica, Chile .... 
Oliva. Anello, S.y 

Olivarea, Conde Duque de. 

See Guzman, Gaspar de, Conde de Olivares y Duque de 
Saniiicar de Barrameda. 
Olmos, Diego de . 
Omagua ....... 

Ondegardo, Polo de . . . . . 



Oppenheim, Michael 
Or6, Luis Geronimo de 



Orellana, Francisco de 
Orozco, Marcus de 
Osorio, Afta de, Countess 
Outes, F^lix F. 
Oyague, Francisco de 



of Chinckon 



Year 


No, 


1700 


118 


1610 


80 


1907 


191 


1553 


18 


1863 


196, 197 


1880 


^38 


1631 
1857 


97 
184 


1633 


99 


]86i 


'94 


1560 


35 


157" 
1872 


4« 
918 


1873 


IIO 


1900 


«75 


1598 
1607 
1894 


59 


1859 


188 


1617 


95 


1874 


111 


1901 


277 


.69. 


"7 



Pachacamac ...... 1871 217 

Pachacuti Yamqui, Juan de Santa Cruz. 

See Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui, Juan de. 
Pacheco, Joaquin Francisco .... 

Padilla, Juan de, Alcalde ..... 
Palomo, Isaacus ...... 

Parish, Sir Woodbine, F,R.S 

Patr6n, Pablo ...... 

Paytiti ....... 

Paz Soldan, Mariano Felipe .... 

Pellicer, Juan Antonio ..... 

Peralta, Alonso de, Archbishop of Chuquisaca 

Peralta Bamuevo Rocha y Benavides, Pedro Jos^ de 

Perfecto de Salas, Joseph .... 

See 
Peru ....... 

Peru, First Book Printed in ... . 



1865 


300 


1874 


21a 


I66I 


[II 


1748 


'3« 


I6I1 


81 


1900 


376 


1650 


108 


1905 


286 


1865 


305, 106 


1869 


aio 


1877 


129 


1783 


141 


I6I3 


84 


1732 


126 


1863 


196 


1774 




1748 


I3« 


1534 


5.6 


1870 


212 


1584 


48 



INDEX OF AUTHORS, EDITORS, TRANSLATORS, ETC. 335 



Year 



No. 



Peru, Manuscripts on 
Peruvian Ritual . 

Philip II, King of Spain , 

Arffts, with Pillars of Hercules 
Philip IV, King of Spain 



Philip V, King of Spain . 
Philippi, Rudolph Amandus. 
Picart, Bernard 
Picciarro, Ferdinando. 

See Pizarro, Hernando. 
Pidal, Pedro Jos^, MarqtUs de Pidal 
Pietschmann, Richard, Ph.D.^ Director 

University Library 
Pizarro, Francisco, Marquis de los Atabillos 



Pizarro, Gonzalo 



Pizarro, Hernando 



Platzmann, Julius . 

Poley, Edmund, of Badley, Suffolk 
Pologne, Le Prince Royale de. 

See Fried rich Christian, Elector of Saxony. 
Prescott, William Hickling 
Prendre de Guermante, Paulin . 
Prussia .... 

Puquina .... 



Quichua 



. 


1610 


80 


. . . 


1607 


65 




1894 


265 


. 


1548 


^3 




'57' 


40 


. 


1584 


48 


. . 


1623 


93 




1627 


95 




1630 


96 


. 


1627 


95 


. 


1895 


368 


. 


'737 


137 




1855 


180 


of the Gottingen 






. 


1906 


389 


illos 


'534 


5. 6, 7, 9 




1535 


", 13 




'547 


33 




I73« 


136 




1830 


'58 




1863 


196 




1885 


348 


. 


'57' 


40 




1609 


75 




1688 


116 




1859 


188 




1869 


309 


. 


'533 


3 




1535 


'«, 13 




1609 


75 




1688 


116 




1830 


158 




'845 


158 




1859 


188 




1869 


309 




1873 


317 


• 


1879 


331, 333 




1891 


356 


. 


1709 


131 


axony. 


1847 


168 


. 


1593 


57 


... 


'893 


:^ 




1894 


. 


1894 


265 




1560 


33. 34 




'584 


48 




1585 


49» 50 




1586 


52 




'598 


59 



336 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Quicbua (continued) 



Quintana, Manuel Jos^ 



del Valle, 



Ramos Oavilan, Alonso, Augustittian . 
Ranking, John 
Ravenna, Th. . 
Rayon, Jos^ Sancho 



Real Archivo de Indias . 



Reiss, Wilhelm 

Ren^- Moreno, Gabriel 

Ricaut, Sir Paul . 

Richelet, Pierre 

Riveroy Ustariz, Mariano Eduardo de 

Ross, Thomasina . 

Rouaud y Paz Soldan, Manuel . 

Rousselet, Louis . 

Royal Geographical Society 

Ruiz de Navamuel, Alvaro 
Rycaut, Sir Paul . 



Year 


No. 


>6o3 


65 


.604 


67 


1607 


70. 71 


1608 


74 


1614 


85 


.648 


106 


1691 


"7 


"853 


'77 


i860 


189, 191 


1864 


19? 


1871 


a 16 


1884 


347 


1887 


«5i 


1890 


292 


1891 


156 


1900 


276 


I9OI 


»77 


1907 


291 


. 1830 


158, 159 




117 


1879 


«33, ^34 


i88a 


«44 


1889 


«53 


1891 


«5» 


. 161 1 


91 


. 1817 


'53 


. 1538 


'7 


. 1877 


«7 


1879 


^35. «34 


1881 


«44 


1889 


«53 


1891 


^58 


. 1650 


97 


'IP 


'54 


1865 


100 


1867 


307 


1871 


118 


1874 


333 


1905 


386 


. 1880 


341 


. 1896 


370 


. 1688 


116 


. 1737 


137 


. 1851 


'73 


1853 


175 


. 1847 


169 


. 1865 


306 


. 1890 


nh 


. 1871 


«i5 


1905 


384, 385 


. 1598 


59 


. 1688 


116 



Salaberry, Madame Louise de 



1808 



150 



INDEX OF AUTHORS, EDITORS, TRANSLATORS, ETC. 337 



Salazar, Luis de . 

Salinas y Cordova, Buenaventura de 

Salvd, Miguel, de la Academia de Historia 

Sanchea, Tonus Antonio . 

Sancbo, Pedro .... 



Santa Cniz Pachacuti Yamqui, Juan de 



Santiago de Chile, Biblioteca del Instituto Nadonal 

Santillan, Fernando de . 
Sarate, Augustine. 

See Zarate, Augustin de. 
Sarmiento de Oamboa, Pedro . 



Scriven, Edward ..... 
Sepulveda, Juan Gin^ de . . . 

Serrano y Sana, Manuel .... 

Simancas ...... 

Simon, Pedro ..... 

Simoneta, Scipio ..... 

Sloane MSS. 

See British Museum. 
Smyth, William Henry, F.R.S., Admiral 
Sociedad Academica de Amantes de Lima . 

Sociedad Cientifica Argentina . 

Sociedad de Arqueologia y LingUistlca Cuzquefila 

Sociedad de Bibli6filo8 Andaluces 

Sociedad Qeogrdfica de Madrid 

Soci6t6 de Olographic, Paris 

Solano, Francisco, Saint, 

See Francisco [SOLANO], Saint. 
Sole to Pemia, Alonso .... 

Solorzano Pereyra, Juan de . 



Somodevilla y Bengoechea, Zen6n de, Marquis de la 
Ensenada ...... 

M. S. 



Year 

1855 
1630 

1855 

1783 

1533 
1830 

1845 
1873 

1620 
1873 
1879 
1893 

1896 
1902 

1879 



1572 
1586 

1785 
1851 
1893 
1895 
1896 
1906 
1907 
1826 

1552 
1904 
1905 
1896 
1627 
1861 

'572 
1857 



1857 
1791 
1861 
1901 
1887 
1890 
1891 
1868 



1650 
1905 
1648 

1703 
1776 

1826 



No. 
180 

96 
180 

14J 
4 
159 
159 
217 

89 
220 

«35 
«59 
270 
281 

^35 



45 

53 

142 

263 
269 
271 
289 
291 

15* 
«5 



271 

95 
194 

44 
181 



182 

"45 
'93 
277 

«5i 

254 
257 
208 



108 
286 
107 
107 
107 

i5« 



22 



338 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Southey, Robert . 

Spain 

Spain. MinisUrio de Fomento 

Squler, Ephntim George . 



Stette, Michael. 

See Astete, Miguel de. 
Stevens, Henry, of Vermont, F^,A, 
Stevens, Henry Newton, F.R.G.S, 
Stevens, John, Captain . . . . . 

Stuart, Maria del Rosario, Duquesa de Berwick y de Alha . 
Stabel, Alphons ...... 

Suarez de Salazar, Joan Bautista 
Sussex, Duke of. 

See Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex. 
Sutherland, Duke of .... . 



Year 


No. 


1763 


138 


1534 


7 


1879 


«35 


1881 


US 


i6ai 


90 


1853 


176 


i860 


189 


1868 


ao8 


1870 


«"3 


1877 


130 


1534 


8 


1633 


98 


1709 


rai 


190a 


381 


1880 


141 


189a 


961 


1610 


81 



1633 



9« 



Tahuantinsuyu .... 


. 1885 


949 




1895 


167 


Temaux-Compans, Henri 


. 1604 


67 




1608 


74 




1611 


83 




1616 


86,87 




i837 


161 




1840 161, 


163, 164 




1857 


184 


Thomas, Aquinas, Saint • 


. 1607 


69 




1739 


"5 


Tiahuanaco .... 


. 1884 


146 




189a 


963 


Tiraquellus, Andreas 


. 1549 


«4 




1573 


«4 


Toledo, Francisco de, Viceroy of Peru . 


. 15^59 


38 




157' 


43 




1.572 


45 




1611 


99 




1855 


180 




1867 


907 




i88a 


«44 




1889 


«53 




1906 


989 




1907 


991 


Torre Nueva, MarquSs de 


. 1737 


198 


toTtt»^ Bernardo de, Augustinian 


. 1639 


I09 


Torres de Mendoza, Luis 


. 1867 


907 


Torres Lanzas, Pedro 


1906 


990 


Torres Rubio, Diego de, S,J, . 


1603 
1616 


$5 

87 



INDEX OF AUTHORS, EDITORS, TRANSLATORS, ETC. 339 



Torres Rubio, Diego de, S.;^. {cant.) 

Tiilbner, Nicolas . 
Tschudi, Johann Jakob von 



Tupac Amaru, Inca 



Tupac Amaru, Jos^ Gabriel 

Tupac Amaru, Juan 
Turner, William Wolcott . 



Uhle, Friedrich Max 

Uirakocha .... 

Ulloa, Antonio de, Admiral 

Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima 
Ursua, Pedro de . 



v., El V. S. 



La Paz. 
Valera, Bias 
Valera, Diego de . 



Vargas Machuca, Bernardo de . 
Vater, Johann Severin 

Velasco, Juan de . 

Velasco, Luis de. Viceroy of Peru 

Vidal Oorm^, Francisco 

Villagomez, Pedro de. Archbishop of Lima 

Villanova, Didacus. 

See Villanueva, Juan de. 
Villanueva, Juan de 
Villar, Leonardo, del Cutco 
Villegas, Alonso de 
Viiiaza, Conde de la. 

See Muftoz Manzano, Cipriano, Conde de la Vificaa, 



Year 



No. 



« 


. 1619 


88 




1700 


118 




1754 


134 


. 


. 1858 


187 




. 1846 


167 




1847 


169 




1851 


173 




1853 


'75» 177 




1884 


347 


, 


. 1610 


80 




1906 


a89 




1907 


191 


, 


. 1836 


i<k> 




1863 


197 


. 


1811 


i.Si 


• 


. 1858 


187 




. 1893 


363 


. 


. 1887 


«5i 


. 


. 1748 


i3» 




I75J 


133 




1836 


i5» 


Lima 


. 1900 


376 


. 


. 1637 


95 




1861 


194 


, 


Nov. 25, 1534 


7 




1700 


119 




1850 


17a 




Sept. 25, 1535 


14 


S,D,, 


Bishop of 




• 


1613 


83 


• 


. 1590 


55 


. 


. 15^ 


a 




1542 


3 




1563 


a 




. 1599 


60 


. 


. 1815 


170 




1847 


170 


. 


. 1789 


143 




1840 


164 


. 


. 1598 


59 




1601 


63 


. 


. 1880 


^38 


ma 


. 1648 


106 


. 


. 1748 


I3« 


. 


. 1887 


«5' 


. 


1612 


84 



22 2 



340 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Viscarra, J. . . 

Vivien de Saint Martin, LouU 

West Indies 
Widenmann, Eduard 
Wiener, Charles 

Wilson, Thomas, D.CL, . 
X6res, Francisco de 



Yamqui Pachacuti. 

See Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui, Juan de. 

Zabalburu, Francisco de • 

Zapata, Antonio, Cardinal 

Zarate, Augustin de . . . 



Zhaval 



Zubieta y Roxas, Bernardo de 



Year 


No. 


1901 


178 


1890 


»55 


1534 


8 


'843 


166 


1874 


125 


1880 


141 


15B1 


47 


1534 


9 


«535 


!»• 13 


1547 


11, 21 


1837 


161 


'843 


166 


1872 


117 



. 1877 


227 


1889 


m 


161O 


81 


. '555 


3« 


'577 


46 


1581 


47 


1716 


123 


1843 


166 


Nov. 15, 1534 


10 


1700 


119 


1850 


172 


Sept. 25, 1535 


'4 


. 1754 


134 




BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PERU. 



A.D. 1526 — 1907. 

PART III. 
INDEX OF TITLES 



INDEX OF TITLES. 



AbhandluDgen der Koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. 
Philologisch-Historische Klasse. 
Meyer, Wilhelm, Professor in Gottingen. 1897. 373. 
Sarmiento de Oambba, Pedro, i^. 389. 

An Account of the Antiquities of Peru (1620). 1873. 
-Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui, Juan de. 220. 

An Account of the Fables and Rites of the Yncas (1570). 1873. 
Molina, Christoval de. 220. 

Altperuanische Metallgerate. 1906. 
Baessler, Arthur. 287. 

The American Gazetteer. 1762. 
American Gazetteer. 135. 

American Naturalist, 1870. 

Squier, Ephraim George. 214. 

Anales de la Sodetiati CientifUa Argentina. 1901. 
Lafone y Quevedo, Samuel Alexander. 277. 

Anales del Cuzco desde 1600 hasta 1752. 1902. 
Cuzco. 280. 

Anales del Museo Nacional de Chile. 1895. 
Philippi, Rudolph Amandus. 268. 

Ancient Peru. 1853. 

Squier, Ephraim George. 176. 

Ancient Peravian Art. 1902. 
Baessler, Arthur. 279. 

Andrese Tiraquelli...Commentarii de nobilitate, et jure primigenionim. 1549. 
Tiraquellus, Andreas. 24. 

Annuaire du Comiti d*Archhlogie AmhrictUne. 1865. 
Martin de Moussy, V. 204. 

AntigUedades Peruanas. 185 1. 

Rivero y Ustariz, Mariano Eduardo de. 173. 

Antiquarian, Ethnological and other Researches in New Granada, &c. i860. 
Bollaert, William, F,R,G.S. 190. 

Apolog^tica Historia Sumaria. 1882. 

Casas, Bartolom6 de las, Bishop of Chiapa. 258. 

£1 Aprendiz de Rico. 1902. 
MedranOf Espinosa. 280. 



344 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Apuntes Hist6ricos del Peru. 1901. 
Mendiburu, Manuel de. «8o» 

Aqui se contiene una disputa o controversia. 1553. 
Casas, Bartolom6 de las, Bishop of Ckiapa, 15. 

Arte Breve de la Lengua Aymara. 1603. 
Bertonio, Ludovioo. 03. 

Arte de la Lengua Aymara. 16 11. 1879. 
Bertonio, Ludovico. 83, 331. 

Arte de la Lengua Aymara. 16 16. 

Torres Rubio, Diego de, S.y» 79. 

Arte de la Lengua General del Peru, llamada Quichua. 1604. 
Quichua. 68. 

Arte de la Lengua General del Ynga. 1691. 
Melgar, Estevan Sancho de. 117. 

Arte de la Leneua Quechua. 1616. 
Huerta, Alonzo de. 86. 

Arte de la Lengua Quichua. 1619. 1700. 
Torres Rubio, Diego de, S,J. 88, 118. 

Arte de la Lengua Quichua. 1891. 
Domingo, de Santo Tomas. 356. 

Arte de la Lengua Yunga. 1644. 
Carrera, Fernando de la. 104. 

Arte de Lingua Quiche, 6 Utlatica. i860. 

Auteo, Bartolom6. 189. 
Arte y Grammatica muy copiosa de la Lengua Aymara. 1603. 1879. 

Bertonio, Ludovioo. 64, 331. 

Arte y Vocabulario de la Lengua Quichua. 1754. 
Torres Rubio, Diego de, S,J. 123. 

Arte y Vocabulario en la lengua general del Peru llamada Quichua. 1586. 
1614. 
Quichua. 52, 85. 

Atlas GeogdLfico del Peru. 1865. 

Paz Soldan, Mariano Felipe. 205. 

Atlas G^G^phico de la Republica del Peru. 1869. 
Paz Soldan, Mariano Felipe, no. 

Atlas G^ographique de la R^publique du P^rou. 1865. 
Paz Soldan, Mariano Felipe. 306. 

Autobiografias y Memorias. 1905. 
Serrano y Sanz, Manuel. 386. 

Aviso Historico, Politico, Geographico. 1741. 
Alcedo y Herrera, Dionysio de. 139. 

Bibliografla Espafiola de Len^as Indigenas de America. 1893. 
Muftoz Manzano, Cipnano, ConcU de la VifUua, 361. 

A Bibliography of the Anthropology of Peru. 1898. 
Dorsey, Geoige Amos. 374. 

Biblioteca Hispano-Ultramarina. 1877. 1880. 
338, 337, 339. 

Biblioteca Maritima EspaAola. 1851. 

Fernandez de Navarrete, Martin. 174. 



INDEX OF TITLES 345 

Biblioteca Peruana. i86x. 
Mercuric Peruana, 193. 

BibGoteca Peruana. 1896. 

Ren^- Moreno, Gabriel. 370. 

Bibliotheca Americana. 1865. 

John Carter Brown Library. 103. 

Bibliotheca Hispana Nova. 1783. 
Antonio, riicolas. 141. 

Bibliothecae Gronovianse pars reliqua, &c. 1785. 
Gronoviut, Abrahamus. 143. 

Biblioth^ue Elzevirienne. 1857. 
Oliva, Anello, S.J. 184. 

BcUtin de la Sociedad Geogrd^a de Madrid. 1891. 
Jimdnez de la Etpada, M&rcos. 357. 

Breve ed esatta notizia della miracolosa immagine di Maria Santissima de 
Copacavana. 1793. 
Bombelli, Pietro. 147. 

Die Buchstaben-Verbindungen der sc^enannten gothischen Schrift 1897. 
Meyer, Wilhelm, Professor in Gottingen. 173. 

Bulletin de la Soditi de Ghgraphie. 1868. 
Squier, Ephraim George. ao8. 



Calendar of Letters and State Papers... Simancas. 1896. 
Hume, Martin Andrew Sharp. 271. 

Carta de Hernando Pizarro, &c. 1533. 1830. 1845. 
Pizarro, Hernando. 3, 158. 

Carta, que tiene por titulo, Trabajos, &c. 1661. 
Padilla, Juan de. Alcalde, iii. 

La carta universale della terra ferma & Isole delle Indie occidetali. 1534. 
West Indies. 8. 

Catalogo de la Secci6n Americana. 1903. 
Santiago de Chile. 281. 

Catiloeo de las Lenguas de las Naciones Conocidas. x8oo. 
Herv^s y Panduro, Lorenzo. 148. 

Catalogo Historico de los Virreyes, Govemadores, Presidentes, y Capitanes 
Generales del Peru. 1763. 
Bueno, Cosme. 137. 

Catalc^e of the Manuscripts in the Spanish Language in the British 
Museum. 1875. 
Gayingos, Pascual de. 116. 

Catedsmo en la Lengua Espaftola, y Aymara del Pirn. i<k>4. 
Catecismo. 67. 

Catecismo v Doctrina Cristiana. 1584. 1839. 
Catecismo. 48, 155. 

Chinchona. 1862. 1874. 

Markham, Sir ClemenU Robert, K.C.B.^ F.R.S. 195, 223. 

Chronica del Peru. 1553. 1554. 

Cieza de Leon, Pedro de. 27, 30. 

Chronicle of Peru. 1864. 

Cieza de Leon, Pedro de. 198. 



346 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Los Cinco Libros primeros de la Cronica general de Espafia. i553> 
Ocampo, Florian de. 28. 

Coleccion de Documentos In^tos para la Historia de Espafia (1843-^5). 

1855- 1877- 1889- 
Fernandez de Navarrete, Martin, &c. 180, 237, 353. 

Coleccion de Documentos InMitos relativos al descubrimiento conqulsta 7 
colonizacion de las posesiones Espafiolas en America 7 Oceania, 
sacados, en su ma7or parte, del Real Archivo de Indias (1864-83). 
1865. 1867. 1872. 1874. 
Pacheco, Joaquin Francisco, &c 200, 107, 218, 222. 

Coleccion de Documentos Literarios del Peru. 1863. 
Odriozola, Manuel de. 196. 

Coleccion de Libros Espafioles Raros 6 Curiosos. 1879. 1882. 1802. 
Ramirez de Oreuana, Feliciano, MarqtUs de Fuensanta del Valie. 
«33. «34« 244. «58. 
Coleccion de Libros 7 Documentos referentes k la Historia de America. 

1004- 
Gutierrez de Santa Clara, Pedro. 283. 

Coleccion de los Mejores Autores Espafioles (1845). 1830. 
Quintana, Manuel J086. 158. 

Coleccion de los Viages 7 Descubrimtentos, que hicieron por Mar los 
Espafioles desde fines del siglo XV. 1829. 
Fernandez de Navarrete, Martin. 154. 

Coleccion de Obras 7 Documentos relativos a la Historia Antigua 7 Modema 
de las Provindas del Rio de La Plata. 1836. 
Angelit, Pedro de. 160. 

Le Commentaire Roval ou L'Histoire des Yncas. 1633. 
Oarcilasto de la Vega, el Inca, 98. 

Commentarios Reales. 1609. 1723. 1829. 

Oarcilatso de la Vega, el Inca. 75, 124, 156. 

A Concise Histor7 of the Spanish America. 1741. 
Campbell, John, LL.D, See 1747. 131. 

Confessionario para los Curas de Indios. 1585. 
Indies. 49. 

El Conocimienio de los Tiempos, 1763. 137, 138. 

Conouista del Peru. 1535. 1547. 

X^res, Francisco de. 12, 13, 21, 2). 

Contributions towards a Grammar and Dictionary of Quichua. 1864. 
Markham, Sir Clements Robert, K.CB., F,R,S. 199. 

Copacabana de los Incas. 1901. 
Viscarra, J. 278. 

Copia delle Lettere del Prefetto della India la nova Spagna detta. 1534. 
Peru. 5. 

Cop7 of a Letter... I oth November, 1586. 1586. 1896. 
Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro. 53, 271. 

Coronica de las Indias. 1547. 

Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdds, Gonzalo. 21. 

Coronica General de toda Espafia. 1546. 1563. 
Beuter, Pedro Antonio. 20, 36. 

Coronica Moralizada del Orden de San Augustin en el Peru. 1638. 1639. 
Calancha, Antonio de la. 101, 102. 



INDEX OF TITLES 347 

G>ap d'oeil sur rHistoire du Bassin de La Plata avant la d^ouverte. 1865. 
Martin de Moussy, V. 104. 

C. Ranald Enock's Journeys in Peru. 1905. 
Knock, C. Reginald. 284. 

La Cronica de Espafia abreviada. 1517. 1541. 1562. 
Valera, Diego de. 2. 

CnSnica del Peru. 1880. 

Cieza de Leon, Pedro de. 239. 

Cronica general de Espafia. 1553. 
Ocampo, Florian de. 38. 

El Culto de Tonapa. 1893. 

Lafone y Quevedo, Samuel Alexander. 359. 

Cnzco...and Lima. 1856. 

Markham, Sir Clements Robert, AT.CB., F./l,S. 181. 

Dame Cr^le du P^rou. 1774. Sti 1748. 132. 

La Defensa de Damas. 1602. 

Avalos y Figueroa, Diego d'. 62. 

De las antiguas gentes del Peru. 1892. 

Casas, Bartolom6 de las, BisAop of Chiapa, 258. 

De Nobilitate, et jure Primigeniorum. 1549. 
Tiraquellus, Andreas. 24. 

Descripcion del Rejmo del Peru. 1763. 
Bueno, Cosme. 137, 138. 

Descripcion de la provincia de Sant Francisco de la Vitoria de Villcapampa 
(Vilcabamba). 16 10. 
Ocampo, Baltasar de. 80. 

Descripcion de las provincias pertenecientes al Arzobispado de Lima. 1763. 
1863. 1872. 
Bueno, Cosme. 137, 138, 196. 

Descripcion de los Idolos Peruanos de Greda Cocida. 1895. 
Philippi, Rudolph Amandus. 268. 

Descriptio Provincise Moxitarum. I79i> 
Eder, Fr^ndscus Xavier, S,y. 144. 

[Despatches concerning Peru, 1569-81.] 1889. 
Toledo, Francisco de, Viceroy of Peru, 253. 

Dicdonario Enciclopedico Hispano- Americano. 1887. 
Encyclopedias. 250. 

Diccionario Geogr&fico Estadistico del Peru. 1877. 
Paz Soldan, Mariano Felipe. 229. 

Diccionario Historico-Biografico del Peru. 1874. 
Mendiburu, Manuel de. 224. 

Diccionario Quichua-Castellano. x86o. 

Mosti de Cambiano, Honorio. 191. 

Discurso del Dr. Mufiiz, decan de Lima. MS. 16 10. 
Muiiiz, Pedro. 79. 

Documentos Historicos del Peru. 1863. 
Odriozola, Manuel de. 197. 

Documentos para la Historia de la Sublevacion de Jos6 Gabriel Tupac- Amaru. 
1836. 1863. 
Tupac Amaru, Jos^ Gabriel. 160, 197. 



348 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Documents relating to the appointment and admimstntion of Frandsoo de 
Toledo. 1569. 1867. 
Toledo, Francisco de, Viceroy of Peru. 38, 907. 

Die Einheimischen Sprachen Penis. i8go. 
Middendorf, E. W. 193. 

Ensayo Mitoldgico. 1802. 

Lafone y Quevedo, Samuel Alexander. 959. 

Ensayo sobre las excelenctas y perfeocion dd Idioma llamado comunmente 
Quichua. 1857. 
Mo88i de Cambiano, Honorio. 183. 

Epitome de la Bibltotheca oriental y occidental, &c. 1737. 
Leon Pinelo, Antonio de. 128. 

Erzehlung des Lebens...des Apostels von Peru...Francisd Solani. 1677. 
Kelien, Ludovicns. 114. 

Essai sur les Institutions Politiques...de TEmpire des Incas. 1874. 
Wiener, Charles. 235. 

Essay on the Quichfs. i860. 

Squier, Ephraim George. 189. 

The Execution of the Inca Tupac Amaru. 1907. 
Ocampo, Baltasar de. 291. 

ExpMition dans les Parties Centrales de TAm^que da Sud. 1850. 
Castelnau, Fran9ois de, ComU, 171. 

Expedition of Gonzalo Pizarro to the land of Cinnamon, A.D. 1539-42. 
1859. 
Oarcilasso de la Vega, cl Inca, 188. 

The Expedition of Pedro de Ursua & Lope de Aguirre in search of 
El Dorado... 1560-61. 1861. 
Simon, Pedro. 194. 

Expeditions into the Valley of the Amazons. 1859. 

Markham, Sir Clements Robert, K^C.B,, F.R.S, 188. 

Extirpacion de la Idolatria del Piru. 1621. 
Arriaga, Pablo Joseph de, S,y. 90. 

First Part of the Roval Commentaries of the Yncas. 1869. 
Oarctlasso de la Vega, ei Inca, 209. 

Foreign Countries and British Colonies. 1880. 

Markham, Sir Clements Robert, K,C,B^ F,R,S, 240. 

Gazofilacio Regio Perubica 1647. 

Escalona Aguero, Caspar de. 105. 

Gazophilatium Regiura Perubicum. 1647. 
fctcalona Aguero, Caspar de. 105. 

II Gazzettiere Americano. 1763. 
American Gazetteer. 136. 

General History of the Western Indies. 1859. 
Herrera Tordesillas, Antonio de. 188. 

The Geographical youmal, 1905. 
Knock, C. Reginald. 284, 2S5. 

Geschichte der Entdeckung und Eroberung Peru's. 1843. 
Xeret, Francisco de. 166. 



INDEX OF TITLES 349 

Geschichte des Inkareiches. 1906. 

Sanniento de Qamboa, Pedro. 189. 

Govierno de el Peru. MS. 162$, 
Matieii20 de Peralta, Juan. 94. 

Gramatica de la Lengua General. 1633. 
Olmos, Diego de. 99. 

Gram&tica de la Lengua General del Peru. i860. 
Mosti de Cambiano, Honorio. 193. 

Gramatica Quechua 6 del Idioma del Imperio de los Incas. 1874. 
Anchorena, Jos^ Dionisio. 921. 

Gramitica 7 Arte Nueva de la Lengua General de todo el Peru. 1607. 

Oonxalez Holguin, Diego, S.y, 70, 165. 

Grammatica o Arte de la lengua general de los Indios de los Re]rnos del 
Peru. 1560. 1 89 1. 
Domingo, de Santo Tomas, 33, 156. 

Grammatica y Vocabulario en la Lengua general del Peru, llamada Quichua. 
1603. 
Torres Rubio, Diego de, S.J, 65. 

Grandezas 7 Antiguedades de la Isla 7 Ciudad de Cadiz. x6io. 
Suarez de Salazar, Juan Bautista. 81. 

GUerra de las Salinas. 1877. 

Cieza de Leon, Pedro de. 337. 

Guerras Civiles del Peru. 1877. 

Cieza de Leon, Pedro de. 327, 218. 



Harptf^s New Monthly MagoMtne, 1853. 
Squier, Ephraim George. 176. 

Histoire de la Conqu^te de la Floride. 1737. 
Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca, 127. 

Histoire de la Conqu^te et des Revolutions du P6x)u. 1808. 
Beauchamp, Alphonse de. 150. 

Histoire de la D^ouverte et de la Conqu£te du P6rou. 1716. 
Zarate, Augustin de. 123. 

Histoire des Guerres Civiles des Espagnols dans les Indes. 1830. 
Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca, 157. 

Histoire des Incas. 1744. r830. 

Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca, 130, 157. 

Histoire des Incas du P^rou. 1752. 
Ulloa, Antonio de, Admiral. 133. 

Histoire des Yncas. 1715. 1737. 

Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca. 122, 127. 

Histoire du P^rou. 1840. 

Cavello Balboa, Miguel. 162. 

Histoire du P^rou. 1857. 
Oliva, Anello, S.J. 184. 

Histoire du Royaume de Quito. 1789. 1840. 
Velasco, Juan de. 143, 164. 

Historia de Cadiz y su Provincia. 1858. 
Castro y Rossi, Adolfo de. 1B5. 



350 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Historia del Celebre Santuario de Ncostra Sefiora de CopacabuuL 1611. 
Ramos Gavilan, Alonso. 91. 

Historia del Descubrimiento y Conqaista del Peru. 1555. 1577. 
Zarate, Augostin de. 31, 46. 

La Historia del Mondo Nuovo. 1565. 1573. 
Benzoni, Girolaxno. 37* 44. 

Historia del Nuevo Mundo. 1653. 1890. 
Cobo, Beniab^. 109, 154. 

Historia del Peru. 1571. 1876. 

Femindez, Diego, dt PaUncia. 40, 196. 

Historia del Peru. 1586. 1840. 

Cavello Balboa, Miguel. 51, 16a. 

Historia del Reino de Quito. 1789. 1840. 
Velaaco, Juan de. 143, 1O4. 

Historia de la Conquista del Nuevo Mundo. 1819. 
Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca, 156. 

Historia de las Guerras Civiles del Peru (1544-48). 1904. 
Gutierrez de Santa Clara, Pedro. 983. 

Historia General del Peni. [Segunda Parte de los Commentarios Reales. 
1609.] 1617. 1713. 
Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca, 77, 134. 

Historia general de las Conquistas del Nuevo Reyno de Granada. 1688. 
Fernandez de Piedranita, Lucas, successively Bish^ of Santa Maria 
and of Panama. 115. 

La Historia eeneral de las Indias. 1535. 

Femindez de Oviedo y Vald6s, Gonzalo. 11. 

Historia General de los Hechos de los Castellanos en las Islas i Tierra Firme 
del Mar Oceano. 1601. 
Herrera Tordesillas, Antonio de. 61. 

Historia general llamada Indica. 1579. 1906. 

Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro. 45, 389. 
Historia imperii Peruani. MS. c 1590. 

Valera, Bias. 55. 
Historia natural y moral de las Indias. 159a 1591. 1608. 1793. 

Acosta, Joseph de, S.J. 54, 56, 73, 146. 
Historical Researches on the Conquest of Peru. 1837. 

Ranking, John. 153. 
A History of Peru. 1893. 

Markham, Sir Clements Robert, K.C.B., F.R.S. 36a 
History of the Conquest of Peru. 1847. 

Prescott, William Hickling. 168. 
History of the Incas. 1907. 

Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro. 390. 

History of the New World. (1573). 1857. 

Benzoni. Girolamo. 183. 
La hystoria general de las Indias. 1547* 

Fem^dez de Oviedo y ValdJs, Gonzalo. 31. 

Hystoria o Descripcion del Imperial cibdad de Toledo. 1554* 
Alcocer, Pedro de. 39. 

Les Incas, ou La Destruction de TEmpire du P^rou. 1777. 
Marmontel, Jean Fran9ois. 140. 



INDEX OF TITLES 35 1 

Die in der Goettinger Bibliothek erhaltene Geschichte des Inkareiches von 
Pedro Sanniento de Gamboa. [1573.] 1893. 
Meyer, Wilhelm, Professor in Gottingen, a63. 

Indias, Relaciones Geogrificas de. 1881. 
Spain. — Ministerio de Fomenio, 143. 

Indica. 1573. 1893. 1906. 

Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro. 45, 964, 289. 

Informacion de las Idolatrias de los Incas e Indios, &c. 1571. 1874. 
Incas. 41, 3 a a. 

Informaciones acerca del Senorio 7 Gobierno de los Ingas, hechas por mandado 
de Don Francisco de Toledo, Virey del Peni 1570-72. 1882. 
Toledo, Francisco de, Viceroy of Peru, 244. 

Das Inka-Reich. 1885. 

Brehm, Reinhold Bemhard. 249. 

Instrucion contra las Ceremonias y Ritos que usan los Indios conforme al 
tiempo de su infidelidad. 1585. 
Indios. 49. 

Introduction to the Palaeography of America. 1865. 
Bollaert, William. 202. 

Las Islas de los Galapagos y otras m^ a poniente. 1891. 
Jimenez de la Sspada, Marcos. 257. 

Isolario. 1534. 

Bordone, Benedetto. 5. 

La istoria de las Indias y conquista de Mexico. 1552. 
L6pez de G6mara, Francisco. 26. 

La Jornada del Capitin Alonso Mercadillo i los Indios Chupachos k Iscai- 
cingas [1538]- 1897. 
Jimenez de la Espada, Marcos. 272. 

yournal of the Ethnological Society of London, 
Bollaert, William, F.R.G.S. 1854. 178. 
Forbes, David, F.P,S. 1870. 211. 

Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 

Markham, Sir Clements Robert, K.C.B,, F.P.S, 1871. 215. 
Enock, C. Reginald. 1905. 284, 285. 



Die Kechua-Sprache. 1853. 

Tschudi, Johann Jakob von. 177. 



Das Land der Inca. 1883. 
Falb, Rudolf. 245. 

The Land of the Incas and the City of the Sun. 1885. 
Adams, William Henry Davenport. 248. 

Langue Puquina. 1894* 

La Grasserie, Raoul de. 265. 

Langues Am^ricaines. 1894. 

La Grasserie, Raoul de. 265. 

Latin- American Republics. 1892. 260. 

Letera de La nobil cipta. Nov. 25, 1534. 1700. 1850. 
ZhavaL 10, 119, 172. 



352 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Letter of Heriuuido Pizarro to the Royal Audience of Santo Domingo. 187a. 
Markham, Sir ClemenU Robert, IC.C.B,, F.R.S, 917. 

Lettera de La nobil Citta. Sept. 35, 1535. 
Zhaval. 14. 

Lettres du Japon, et de la Chine. 1593. 
Jesuits. 57. 

Lexicologia Keshua. Uirakocha. 1887. 
ViUar, Leonardo, del Cuuc 351. 

Lexicon o Vocabulario de la lengua general del Peru. 1560. 
Domingo, de Santo Tomas, 34. 

Libro de grandezas y cosas memorables de Espafia. 1548. 
Medina, Pedro de. 33. 

Libro de la Vida y Milagros de Nuestro Sefior Jesn Christo. 161 a. 
Villegas, Alonso de. 84. 

libro Primo de la Conquista del Peru. 1535. 
X^res, Francisco de. 13, 13. 

Libro Ultimo del Summario delle Indie Occidentali. 1534. 
West Indies. 8. 

Libros Reales de Govierno y Gracia de la Secretaria del Peru. 1615. 
Leon Pinelo, Antonio de. 93. 

Lima Almanack. 1763. 137. 

Lima Fundada, o Conquista del Peru. 1733. 1863. 

Peralta Bamuevo Rocha y Benavides, Pedro Jos^ de. 116, 196. 

The Literature of American Aboriginal Languages. 1858. 
Ludewig, Hermann Eduard. 187. 

Litteratur der Grammatiken, Lexica, und Wortersammlungen aller Sprachen 
der Erde. 1847. 
Vater, Johann Severin. 170. 



Mali Galeci sanandi...modi omnes. 1538. 
Ravenna, Th. 17. 

Manual del Idioma General del Peru. 1889. 
Mossi, Miguel Angel. 352. 

A Memoir of the Lady Ana de Osorio, Countess of Chinchon, and Vice- 
Queen of Peru. 1874. 
Markham, Sir Clements Robert, K.C.B,, F.R.S, 333. 

M^moires Historiques sur I'ancien P^rou. 1840. 
Montesinos, Fernando de. 163. 

Memoirs read before the Anthropological Society of London. 1865. 
BoUaert, William. 302. 

Memoria de lo que han hecho mis padres y yo en busca del Dorado, que 
ansi se llama esta conquista, y dicen que es el Paytiti. 1650. 1905. 
Soleto Pemia, Alonso. 108, 386. 

Memorial des las Historias del Nuevo Mundo: Piru. 1630. 
Salinas y Cordova, Buenaventura de. 96. 

Memorial que D. Francisco de Toledo di6 al Rey nuestro Sefior del estado, 
&c. 1571. 1855. 
Toledo, Francisco de, Vieeroy of Peru. 43, 180. 

Memorial y Relacion ..de cosas del Reino del Peru. 1634. 
Cardenas, Bernardino de. Bishop of Paraguay, 100. 



INDEX OF TITLES 353 

Memorias antignas historuJes j politicas del Peni. 1889. 
Montesinos, Fernando de. 444. 

Merturio Peruano, 1791. 1861. 145, 193* 

Milicia y Descripdon de las Indias. 1599. 
Vargas Machuca, Bernardo de. do. 

Miscelanea AnstraL i6o4. 

Avalos y Figueroa, Diego d*. 69. 

Miscellaoea Austral. 1586. 184a 

Cavello Balboa, Miguel. 51, 169. 

Miscdlan^e Aostrale. 1840. 

Cavello Balboa, Miguel. 169. 

Nachrichten von der Koniglichen GeseUschaft der Wissenschaften nnd der 
Geoig- Augusts- Umversitat zu Gottingen. 1895. 
Mejrer, Wilhelm, Professor in Ofttingen. 963. 

A Narrative of the errors, fidse gods, and other superstitions and diabolical 
rites in which the Indians of the province of Huarochiri lived in 
ancient times. 1608. 1873. 
Avila, Francisco de. 73, 910. 

Narrative of the Proceedings of Pedrarias Davila. 1865. 
Andagoya, Pascual de. 901. 

Narratives of the Rites and Laws of the Yncas. 1873. 

Markham, Sir Clements Robert, K.CB.^ F,R^. 99a 

Narratives of the Voyages of Pedro Sanniento de Gambda to the Straits 
of Magellan. 1805. 
Sarmiento de Qamboa, Pedro. 969. 

The Natural and Moral History of the Indies. 1880. 
Acosta, Joseph de, S.J, 936. 

The Naturall and Morall Historic of the East and West Indies. 1604. 1880. 
Acosta, Joseph de, S,y, 66, 936. 

The Necropolis of Ancon in Peru. 1880. 
Reiss, Wilhelm. 941. 

New Discovery of the Great River of the Amazons, A.D. 1639. 1^59* 
Acuiia, Cristoval de. 188. 

Newe Zevtung aus Hispanien und Italien. 1534. 
Spain. 7. 

Nobiliario Genealogico de los Reyes y Titulos de Espafia. 1699. 
Lopez de Haro, Alonso. 99. 

Noticia General del Perd, Tierra firme y Chile. 1610. 1830. 
Lopez de Caravantes, Francisco. 78* 159. 

Notidas Cronol6gicas del Cuzco, a.d. 1043-1595. 1909. 
Cuzco. 980. 

Noticias historiales de las Conquistas de tierra firme. 1697. 
Simon, Pedro. 95. 

Noticias Secretas de America. 1896. 
Juan y Santacilla, Jorge. 159. 

Noticias sobre las Provincias Litorales correspondientes a los Departamentos 
de Arequipa, lea, Huancavelica i Lima. i88a 
Chile. Cficina Hidrogrddca. 938. 

Nouveau Dictionnaire de G^ographie Universelle. 1890. 
Vivien de Saint Martin, Louis. 955. 

M. S. 23 



354 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Nonvelle Dioouverte d'un Vmy% plus grand que rEoiope. 1737. 
Hennepin, Louis. 137. 

Nottvelles ceruines des Isles du P^ni. 1534. 
Peru. 6. 

Nueva Biblioteca de Autores E^spafioles. iQ05« 
Menendes y Pelayo, Marcelino. 980. 

Nuevo Descubrimiento del Gran Rio de las Amasonas. 1641. 
Acufia, Cristoval de. 103. 

Nueyos Aut6gnfos de Crist6bal CoI6n y Reladones de Ultiamar. 1909. 
Stuart, Maria del Rosario, Duqttesa de Berwick y de Alba, sSi. 

Obra compuesta por Ludo Marineo Sicolo. 1539. 
Marineo, Lucio, Sicuio. i& 

Observations on the Geography and Archaeology of Peru. 1870. 
Squier, Ephraim George. 913. 

Observations on the History of the Incas of Peru. 1854. 
BoUaert, William, F.R.G^. 178. 

Ollanta. 1871. 
OUanta. si6. 

On the Aymara Indians of Bolivia and Peru. f87a 
Forbes. David, F.RS, 311. 

On the Geographical Positions of the Tribes, which formed the Empire of the 
Yncas. 1871. 
Markham, Sir Clements Robert, fC.C.B.^ F,R.S. 915. 

Organismus der Khetiua-Sprache. 1884* 
Tschttdi, Johann Jakob von. 347. 

Origen del Kechua y del Aymari. 1900. 
Patr6n, Pablo. 476. 

Origen de los Indios de el Nuevo Mundo e Indias Occidentales. 1607. 
1739, 
Garcia, Gregorio. 69, 135. 

Oviedo de la natural hystoria de Us Indias. 1536. 
Femindez de Oviedo y Vald^s, Gonzalo. i. 



Papeles Varios. xSix. 

Tupac Amaru, Juan. 151. 

Parte Primera de la chronica del Peru. 1553. 1554. 
Cieza de Leon, Pedro de. 37, 30. 

Le P^rou avant la conqu6te espagnole. 1858. 
Desjardins, Antoine Emiie Ernest. 186. 

P^rou et Bolivie. 1880. 
Wiener, Charles. 343. 

Peru. 1880. 

Markham, Sir Clements Robert, K.C.B., F.B.S. 340. 

Peru. Beobachtungen und Studien. 1893. 
Middendorf, E. W. 393. 

Peru. Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of the Incas. 1877. 
Squier, Ephraim George. 330. 

Peru. Reiseskizzen aus den Jahren 1838-43. 1846. 
Tschudi, Johann Jakob von. 167. 



INDEX OF TITLES 355 

Penumische Mnmien. 1906. 
Baessler, Arthur. 988. 

Peravian Antiquities. 1853. 

Rivero y Ustarijs, Mariano Eduardo de. 175. 

Politica de las Grandezas y Goviemo del Supremo y Real Consejo de las 
Indias. 1658. 
Leon Pinelo, Antonio de. no. 

Politica Indiana. 1648. 1703. 1776. 
Solorzano Pereyra, Juan de. 107. 

Primera Part d' la historia de Valecia. 1538. 
Beuter, Pedro Antonio. 15. 

Primera Parte de la Coronica general de toda Espafia. 1546. 1563. 
Beuter, Pedro Antonio. 30, 36. 

Primera Parte de la Miscelanea Austral. 1603. 
Avalos y Figueroa, Diego d*. 63. 

Primera Parte de las Noticias historiales de las Conquistas de tierra firme en 
las Indias Occidentales. 1637. 
Simon, Pedro. 95. 

Primera Parte de los Commentarios Reales. 1609. 1733. 1839. 
Qarcilasso de la Vega, el Inca. 75, 134, 156. 

Primera y Segunda Parte de la Historia del Peru. 1571. 1863. 1876. 
Fem^dez, Diego, de Palencia, 40, 196. 

The Primeval Monuments of Peru. 1870. 
Squier, Ephraim Geotge. 314. 

PubHcatums of tke Field Columbian Museum* 1898. 
Dorsey, George Amos. 374. 

Quelques Remarques sur la G^graphie et les Monuments du P^rou« 1868. 
Squier, Ephraim George. 308. 

Rebelion de Francisco Hernandez Giron en el Peru en 1553. 1879. 
Hernandez Giron, Francisco. 334. 

Recueil de Quelques Missions des Indes Orientales, & Occidentales. 1594. 
Jesuits. 58. 

Reisen und Landerbeschreibungen. 1843. 
Widenmann, Eduard. 166. 

La relado del viage que hizo el sefior capitan HemAdo pi9arro, &c. 1534. 
Astete, Miguel de. 9. 

Relacion de Antigiiedades deste Reyno del Pin!L 1630. 1879. 
Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui, Juan de. 89, 335. 

Relacion del libro intitulado Goviemo de el Peru. MS. 1635. 
Matienzo de Peralta, Juan. 94. 

Relacion del Origen, Descendencia, Politica y Gobiemo de los Incas. 1879. 
Santillan, Fernando de. 335. 

Relacion del Sitio del Cuzco. 1879. 
Cuzco. 333. 

Relacion de la Religion y Ritos del Peru. 1865. 
Agustinos. 300. 

Relacion de las Costumbres Antiguas de los Naturales del Pird. 1879. 
Jesuit, The Anonymous. 335. 

23—2 



356 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

ReUdon de lo Acaeddo en Pei^ ke* 1879. 
Hemandes Qiron, Fnncisco. 954. 

Relacion de lot Fundamentos aceica del notable Dafio que resolta de no 
guaidar k I06 Indios sua loeroe. 1571. iS/i. 
Onde^ardo, Polo de. 49, 118. 

Reladon de lot sncesoe de Pediarias Divila. 1540. 1819. 
Andagoya, Pascual de. 19, 154. 

Relackm de todo lo sucedido en la Prorinda del Pira...ii.D.x.uin. 1870. 
Peru. 319. 

Relaci6o Descriptiva de lot Mapes, Planot, eU., del Vineinato del Pcrd. 
1906. 
Torres Lanaas, Pedro. 990. 

Reladon Historica del Viage k la Am^ca MeridioDal. 1748. 
Ulloa, Antonio de. 139. 

Reladon Historica de lot Sncesos de la Rebdlion de Jot^ Gabrid Tnpac- 
Amani. 1836. 1863. 
Tupac Amaru, Jos^ Gabrid i6o« 197. 

Relaciones Geogr4ficas de Indiat. 1881. 
Spain. — MinUierU de Fommio. 943. 

Relation V^ridique de la Conqu^te da P^roQ et de la Province du Ciuco. 

1837. 
Xires, Francisco de. 161. 

La Relatione del Viaggio che feoe il Signore capitano Ferdinando Picdairo^ 
tic, 1535. 
Astete, Miguel de. f9, 13. 

Rdectiones Theologicae. 1557. 1587. 
Franciscus, k Victoria. 39. 

Report by Polo de Ondegardo on the lineage, conquests, edifices, fortresses, 
&c., of the Yncas. 1550. 1873. 
Ondegardo, Polo de. 35, 990. 

Report of Francisco de Xeres. 1879. 
Xires, Frandsco de. 917. 

Report of Miguel de Astete on the Expedition to Pachacamac. 1879. 
Astete, Miguel de. 917. 

Report of Pedro Sancho on the partition of the Ransom of Atahualpa. 187a. 

Sancho, Pedro. 917. 
Reports on the Discovery of Peru. 1879. 

Markham, Sir Clements Robert, KX.B.^ F.R.S, 917. 
Resumen Historico del Origen, y Succession de los Incas. 1748. 

Ulloa, Antonio de. Admiral, 139. 
Revista del Museo de La Plata, 1899. 

Lafone y Quevedo, Samuel Alexander. 959. 
Rituale, seu Manuale Penianum. 1607. 

Peruvian Ritual. 71. 
The Royal Commentaries of Peru. 1688. 1859. '^9- 

Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca. 116, 188, 909. 
R. P. Didad de A vendafio... Thesaurus Indicus. 1668. 

Avendafio, Diego de. 119. 
Die Ruinenstaette von Tiahuanaco. 1899. 

StUbel, Alphons. 969. 
The Ruins of Huanuco Viejo^ or Old Huanuco. 1905. 

Knock, C. Reginald. 985. 



INDEX OF TITLES 357 

Sc^nda Parte de la Cr6mca del Perd. 1880. 
Cieza de Leon, Pedro de. 939. 

Segi^nda Parte de U Historia general Uamada Indica. 1573. 1906. 
Sarmiento de Qamboa, Pedro. 45, 189. 

Segnnda Parte de los Comentarios Reales. 1609. 
Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inea. 'js. 

Sermones de los Ministerios de Nuestra Santa Fe Catolica en lengua 
Castellana y la General del Inca. 1648. 
Avendafio, Fernando de. 106. 

The Seventeen Years Travels of Peter de Cieza. 1709. 
Cieza de Leon, Pedro de. iii. 

Sixth Historical Notice of the Conquest of Tierra Firme. i86f. 
Simon, Pedro. 194. 

Ein sozialistischer Grossstaat vor 400 Jahren. 1895. 
Martens, Oscar. 367. 

The Spanish Conquest in America. 1855. 1900. 
Helps, Sir Arthur, K^CB, 179, 175. 

The Spanish Empire in America. 1747. 
Campbell, John, LJLD. 131. 

The strai^ and delectable History of the discoverie and Conquest of the 
Provinces of Peru. 1581. 
Zarate, Augustin de. 47. 

Soma y Narracion de los Incas. i88o* 
BetAnzos, Juan de. 337. 

Summario de los Privilegios y Facultades conoedidas para los Indios. 1608. 
Gonzalez Holguin, Diego, S.J, 74. 

Summario delle Indie Occidentali. 1534. 
West Indies. 8. 

Supuesta Derivaci6n Sumero-Asiria de las Lenguas Kechua y AymariL 1901. 
Lafone y Quevedo, Samuel Alexander. 977. 

Symbolo Catholico Indiana 1598. 
Or6, Luis GenSnimo de. 59. 



The Temple of the Andes. 1884. 
Inwards, Richard. 946. 

Tercero Cathecismo y Exposicion de la Doctrina Christiana. 1585. 1774. 
Catecismo. 50, 139. 

Tercero Libro de las Guerras civiles del Peru. 1877. 
Cieza de Leon, Pedro de. 918. 

Testimonio de la Acta de repartidon del rescate de Atahualpa. 1533. 
1830. 1845. 
Sancho, Pedro. 4, 158. 

Thesaurus Indicus. 1668. 

Avendaiio, Diego de. 119. 

TrabaJos, agravios e injusticias, que padeoen los Indios del Peru. 1661. 
Padilla, Juan de. Alcalde, iii. 

Traveb in Peru. 1847. 

Tschudi, Johann Jakob von. 169. 

Travels in Peru and India. 1869. 

Markham, Sir Clements Robert, JC,C,B., F,R^. 195. 



358 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The Travels of Pedro de Geia de Leon. 1864. 
Ciesa de Leon, Pedro. 198. 

Las Ties Epocas del Peni o Compendio de sa Historia. 1844. 1863. 

1875- 
C6rdova y Umitia, Jos^ Maria. 196. 

Ties Reladones de Antigiiedades Penianas. 1879. 
Jiin6nex de U Bspada, Marcos. 935. 

Trttbner's Bibliotheca Glottica. 1858. 
Ludewig, Hennann Eduaid. 187. 

Two Yean in Peru. 1873. 

Hutchinson, Thomas Joseph. 319. 

Varias Reladones del Peri 7 Chile. 1879. 

Cusco. Hemandes Qiron, Frandsco. S33, 134. 

Ventaias de la Constitudon Espafiohu i8si« 
Tupac Amaru, Juan. 151. 

Verdadera Relacion de la Conquista dd Pern. 1534. 1547. 
Xires, Frandsco de. 9* as. 

Versdchntss der Handschriften im Pieussischen Staate. 1893. 1894. 
Prussia. 464, 166. 

Vidas de Espafioles C^lebres. 1807. 1830. 1845. 
Quintana, Manuel Jos^. 158, 159. 

Vidas de varones ilusties de la Compafiia de Jesus de la Provinda dd 
Perii. 1631. 
Oliva, Andlo, S.y. 97. 

La Vie du bien-heureux p^ Francisco Solano. 1677. 
Courtot, Fran9ob. 113* 

Vocabulario de la Lengua Aymaia. 1619. 1879. 
Bertonio, Ludovico. 83, 13s* 

Vocabulario de la Lencua General de todo el Peru. t6o8« 
Gonzalez Holgum, Diego, S.y, 74. 

Vocabulario en la Lengua General del Peru, llamada Qnichua. 1604* 
Quichua. 6S. 

Voyace de Humboldt et Bonpland. 1807. 

Humboldt, Friedrich Hdnrich Alexander von, Baron. 149. 

Voyage Historique de TAm^rique Meridionale. 1759. 
UUoa, Antonio de, Admiral, 133. 

The Voyage of Frandsco de Orellana down the river of the Amazons, 
A.D. i«40-4i. 1859. 
Herrera Tordesillas, Antonio de. 188. 

Voyages, Relations et M^moires Origtnaux, pour servir k Thistoire de la 
d^ouverte de TAm^rique. 1837. 1840. 
Temauz-Compans, Henri. 161-164. 



INDEX. 



Abancay, province of Abancay, 390 
Acamaqui, Sinchi of Pacaycacha, 83 
Acapulco, Don Juan de Mendoza y 

Luna comes by sea to Callao from, 

903 
Accha, province of Paruro, 308 
Account of the antiquitus of Peru. 

See Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui 

Salcamaygua, Juan de 
Account of the province of VUcapampa^ 

1 6 10. Su Ocampo, Baltasar de 
Achaia, flood in, 34 
Achihua^ parasol, 1 1 5 
AcUari, Cristoval (Cuycusa Ayllu), 

AcUas, women servants of the Sun, 
151, 170, 316 

Acobamba (Acos), capital of An- 
garaes, 109 

Acollo Tupac, of the lineage of 
Viracocha Inca, 160 

Acos (Acobamba), town, 109 

Acosta, Joseph de, Jesuit (1540- 
5^), accompanies the Viceroy in 
his visitation of Peru, xiv; The 
NeUural and Moral History of the 
Indies f 1604, edited by Sir Clements 
Markham, 1879, ^9> 37 > ^S* ^4* ^* 

Aaam, 20 

Adobe, walls of, on the coast roads of 

Peru, 13a 
Africa, 14, 16, &c.; circumference of, 

17, &c. 
African Slaves, in the Vilcapampa 

factories, insurrection of the, 339 
Aguilar de Campos, Palencia, 

Spain, Alvaro and Francisco Ruiz 

de Navamuel bom at, xi 
Ahua Panti, captain, in army of 

Huascar, 177 ; prisoner of Ata- 

hualpa, 181 



Alfua-tuna, 143 
Ahuayro-cancha, capital of the 

Ayamarcas, 75 
Alayda, Huayna Ccapac at, 159 
Albomoz, Don Crist6val de, Pre- 
centor of Cuzco Cathedral, 339; 

his metal works at Puquiura, 314, 

333 
Alcabisa, 40, 67 
Alcabisas, mentioned by Cieza de 

Leon, 40; their resistance to Manco 

Ccapac, 58, &c.; to Mayta Ccapac, 

66, &c. 
Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Mel- 

chior Carlos Inca died at, 335 
Alcalde, Peru, xv 
Alcanizes, Marquis of, 319 
Alcanizes and Oropesa, Tuan, 

Maiquis of, descendant of the 

Incas, 319 
Alcantara, Order of, 307, 3o8 
Alca-parihuana, Sinchi of Toguaro, 

108 
Alcaviquiza, 40, 60 
Alcaviya, 40 
Alcides. See Hercules 
Alcinous, King of the Phseacians, i 
Aleman, Diego, his expedition into 

the montafia of Paucartambo, 144 
Alemanes, descendants of Tuscan, 

30 
Alexander the Great, King of 

Macedon, 15; sends out navigators, 

36 
Alexander VI, Pope (1493-1503), 

Alfonso 11, el Casto, King of Spain 

(793-843), 65 
Aliaga, fiunily of. Counts of Lurm- 

eancho in Peru, xii 
Aliaga, Geronimo de, son of Francisco 

Ruiz de Navamuel, xii 



36o 



INDEX 



AUaga, Jwum de. wife of Fimndsoo ! 
Ruiz de Nayamael, zii 

Allcayviesas, 40, 60 

AUcay-villcAt, 40, 60 

Almagro, Diego de (1475-1538), , 
xvii ; his expedition to Chile, xviii ; 
his differences with Fimndsoo ' 
Pizano, 159. 

Aluslpo, seventh son of Neptone, «a 

Alva, Dukes of, 6 

Alvares, Captain Anton de, in I 
Mafiaries, 154-6 I 

Alvarez de la Carrera, Friar Gabriel, 
first Creole bom after siege of Cozco, | 
316 ; baptises Tupac Amaru, 1571, ' 
ib, 

Alvarez de Toledo, Francisco, third 
Count of Oropesa, father of Fpm- 
cisco de Toledo, Viceroy of Peru, 
XV, 6 

Alvarez Maldonado, Juan, of Cuzco, 
Camp Master in the Vilcapampa 
expedition, 1571, 318, 334; bio- 
graphy of, ib,\ Rdacian di la 
jornado de Atoaret Maidonada, 
161 7: see Pinelo, Leon; his ex- 
pedition into the montafia of 
PaucarUmbo, 144; in the Cuzco 
Tournament, 144 

Amaru, serpent, 134 

Amaru, town, 75, 141 

Amaru-cancha, palace, Cuzco, built 
by Huascar, 170. 

Amaru-mayii, or Serpent River, 144 

Amaru Titu (Socso Panaca Ayllu), 
86 

Amaru Tupac Inca, eldest legi- 
timate son of Pachacuti Inca 
Yupanqui, 1 14 ; his conouest of 
the CoUas, 133, &c., 140; aemands 
an interview with Tupac Inca, 137, 

138 

Amaru, Tupac Inca. See Tupac 

Amaru, Inca 
Amaybamba, valley of, 339 
Amaypampa. See Amaybamba 
America, in 1573, 18 ; in the first 

age of the Incas, 33 
Amfenes, third son of Neptune, 33. 
Ampuero, Francisco, second husband 

of Princess Inez l^usta, xix 
Ampura Llama Oca, Don Gonzalo 

(Maras Ayllu), 1573, 46 
Anahuarqul, Huaca, 103 
Anahuarqui, wife of Tupac. Inca 

Yupanqui, 103 
Afiaya, Atilano de, citizen of Cuzco, 

the Viceroy's ambassador to Titu 

Cusi Yupanqui, 311, 314, 317; 

murder of, 317 



Ancamarca, conquered by Hnayna 

Ccapac, 161 
Ancaamarca, 69 
Ancas-mayu, people of, 31, f6i; 

river of, Huajma Ccapac erects his 

boundary pillais at, 166 
Ancoallo, sUtue of Uscovilca, 87 
Anco AyUo, a Chanca, brother-in- 
law of Ccapac Yupanani, 115, 117; 

leads the Chanca revolt, 117 
Anco-ayUu, 117 
Ancovilca, Sinchi of the Hurin- 

chancas, 87; statue of, abandoned 

at Cuzco, 93 
Anco-yacu, bridge of, battle of, 174, 

175 
Ancuy, Don Garcia (Ayllu of Lloqni 

Yupanaui), aged 45, 1573, witness 

to tne Indica^ 197 
Andahuaylas, Sayri Tupac arrives 

at, Nov. 5, 1557, xviii 
Andahuaylas, the great, province 

of, Vilcapampa, 86, 87, 308, 330^ 

«3i» «3» 

Andahuaylas, el chUo (Andahuaylil- 
las), village, south of Cuzco, 308, 333 

Andahuaylillas, village, 333 

AndeneSf of Cuzco, 98 ; of other parts 
of Peru, 133 

Andes, 34, 133, 193 

Andes, of Xauxa, 8 

Anduaca, captain, drowned in the 
valley of Quillapampa, 336 

Angaraes, province of, X09, 130 

Angelina, daughter of Atahualpa, 
married Juan de Betanzos, xix 

Annius, Joannes, yiterbensis, AfUu 
quitcLtU variarA volumtna XVII, 
[spurious fragments], Rome, 1498, 
cited, 30, 34 

Anqui Yupanqui Su Auqui Yu- 
panqui 

Anta, town, 308 ; Chimbo Orma of, 
77; Mama Rondocaya of, 81 

Antahuaylla. See Andahuaylas 

Antalongo (Tangalongo), Sinchi of 
Chile, appointed Curaca by Huayna 
Ccapac, 159 

Antamarca, near Yana-mayu, Huas- 
car, a prisoner at, 189 

Antarqui, a necromancer, 135 

Antasayas, tribe of, 40 

Anti-Hualpa, Don Francisco (Ayllu 
of Viracocha), aged 89, 1573, wit- 
ness to the Jndica, 198 

Antinous (Alcinous), King, i 

Anti-suyu, one of the four divisions 
of the Inca empire, 133 

Anti-suyu, colonised b^ Pachacuti 
Inca Yupanqui from Chmchay-suyu, 



INDEX 



361 



iio; conquered by Tupac Inca 

Yupanqui, 141, &c. ; Huayna Ccapac 

in, 159 
Antonio,Nicolas, BiblUtheca Hispana 

Ncva^ 1783-88, dted, 918, 390 
Aod, ruler of Israel, 35 
Apacfuta^ 111 
ApachitaSt iii 
Apanca, Don Juan, aged 80, 1574, 

witness to the Indica^ 199 
Apologltica Historia Sumaria, See 

Casas, Bartolom^ de las. Bishop of 

Chiapa 
Apu, a chief, 134, 165, 335 
Apu Achachi, brother of Tupac 

Inca Yupanqui, appointed Visitor 

General of Peru, 149 
Apu Calla, son of Ccapac Yupanqui, 

69 
Apu-cati -quilla (Catiquilla),a Moon 

god, 165, 166 
Apu Cautar Cauana, captain, of 

Cunti-suyu, 160 
Apu Chalco Yupanqui, priest of 

the Sun, invested Huascar, 18 r, 183 
Apu Chima-chaui, son of Ccapac 

Yupanqui, 69; Chima Chaui Pata 

Yupanqui, remains with Inca Yu- 
panqui, 89 
Apu Conde Masrta (Cunti Mayta), 

elder son of Mayta Ccapac, 68, 6q ; 

disinherited for his ugly face, (^, 

191 
Apu Cunaraqui, Sinchi of Cuyo- 

cuyo, 107 
Apu Ccurimachi, captain of Tupac 

Inca Yupanqui, 143 
Apu Hilaquita, Governor of Cuzco, 

160, 166; dies of the plague, 167; 

uncle of Huayna Ccapac, ib, 
Apu Mayta, son of Apu Saca, 70, 

71; companion in arms of Vica- 

quirau Inca, 71, 83; his conquests 

for Viracocha Inca, 83, &c., 140 
Apu Mayta, idol of Lloqui Yu- 

panoui, 65 
Apu Mayta, Don Juan (Ayllu of 

Ccapac Yupanqui), aged 30, 1571, 

witness to the Indica, 198 
Apu Mayta Panaca Ayllu (Ccapac 

Yupanqui), 70 
Apu Paucar Usnu, son of Pacha- 

cuti Inca Yupanqui, conquers the 

CoUas, 133, &c. 
Apu Rinti, Don Garcia, aged 70, 

witness to the IndUa^ 199 
Apu Saca, son of Ccapac Yupanqui, 

69; father of Apu Mayta, 70 
Apu Urco Kuaranca, son of 

Ccapac Yupanqui, 70 



Apu Yanqui Yupanqui, son of 
Ccapac Yupanqui, 115, 136 

Apurimac, river, xxi, 70, 177, 338 

Aquilar y de Cordova, Don Diego 
de. Governor of Vilcapampa, 340, 
341 

Arabia Deserta, 14 

Arampa Yupanqui, captain in army 
of Huascar, 177, 178 

Arapa, fortress, 145 

Araua Ocllo, sister and wife of 
Huayna Ccapac, 160, 168; mother 
of Huascar, 168; prisoner of Ata- 
hualpa, 183, 18^^ 

Araucanian Indians, 318 

Araxa, daughter of Noah, 31 

Araypalpa, province of Paniro, 308 

Ar^yraca Ayllu Cuzco -Callan, 46 

Archivo de Indias^ ix, 334 

Arco de la plata, 56 

Arequipa, 60, 114; Huayna Ccapac 
at, 159; negroes of, 339 

Argives, 3 

Arias de Avila, G6mez (fl. 1548- 
54, captured Francis Hernandez 
Gir6n, 1554), 117 

Armadillos, 343 

Armenia, Noah*s Ark in, 3 1 

Arriaga, Pablo Joseph de, Extir- 
pa£ion de la idolalria del Piru^ 
Lima, 1631, cited, 165, 166, 385 

Ascascahuana, Sinchi of Huancara, 
108 

Asculla, 70 

Asia, continent of, 14, &c. ; circum- 
ference of, 1 7, &c 

Asia, a nymph, mother of Atlas, 33 

AsiUo, estate of, in the Collao, 
owned by Geronimo Castilla, 344 

Asillo, fortress, 145 

Assenes, or Fenec, King, 31 

Assyrians, origin of name of, 30 

Astete, Miguel de, 6, 334 

Astoy-huaraca, Sinchi of the 
Hananchancas, 88; marches against 
Cuzco, 89, &C.; his death, 95 

Asur, 30 

Atacama, 114; Huayna Ccapac at, 

Atahualpa, son of Huayna Ccapac 
and Tocto Coca, 160, 169; his 
parentage, 170; his campaign 
against Huascar, his brother, 173- 
186; executed by order of Fran- 
cisco Pizarro, aged 36, 190; ex- 
terminates line and lineage of Huas- 
car, 184-186; father of Angelina, 
wife of Juan de Betanzos, xix; 
orders execution of Huascar, 1533, 
xvi, 189; his ransom, 319; receives 



362 



INDEX 



at Huamachttco news of the laad- 

ing of Pizano, i86, &c.; statue of. 

Tied Ccapac^ i8i; subdues the 

Huancavilcas, 171, 179 
Ataonipagui, a CaAari, 30, 31 
Ataraa, 308 
Ataria Cusi Huarcay, Princess, 

daughter of Huascar, wife of her 

uncle, Manoo Inca, xvii 
Athanagild, King of the Visigoths, 

(554-567K father of Loyva, 194 
Athenians, 3 ; Atlantic blockade of, 

«5 

Atlantic Island, description of the, 
15, &c.; flood in the, 34, &c; in- 
habitants of the, 33, &c.; metropolis 
of the, 33 

Atlantic Mountains, 17 

Atlantic Ocean, 3; origin of name, 
10, 33 ; Ulysses lost in the, 35 

Atlantica, 33 

Atlanticas, 33 

Atlantis, eldest son of Neptune, 33 

Atlas, giant and astrologer, son of 
Japhet, 31 ; his lineage, 33 

Atoc, captain, in army of Huascar, 

173 

Atoc, an Orejon, killed by Atahualpa, 
173 

Aueaylli Panaca Ayllu (Yahuar- 
huaccac), 81 

Atucay traitor, 173 

Auccacunapac^ loi 

Augustines, Order of, Cuzco, 307, 
311, 338 

Augustines, Order of, twelve preach- 
ing friars first to enter Mexico, 337 

Auqui Huanca. See Huanca Auqui 

Auaui Toma (Auqui Tupac Inca), 

103 

Auqui Tupac Inca (Auaui Toma), 
son of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqni, 
157; appointed captain by Huayna 
Ccapac, 160, 160; defeated and 
killed by the Cayambis, 163; dies 
of the plague at Cuzco, 167 

Auqui Yupanqui, brother of Pacha- 
cuti Inca YufMinqui, 139, 133; killed 
by his brother, 137 

Auti Hualpa, Don Francisco, 86 

Autochthon, fourth son of Neptune, 
33 

Avachumbi, island, 135 ; Tupac 
Inca Yupanqui*s voyage to, 136 

Ava3mi, 65 

Avayni Panaea Ayllu (Lloqui Yu- 
panqui), 65 

Avca Michu Avri Sutic, Don 
Francisco (Sutic -Tocco Ayllu), 
1572. 46 



Avcaylli Titu Putisuc (Avayni 

Panaca), 1573, 65 
Ayachi, Don Garcia, 1573, 154 
Ayallilla, Don Carlos, aged 50, 1573, 

witness to the Indka^ 199 
Ayamarca, 69 
Ayamarca Raymi^ 73, I03 
Ayamarcas, the, of Tampu-cunca, 

64, 71; war with the Huayllacans, 

73; conquered byViracocha Inca, 84; 

and by Pachacuti Inca, 106, &c.; 

Ayamarca troops under Huascar, 

Ayan-qulla-lama, Sinchi of Cuyo* 

cuyo, death of, 107 
Ayar, 73 
Ayar Auca, 45, 51, 55; etymology 

of. 57 
Ayar Auca cutco huanca^ 55 
Ayar Cachi, 45, 46, 48, &c.; his 

death, 50, 53, 55, 191; etymology 

of. 57 
Ayar Manco, son of Tupac Inca 

Yupanqui, 148 
Ayar Sauca, 57 
Ayar Uchu, 45, 46, 51, 53; etymology 

of, 57 
Ayar Uchu Huanacauri, 53 
Ayarmarca, 73 
Ayavilla nation, 8) 
Ayllu, 46, 60, fi\y ii, 73, 135, 140; 

records of the Ayllus in Cuzco, 

AyUu of Ccapac Yupanqui, 1573, 

AyUu of Huascar, 1573, 199 
Ayllu of Huayna Ccapac, 1573, 

AyUu of Inca Rocca, 1573, 198 
Ayllu of Lloqui Yupanqui, 1573* 

107 
Ayllu of Manco Ccapac, 1573, 197 
Ayllu of Mayta Ccapac, 1573, 197 
Ayllu of Pachacuti, 1573, 198 
Ayllu of Sinchi Rocca, 1573, 197 
Ayllu of Tupac Inca, 1573, 198 
Ayllu of Viracocha, 1573, 198 
Ayllu of Yahuar-huaccac, 1573, 

198 
Aymaraes, conquered by Pachacuti 

Inca, 109 
Aymuray, harvest home, I03» 103 
AyriAuat io3 
Ayuinto (Haybiuto), 56 
Ayttscay, 54 
Azaes, ninth son of Neptune, 33 

Babylon, built by King Nebrot, 3r; 
inferior in size to the metropolis of 
the Atlantic Island, 33 



INDEX 



363 



Balboa, Miguel Oivello. Su Cavello 

Balboa, Miguel 
Baldani, Father Fulgencio, author 

of Italian life of Di^o Ortiz, 31 1 
Ballastero, Father Friar Gonzalo, 

Vicar Provincial of the Order of 

Our Lady of Mercy, 1571, «8 
Balsa^ 33, 135, aai, 336 
Balsa, Juan de, first husband of 

Princess Leonor frusta, killed at 

battle of Chupas, xix 
Barbary, coast of, 18; settled by 

Atlas, 91 
Barrasa, Francisco de, Chamberlain 

to the Viceroy, Toledo, in the 

Cuzco Tournament, 944 
Bartolom^, son of PauUu Tupac 

Yupanqui, xviii 
Banana, Father Alonso de, a Jesuit, 

accompanies Tupac Amaru on the 

scaffold, 1 57 1, 926 
Beatrix Clara Coya, Inca Princess, 

niece of Tupac Amaru, married 

Don Martin Garcia Oflez de Loyola, 

xviii, 318; picture of the wedding 

in the Church of Copacabana, Lima, 

Beatriz Nusta, Princess, daughter 

of Huayna Ccapac, xix; her two 

husbands, ib, 
Beatriz Auata, Princess, married 

Mancio Sierra de Leguisano, x, 

xviii, xix 
Behetrias^ 37, &c. 
Belem, Our Lady of, Church of, 

Cuzco, 47 
Belem, suburb of Cuzco, 47 
Berosus, 20 
Berrio, Juan de, in the Cuzco 

Tournament, 944 
Berrio, Miguel de, in the Cuzco 

Tournament, 344 
Betanzos, Tuan de, author and 

Quichua scholar, married Angelina, 

daughter of Atahualpa, xix ; Sttma 

y Narracion de los Inccu, 1880, 

cited, 99, 37, 40, 57, 63, 66, 79, 

140, 313 
Beuter, Pedro Antonio, a noble 

Valencian historian, Primtra Part 

tP la Historia de Valicia, 1538, 

cited, 95, 395 
Bihliotheca Hispana Nova, 1783-88. 

See Antonio, Nicolas 
Bimbilla, near Cuzco, 61, 63 
Bias Valera. See Valera, Bias. 
Bonabon (Pumpu), province of, 174 
Boija, Don Francisco de, Duke of 

Gandia, xviii, 919 
Boija y Acevedo, Francisco de, 



Prince de Esqutlache, Viceroy of 
Peru (1615-91), 903 

Brazil, coast of, 18 

British Museum, Add. MSS. 5469, 
Juan Matienzo de Peralta, Goviemo 
del Peru, xiv 

British Museum, Add. MSS. 1 7,585 
(Ocampo, Baltasar de, Descripcion 
de la provincia de Sant Francisco 
de la Vitoria de Villcapampa, 1610), 
xxi, xxii, 903-947, 983 

British Museum, Catalogue of the 
Manuscripts in the Spanish Lan- 
guage in the British Museum, by 
Don Pascual de Gayangos (vol. i, 
1875, vol. ii, 1877, vol. iii, 1881, 
vol. iv, 1893), xiv, 310 

Brocade, Inca, invented by Viracocha 
Inca, 86 

Bull baiting, Cuzco, 946 

Bustamante, Toribio de, of Vilca- 
pampa, founder of two monasteries 
in Cuzco, 930; imprisoned on island 
of Dominica, 931; his negroes in 
revolt, 940 



Cacao trees. Mafiaries, 935 
Cacchon Chicya, a ynit of Viracocha 

Inca, seduced by Apu Mayta, 85 
Cacha, temple of, 35 
Cachimapacha Macus Yupanqui, 

captain, 136 
Cacique, Santo Domingo and Cuba, 

Cadiz, 3, 4, 16, 18, 91 ; Grandezas y 
antigUaclades de la isla y ciudad de 
Cadis, by Juan Bautista Suarez de 
Salazar, 1610, 17; Historia de 
Cadiz, by Adolfo de Castro v 
Rossi, 1858, 17, 303; kingdom of, 
assigned by Neptune to his second 
son, Gadirun, 99 ; submerged ruins 
of, 17, «5 

Calancha, Antonio de la, Chronica 
Moralizada delOrden de S.Augustin 
en el Peru, 1639, 1653, cited, io9, 
166, 396 

Calatrava, Order of, 919 

Calca, province of, 908 

Galea, conquered by Viracocha Inca, 

85 
Calispuquiu, Huauqui of Tupac 

Inca Yupanqui found in, 154 
Caliz (Cadiz), 16, 91 
Calla, 70 
Callao, Don Juan de Mendoza y 

Luna arrives at, 903 
Calpa, force, or an army, 89, 199; 

divination, 158, 168 



3^4 



INDEX 



CalparicUf a wizard, 158 

Calpay, work, 158 

Cam, son of Noah, 90, &c; his wife, 

Catafliia, 30 
Camac, the ruler, 99 
Carnal, town, conquered by Vinuncha 

Inca,85 
Camata, route of, 143 
Camay y 103 
Campeachy, 36 
Caftar Ccapac, Sinchi of the Cafiaris, 

conquered by Tupac Inca, 131 
Caftar Ccapac, father of Dofta Elvira 

Chonay, 186 
Cafiaris, the, 30, 31, 161; province 

of, conquered by Tupac Inca, 131; 

exterminated by Atahualpa, 185; 

400 Cafiaris escort Tupac Amaru to 

the scaffold, 1571, 336; a Cafiari, 

executioner of Tupac Amaru, ih. 
Canary Islands, 17, 18, 35; Alonso 

de Mesa, the conqueror of Peru, a 

native of the, 319 
Canas, invited to baptism of Don 

Melchior Carlos Inca, 309 
Concha^ 58 
Canchis, 63; invited to baptism of 

Don Melchior Carlos Inca, 300 
Cafiete, Marquis of. See Hurtado de 

Mendoza, Don Garcia 
Caniy j3 
Cantanuancum, Sinchi, captured 

by Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 143 
Canto, Sinchi, of the Cayambis, 

captured by Huayna Ccapac, 164 
Capa cocha {capac cocha), 50, 136 
Ccapac y 45, 61 
Ccapac Ayliu (Tupac Inca Yupanqui), 

Ccapac Chaui, Sinchi of Cayto, 

killed by Viracocha Inca, 84 
Ccapac Cocha {capa cocha), 56, 103, 

133, 133, 136 
Ccapcu'cocha, 56, 103 
Ccapac honpo, 1 36 
Ccapac Huari, illegitinuite son of 

Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 154; his 

attempted usurpation, 155, 193; his 

exile, 155 
Ccapac Inca Yntip Churin, 97 
Ccapac Ingas, of Peru, I3, 37 
Ccapac A*aymt\ Dance of, 53 
Ccapac /fay mi. Festival of, I03, I30 
Ccapac- tocco, 45. 49, 50* 55; golden 

doors erected by Pachacuti Inca 

Yupanqui, 100 
Ccapac uncu, 136; assumed by Ata- 
• hualpa, 175 
Ccapac Yupanqui, fifth Inca, 

younger son of Mayta Ccapac and 



Mama Tacocaimy, 66, 68; Aylln 
of, 70, 198; btogrmpliy, 69; his 
death, aged 104, A.D. 980, 70; 
tenth Inca, according to Ferwmdo 
de Santillan, 140 

Ccapac Yupanqui, fourth son of 
Viracocha Inca, eighth Inca, 83; 
appointed Captain - General by 
Pachacad Inca Yupanqui for the 
Chinchay-suyu campaign, 115, &c., 
140; brother-in-law of Anco Aylln, 
117; father of Hoalpaya, 156 

Capoteca, 36 

Capiiy, 53 

Capmchic, 104 

Capmchim, 104 

Capiquey, 104 

Capiey, 104 

Caquia Xaquixahuana. itfXaqui- 
xahuana 

Carangues, province of, rebek 
against Huayna Ccapac, 159 

Carangui, fortress, Huayna Ccapac 
attacks, 161 

Caravaya, 318 

Carbajal, Pablo de, in the Cnzco 
Tournament, 344 

Carlos Inca, Don. Su Panllu, Don 
Carlos 

Carmenca, suburb of Cuzco. .S^ 
Cuzco 

Carrasco, Pablo Alonso, of the 
Order of Santiago, in the Cuzco 
Tournament, 344 

Carrasco, Pero Alonso, attests 
Sarmiento MS., 1573, x 

Carrera, Father. See Alvarez de la 
Carrera, Friar Gabriel 

Cartagena, I>on Fernando de, a 
citizen of Cuzco, brother of Father 
Pedro, 336 

Cartagena, Father Pedro de, of the 
Company of Jesus, in the Pilcosones 
expedition, 336 

Caruamaruay, I>ofta Beatriz, daugh- 
ter of the Cuiaca of Chinchay-co(£a, 
spared bv Atahualpa, 186 

Casacancna, town, 84 

Casana, Cuzco, houses of the Inca 
built by Sinchi Rocca, 158 

Casas, Bartolom^ de las, Bish4)p 
of Chiitpa (1474-1569), Apologia- 
ca Historia Sumaria, 5, 315 ; De 
las antiguas Rentes del Peru^ ex- 
tracted ^om his ApologkUa Historia 
Sumatra, edited by Marcos Jimenez 
de la Espada (Coleccicn de Lihros 
Espafkoles Jiaros 6 Curiosos, torn. 
31), 1893, 6, 315; defends natives 
against Spanish cruelty, 5 ; the 



INDEX 



365 



Viceroy of Peru attempts to answer 
him through Sarmiento's IndUa^ 
1571, ziii 
CasUllanosy 17,000, of rent, and valley 
of Yucay assigned to Sayri Tupac, 

I555» xvi" 

Castile, admiral of, 6; fleet of, at 
Dominica, 251 ; Indies of: su 
Indies of Castile; kingdom of, 3, 
4 ; its right to the Indies, 42 

Castilla oe Nocedo, Don Pedro, in 
the Cuzco Tournament, 244 

Castillo, Geronimo, General, of the 
Order of Santiago, in the Cuzco 
Tournament, 244; biography of, 

Castro, the Licentiate Goyemor, 156 

Castro y Rossi, Adolfo de, Historia 
de Cddi%, 1858, 17, 303 

Cataflua, wife of Cam, 10 

Catano, Manuela, descendant of 
Tupac Inca Yupanqui, wife of Dr 
Juslo Pastor Justiniani, xvii 

Cataquilla, Huaca of Caxamarca, 
Huaroachuco, and Curichaculla of 
the Chachapoyas, 165, 166; the 
oracle of village of Tauca, 166 

Ca/fV, follower, 165, 166 

Catigara, in the Indian sea, 36; 
described by Marinus of Tyre, 14; 
fifth part of the world, 19 

Catiline, 1 

CaunihuaSy spies, 216 

Cavallero, Mayoraigo of, xii 

Cavello Balboa, Miguel, Histoin 
du Pirou {Misceilan^ AustraU)^ 
1586, cited, 37, 40, 49, 57, 60, 
641 79» "5. «i6, lao, 147, 174, 

Cavi&as, the, 81 

Caxamarca, city, 140; Huanca 

Auqui at, 173; Atahualpa at, 175; 

Francisco Pizarro marches to, 188; 

Alonso de Mesa at, 319 
Caxamarca, province of, conquered 

by Ccapac Yupanqui, 117, 118; 

Cataquilla, ffuiua of, 165, 166 
Cayambis, the, 62; rebel against 

Huayna Ccapac, 159; their victory, 

162, 163 
Cayancachi, suburb of Cuzco, 40, 

59 
Cayancachis, 40 

Cayara, fortress, 130 

Cayo, Don Diego (Ayllu of Pacha- 

cuti Inca Yupanqui), 139 

68, 1572, witness to the /n 

198 
Cayocachi, suburb of Cuzco, 47, 60, 

82 



Cayo Hualpa, Diego (Ayllu of Sin- 
chi Rocca), aged 70, 1572, witness 
to the Indica^ 197 

Cayto, town, conquered by Vira- 
cocha Inca, 84 

Ca3rtomarca, 71 

Cement, under the sea, near Cadiz, 

Centeno, 218 

CestOy 233 

Chacaras, 74 

Chachapoyas, 39, 117; Chuqui- 
Sota, a Sinchi of, 129; conquered 
by Tupac Inca, 131, 146; con- 
quered by Huayna Cca[>ac, 157, 
158; Chachapoya troops under 
Huanca Auqui, 173; exterminated 
by Atahualpa, 185 

Chachi, captain under his brother, 
Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 144 

Chaco Rimachi, Don Francisco. 
See Rimachi Chaco, Don Francisco 

Chahuar Huarquiz, 102. 

Chalco, town, conquered by Pacha- 
cuti Inca, 109 

Chalco Chima, General of Atahual- 
pa, captured Huascar, and burnt 
Ixxly of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 
»533t '54» 171. &c; his interview 
with the people of Cuzco at 
Quiuipay, 181, &c. 

Chalco-pusaycu, Sinchi of Chalco, 

Chalco Yupanqui, captain of Tupac 
Inca Yupanqui, 1^2 

Chalco Yupanqui, Don Francisco 
(Ayllu of Viracocha), aged 45, 
1572, witness to the IndicOj 86, 
198 

Chaldeans, 20, 27 

Champii a sceptre, loi 

Chanan-ccurl-coca, woman of 
Cuzco, 92 

Chancas, the, of Andahuaylas, 70, 
79 ; Inca Urco flies from, 83 ; their 
attack on Cuzco, 86, &c. ; their 
defeat, 94, &c., 115; their revolt, 
117; Chanca troops under Huascar, 

174 
Chapa, sentry, 216 
Chapas^ spies, 216 
ChapatiyoCy sentry, 216 
Charcas, 7, 56, 124, 125; Tupac 

Inca Yupanqui in, 145; Huayna 

Ccapac in, 1 59 ; Chirihuana invasion 

of, 165; Yasca marches to, 166; 

Don Diego de Portugal, President 

of, 22a 
Charles V, Emperor of Germany, 

5, 6, 169, 192, 194; prohibits a 



366 



INDEX 



book by SqwlTeda* ziii ; his Con- 

fessor, de Loaysa, 244 
Ckasfmj, Inca couriers, 116 
Chauca Rimachi, Don Frandsca 

Ste Rimachi Chaco, Don Francisco 
Chauin Cuxco Ayllu, of the lineage 

of Ayar Cachi, 46 
Cbeco, Don Diego (Chima Pknaca), 

Chiapa, 16 
Chiapa, bishop of, 5 
Chica Ccapac, Sinchi of the 
Cafiaris, conquered by Tupac Inca, 

CAicAa, 30 

Chichas, the, 114, 1^5 

Chichima, Francisco, a Pilcosone 

Indian, 239; heads a negro revolt, 

1^0; his execution, 941 
Chinuay Ccapac, death of, 84 
Chile, kin^om of, 7, 39 ; Inca roads 

from Quito to, 133; invaded by 

Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 145 ; Order 

of our Lady of Mercy first to evan- 

eelize, 14a; visitation of, by 

Huayna Ccapac, 159 
Chillincay, town, conquered by Ya- 

huar-huaccac, 81 
Chima, founder of the Ayllu of 

Manca Ccapac, 62 
Chima chaui^ 70 
Chima Chaui Pata Yupanqui, 

remains with Inca Yupanqui, 89: 

set also Apu Chimachaui 
Chima Huarhua, Don Juan, 157a, 

62 
Chima Panaca Ayllu (Manco Ccapac), 

62 
Chimbo Cisa, sister of Huascar, 

murdered before his eyes, 186 
Chimbo Orma, concubine of Tocay 

Ccapac, 77; frees Yahuar-huaccac, 

77 
Chimu, valley of, conquered by 

Tupac Inca, 131, 137 
Chimu Ccapac, Sinchi, captured 

by Ccapac Yupanqui, 118, 133, 

131; his gold and silver house, 

137 
Chinchay-Cocha, Curaca of, 186 
Chinchaycocha, Tomayrica and, 

Huaca^ 166 
Chinchay-suyu, one of the four 

divisions of the Inca Empire, 

>32 
Chinchay-suyu, province of, con- 
quered by the army of Padiacuti 
Inca Yupanqui, 115, &c.; colonists 
from, transplanted by Pachacuti 
Inca Yupanqui to Anti-suyu, lao; 



expedition of Tupac Inca Ynpanqni 

to, 199, &c.; Huaman Achachi, 

Governor of, 157 ; Huayna Ccapac's 

troops from, 163. 
Chincnero, village, ao8; Ccapac 

Huari exiled to, 155; Inca palace 

still existii^ at, 153; Tupac Inca 

Yupanqui dies at, 153 
Chincheroca (Sinchi Rocca), 63 
ChitoHAt bracelet, 315 
Chiponauas, the, Anti-suyu, 143 
Chirac Smcatua, Cuzco, 99 
Chiraques, town, conquered by Vica- 

cocha Inca, 85 
Chiiihuanas, eaters of human flesh, 

7 ; subdued by Huayna Ccapac, 

159; their rebellion, 165, &c. 
Chita, town, 88, 90 
Choco, Mama Afiahuaraui, of, 107 
Chocos-chacona, suburb of Cuzco, 

9« 
Chonay, Dofia Elvira, daughter of 

Cafiar Ccapac, spared by Atahual- 

pa, 186 
Cnoyca, town, conquered by Yahnar- 

huaocac, 80 
ChranicU of Peru^ Th€, 1539-50- 

See Ciem de Leon, Pedro de 
Cbuca-Chucay Pachacuti Co- 

aquiri, a CoUa, spreads reports of 

death of Tupac Inca, and heads 

a rebellion, 144; his death, 145 
Chuccu, Inca head-dress, loi, 908 
Chuchi Ccapac, Sinchi of CoUao, 

1 1 1 ; his murder, 113; the rebellion 

of his sons, 191-193 
Chuco^ Inca head-dress, 101, 130^ 908 
Chucuito, lake, 33 
Chucumbi, Martin (Chauin Cuzco 

Ayllu), 1579, 46 
Chucuy Hu3rpa, wife of Huascar 

Inca, 189, 189; prisoner of Ata- 

hualpa, ib. 
Chumpi-cancha, 58 
Chumpivilcas, province of, 939 ; 

subdued by Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 

145 

Chunca curaca, 146 

Chuncara, 63 

Chunchos, 8; province of the, con- 
quered by Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 
1 4 3, 144; Juan Alvarez Maldonado, 
Governor of, 1571, 918 

Chuncu-marca, Huayllas, fortress, 
131 

Chupas, Paullu Tupac Yupanqui 
with Almagro at the battle of, 
xviii; Gomez de Tordoya, id,, ib, 

Chupellusca, rock of, Inca Urco 
killed at, 105 



INDEX 



367 



Ckuqui, lance, 115 
Chuqui-chaca, bridge of, Vilcamayu 

river, xxi, 316; battle of, 1571, aao 
Chuqui Ocllo, mother of CoEipac 

Hoari, 154; her execution, 155 
Chuqui -Seta, a Sinchi, of Chacha- 

poyas, 139; captured by Tupac 

Inca, 131 
Chuqui ylla^ golden ima^e, idol of 

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, loi, 138, 

140 
Cbuquis Huaman, Sinchi, captured 

by Tupac Inca, 131 
Chuyes, the, 125, 177 
Cicero, Marcus TuUins, Pro Rege 

Deioiaro^ 36, 246 
Cieza de Leon, Pedro de. The 

ChronkU of Peru, X53^~50, 

1554. Edited by Sir Clements 

Markharo, 1864, 1883, ^> ^^ ^9* 

33. 37- 40, 4». 5«. 56, 57f 60, 

63f 64* 73. 79» 83f 99» "o. '7o» 

195. 3<» 
Cinchicona Sinchi^ 38 
Cinga, 102 
Coaques, Huayna Ccapac*s victory 

at, 167 
Coaquiri. See Chucachucay Pacha- 
cuti Coaquiri 
Cobo, Bernabe, Historia del Nuevo 

Mundo^ 1653* cited, 168, 314 
Coca, a very precious herb, 130, ii^\ 

&nns of, Vilcapampa, 231, 333 
Cocama, river, 117 
Cocasaca, Don Francisco (Apu 

Mayta Panaca Ayllu), 1571, 70 
Cocha, etymology of, 29; the sea, 186 
Cochabamba, valley of, 159 
Cochabambas, 125 
Cochisque, fortress, taken by Huayna 

Ccapac, 161 
Colcabamba, 54 
Colcampata, Cuzco, Huascar erects 

edifices on the, 1 70 ; Paullu Tupac 

Yupanqui resides on the, xviii ; 

ruins of Inca palace on the, 153; 

Carlos Inca resides in the palace 

of the, xxi, 170^ 206; his houses 

requisitioned by the Spaniards for a 

fortress, 224, 225 
Colcha, province of Paruro, 208 
Coleccion de Libros EspaHoles Raros 6 

Curiosos, 1882, 1892. See Jimenez 

de la Espada, Marcos 
Colla Ccapac, Sinchi of Collao, 

III, 114 
Ccollanap Pachacamac ricuay aucca- 

cunac yahuarniy hichascancuta, 230 
Collantes, Juan de, married Francisca 

frusta, niece of Huayna Ccapac, xix 



Collao, conquest of the, iii» &c.; 
122, &c. 

Collao, the, estate of Asillo in, 144 

Collao, lake in the, 32, &&, 64; 
Sinchi of the, iii 

Collas, rebellion and defeat of the, 
122, 123, I44, &c.\ invited to 
baptism of Don Melchior Carlos 
Inca, 157 1, 209 

CoUa-suyu, one of the four divisions 
of the Inca Empire, 132 

Colla-suyu, province of, 34; con- 
quered by Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, 
III, 114, 115; colonists imported 
by him from Cunti-suyu, 120; 
visitation of, under Huayna Ccapac, 

i58« >59 
Couocta, town, conquered by Vira- 

cocha Inca, 85 
Colum Chima, Manco Ccapac, 

tyrannical towards, 191 
Commentarios Reales, See Garcilasso 

de la Vega, el Inca 
Compadrct 207 

Con, of unknown meaning, 29 
Concha Yupanqui, Don Juan, 

(Aucaylli Panaca), 1572, 8f 
Conchacalla, village, 90, 208 
Conchucos, village of Tauca, 166 
Conde Mayta, Don Agustin (Avayni 

Panaca Ayllu), 1572, 65 
Condin Savana, Sinchi of the Antis, 

143 

Condorcanqui, Curaca of Surimani, 
marries Juana, daughter of Tupac 
Amaru, 230 

Condorcanqui, Jos^ Gabriel (1742- 
81), Cacique or Curaca of Suri- 
mani and Tungasuca, descendant of 
Tupac Amaru, 230; leads Indian 
revolt of 1780 as Tupac Amaru, 
executed, Cuzco, 1781, 1^. ; the fate 
of his three sons, ib. 

Conejeros, 205 

Constantine IV, Emperor of the 
East (668-685), 62 

Con-Tici-Uiracocha, the Creator, 
29 

Copacabana, church of. See Lima 

Copali Mayta, 40, 57, 58; subdued 
by Manco Ccapac, 62, 191 

Copca Mayta, Don Francisco 
(Ayllu of Ccapac Yupanqui) aged 
70, 1572, witness to the Indica^ 
198 

Copiapo, Chile, Huajma Ccapac at, 

>59 
Coquimbo, Chile, 18; Tupac Inca 
Yupanqui at, 145 ; Huayna Ccapac 
at, 159 



368 



INDEX 



CoriUo, Indian servant of Captain 
Martin Garcia Ofies de Loyola, 

i57». "> 

Corpus Christi, festival of, paint- 
ings in church of Santa Ana, Cuzco, 
107 

Corral, Francisco del, Augustine 
Friar, accompanies the Viceroy in 
his visitatton of Peru, xiv; Prior 
of Saint Augustine, Cuxco, 1571, 
aa8 

Corufia y Oormaa, Friar Don 
Agustin de la, son of Hernando 
de Gormaz and Catalina de Ve- 
lasco, Bishop of Popayan (1561-^), 
«i7; biography of xiv, 127, 329; 
protested against the murder of 
Tupac Amaru by the Viceroy of 
Peru, 1571, lA; died at Timana, 

i590» '*• 
Costa Rica, 26 
Cotabamba, 177; bridge of, 180; 

river, 178 
Cotat>ambas, conquered by Pachacuti 

Inca, 109 
Cotameras, conquered by Pachacuti 

Inca, 109 
Cota Yupanqui, Don Francisco 

(Ayllu of Pachacuti), aged 40, 1573, 

witness to the /ndua, 198 
Council of the Indies, appealed 

to by a Huancaveltca mine-owner, 

its 
Couriers, Inca, 116 
Ccya, Queen, 168, 183 
Coya Miro, sister and wife of Huas- 

car, killed before his eyes, 186 
Ccoya Haymiy los 
Cotco, 55 
Coxco, I>on Juan (Ayllu of Tupac 

Inca), aged 40, 1573, witness to the 

Indica^ 198 
Creole, 126 
Crist6val, name on baptism of 

Paullu Tupac Yupanqui, xviii 
Critias, See Plato 
Cuba, [47; peopled by emigrants 

from the Atlantic Island, 33 
Cucharaypampa, ao8 
Cuenca, chief guard of, Don Garcia 

Hurtado de Mendoza, 228 
Cugma, town, conquered by Pacha- 
cuti, 108 
Cullinchinas, 40 
£1 Culto de Tonapa, 1892. See La- 

fone y Quevedo, Samuel Alexander 
Culumchlma, a Sinchi, settled at 

Cuzco, 40, 59, 62 
Culumchimas, the, 66, 67 
Cuna^ 38 



Cunti MayU (Apu Conde MayU), 

elder son of Mayta Ccaoac, 68, 6^ ; 

disinherited for his ugly fisce, ($9, 

191 
Cunti MoUo, captain, of Cnnti-snya, 

160 
Cunti-suyu, people of, no, 113* 

1 77 ; colonists from, transplanted l^ 

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqm to Colla- 

suyu, 120 ; one of the four divisions 

of the Inca Empire, 132; subdued 

by Tupac IiKa Yupanqui, 145 
Cunti Yupanqui, captain, 130, 144 
Curaca^ principals or superiors, 8, 9, 

39, 146, &c, 158 
Curahuasi, army of Hnascar at, 177; 

Spanish army at, 1571, 220 
Curamba, fortress, ocauMed by 

Tupac Inca, 130; plans of the fort- 
ress in Charles Wiener, Phvu et 

Boliwij 1880, 313 
Curichaculla, of the Chachapoyas, 

166 
Ccuri-chalpa, wife of Viraoocha 

Inca, 83 
Ccuri-hifpay, of Ayamarca, wife of 

Ccapac Yupanqui, 69, 70 
Ccuri-OccUo, daughter of Inca 

Rocca, wife of Tocay Ccapac, 79 
Ccuri OcUo, a kinswoman of Ccapac 

Huari, supports his claims, 155; 

her execution, ib. 
Ccuri Paucar (Puri Paucar), hanged 

at Cuico, 1571, 225. 
Cusi, 71 

Cusi (Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui), 85 
Cusicayo, a CaAari, 30, 31 
Cusi'churiy idol of Tupac Inca Yu- 
panqui, 154 
Cusi Huacutay, wife of Sayri 

Tupac, 258 
Cusi Hualpa. See Tupac Cusi 

Hualpa 
Cusi -hualpa, Don Cristoval (Apu 

Mayta Panaca Ayllu), 1572, 70 
Cusi-pampa, village, 91 ; battle of, 

defeat of Huanca Au^ui, 173 
Cusi Rimay Coya, wife of Huayna 

Ccapac, 160, 168; Cusi Rimay 

Huaco, 168 
Cusi Titu Yupanqui, illegitimate 

son of Manco Inca, xvii ; assumes 

sovereignty, 1560, xviii; remains 

in Vilcapampa, ib^ xix 
Cusi Tupac Yupanqui, captain, 

rescues Huayna Ccapac, 162 ; chief 

steward of the Sun, 168 
Cusi Yupanqui, ordered by Ata- 

hualpa to exterminate Huascar and 

his party, 184, &c. 



INDEX 



369 



Cusquic-Raymi^ 55 

CuHf overturned, ja 

Cuycusa Ayllu, 46 

Cuyo Ccapac, Sinchi of Cuyo-cuyo, 
death of, 107 

CuyoB, destruction of the, 107 

Cuyo-suyo, province, 107 

Cuyumarca, people of, subdued by 
Ccapac Yupanqui, 69 

Cuzco, 8, 10, 13, 30, &C. 

Cu2co, Amaru-cancha, palace built 
by Huascar, 170 

Cu2co, Andttus of, 98 

Cuxco, archdeacon of, Dr Justo Sal- 
maraura Inca, xix 

Cuxco; bull baiting at, 946 

Cuzco, Carmenca, suburb of, 83, 99, 
307, 333, 226; church of Santa 
Ana in, its Corpus Christi paint- 
ings, 1570, «o7 

Cuzco, Casana, houses of the Inca, 

158 
Cuzco, cathedra], Tupac Amaru 

buried in, 1571, 328, 129 
Cuzco, Cayocachi, suburb of, 82 
Cuzco, Chirao Sucanca at, 99 
Cuzco, Chocos-chacona, suburb of, 

92 
Cuzco, citizens of, Dpn Fernando de 
Cartagena, 236; Don Nufio de 
Mendoza, 157 1, 220; Don Alsonso 
de Mesa, the elder, 219; Don Luis 
Palomino, 1571, 233; Don Juan 
de Pancorvo Celiorigo, 224; Don 
Cristoval PauUu Tupac Inca Yupan- 
qui, 224; Don Tristan de Silva y 
Guzman, 224 
Cuzco, Colcampata, xviii, xxi, 153, 

206, 224, 225 
Cuzco, ecclesiastics of, protest against 
execution of Tupac Amaru, 1571* 
227, 228 
Cuzco, etymology of, 55 
Cuzco, festivities at, 242-246 
Cuzco, first settlers in valley of, 39, 

&c. 
Cuzco, fortress of, on the Sacsahua- 
mau hill, built by Tupac Inca 
Yupanqui, a marvel in execution, 

Cuzco, gardens of the Sun, 58 

Cuzco, great square, execution of 
Tupac Amaru, Dec. 157 1, 223, &c. ; 
execution of Jose Gabriel Condor- 
canqui (Tupac Amaru), 18 May 
1781, 230 

Cuzco, house of the Sun. Ste infra^ 
Intip-cancha 

Cuzco, Inca Rocca, sixth Inca, im- 
proves buildings of, 72 

M. S. 



Cuzco, Incas of, origin of, 44, &c 

Cuzco, Inti'huaiana at, 99 

Cuzco, Intip-cancha, house of the 
Sun: Lloqui Yupanqui lived in, 
65 ; Mama-cunas, nuns of the Sun, 
xxi, no, 157, 185; transferred to 
Vilcapampa, xxi, 216; Manco 
Ccapac lived in, 58, 62; Mayta 
Ccapac lived in, 68 ; Pachacuti Inca 
Yupanqui refuses to abandon, 89 ; 
is crowned in, 97 ; returns victorious 
to, 113; rebuilds the, 100, 114; 
deposits there the painted boards of 
Inca records, 42 ; Sinchi Rocca 
lived in, 63 

Cuzco, JJasa-kuasiy 113 

Cuzco, Manco Ccapac, first Inca, 
occupies, 58 

Cuzco, Name of Jesus, monastery of 
the, 170 

Cuzco, negroes of, 239 

Cuzco, Our Lady of Mercy, Order of,. 
226; Gonzalo de Mendoza, Pro- 
vincial, 1571, 227; Gonzalo Ballas- 
tero. Vicar Provincial, 1571, 228 

Cuzco, Our Lady of the Remedies, 
Hospital of, 226 ; convent for 
Dominican nuns built by Toribio 
de Bustamante, 230 

Cuzco, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui re- 
builds, 98, &c. 

Cuzco, Pucuy Sucanca at, 99 

Cuzco, Puniap chupauy 151 

Cuzco, rebuilt by Pachacuti Inca 
Yupanqui, 98, &c. 

Cuzco, researches into Inca history 
made in, 1570, 196 

Cuzco, Rimac-pampa, 156 

Cuzco, Saint Augustine, convent of, 
207, 211; Francisco Corrol, Prior, 
157 1, 228 

Cuzco, San Bias, parish, 140 

Cuzco, San Crist6val, Colcampata, 
parish of, 226; parish church of, 
xviii, 207 

Cuzco, San Francisco, Order of, 208 ; 
Francisco Velez, Guardian, Geroni- 
mo de Villa Carrillo, Provincial, 
1 57 1, 228; monastery built by 
Toribio de Bustamante, 230 

Cuzco, Santa Clara, 58 

Cuzco, Santo Domingo, monastery 
of» 55i 57* ^08; monastery of, 
Gabriel de Oviedo, Prior, 1571, 
228; convent for Dominican nuns, 
built by Toribio de Bustamante, 
230 

Cuzco, siege of, 226 

Cuzco, Sinchi Rocca, the architect 
of, 158 

24 



370 



INDEX 



Cusco, Society of Jesus, Luis Lopez, 

Reaor, 1571, 128 
C1UC0, Sucanca ftt» 99 
Cttsco, Stures of, 98 
Cuxco, sun -dials at, 98, 99 
Cu2CO, temple of the Sun. Stt tupra, 

Intip-cancha (p. 369) 
C1UC0, Tournaments at, 14 Jane 1570, 

described by Ocampo, 142-6; list of 

36 knights, 243-5 
Cuxco, Don Leonardo Villar, of, 

1887. 19 
Cuzco, \ iracocha Inca comes to, 89 
Cttsco, Yauira, hill of, 102, 181 
Cuzcos Orejones, 116, 163 
Cuaco-tuyu, fortress, captured by 

the Chirihuanas, 165 
CuMqumiy 55 

Dante Alighieri {Infemc^ canto 26), 

on the fate of Ulysses, 25 
Darias, G6mez. Set Arias de Avila, 

Gomez 
De las antiguas gtnUs del Penl, See 

Casas, Bartolom^ de las. Bishop 

of Chiapa 
Delta, city, 16 
Deluge, the, 20 
Deucalion, 24 
Diaprepes, tenth son of Neptune, 

22 
Diaquitas, province of, 7 
Diego, name on baptism of Manco 

CoLpac Pachacuti Yupanqui, xviii 
Dolmas, Captain Martin, a knight of 

Santiago, 2 19 ; in the Cuzco Tourna- 
ment, 244 
Domingo, de Santo Tomas, Gram- 

maiica, 1560, cited, 38, 275, 315 
Dominica, island of, Tori bio de 

Bustamante imprisoned on, 231 
Dominicans, Order of, Cuzco, 208, 

228, 230 
Don, river, 14 

Don Carlos. See Charles V, Em- 
peror of Germany 
Don Felipe. See Philip II, King 

of Spain 
Don Quijote de la Mancha^ by Miguel 

de Cervantes Saavedra, 34 
Donus, Pope, a.d. 675, 03 
Dormer, Jane, Duchess of Feria 

(1538-1612), 6 
''Drummers" of Tupac Inca 

Yupanqui, 145 
Duho (tiana), throne, 126, 216 

Edward VI, King of England, 6 
Egypt, 16, i7» «3 ; floods in, 24 
Egyptians, 3, 20 



BUsippos, seventh son oi Neptome, 

22 
Elephants, in the Athmtic Island, 

«3 
Emeralds, 167 
Encomenderot xvii 
Encomiendeu^ 323, 232 
Equequo, 208 

Eiythrsean Sea, Periplus of the, 14 
EsceuipUy 237 

Esdras (ii. ch. 13. v. 40-43)1 <6 
Esmeraldas, province of, 7 
Esquilache, Principe de. See Borja 

y Acevedo, Francisco de, Principe 

de Esquilaehe 
Bsquivel, Dofia Maria de, wife of 

Don Carlos Inca, xix, 2oi6 
Esquivel, Kodrigo de, captain, in 

the Cuzco Tournament, 144 
Estremadura, S[>ain, 206 
Eumbrinama, government of, 7 
Eumelo (Gadirum), second son of 

Neptune, 17 
Euphrates, river, 26 
Europe, 14, 23 
Eutoctenes. See Autochthon 
Euxine Sea, 20 
Extirpacion de la idolatria del Piru, 

1611. See Arriaga, Pablo Joseph de 

Felipe, Don. See Philip II, King of 
Spain 

Felipe, Don, son of Paullu Tupac 
Yupanqui. See Paullu, Don Felipe 

Fenec, or Assenes, King, 21 

Feria, Count of, 6 

Feria, Ehike of. See Suarez de 
Figueroa, Don Gomez 

Femandex, Di^o, d^ Palencia^ 
Primera y segunda Parte de la 
historia del Perti, 1571, 64, 83, 275 

Fernandez, Friar Melchior, baptises 
Tupac Amaru, 1571, 226 

Fernandez de Piedrahita, Lucas, 
successively Bishop of Santa Marta 
and of Panama, historian of Nueva 
Granada, xix, 289 ; great grandson of 
Francisca frusta, niece of Huayna 
Ccapac, ib. 

Festivals of the Incas, 102 

Figueroa, Geronimo de, nephew and 
aide-de-camp of Francisco de 
Toledo, Viceroy of Peru, xiv, xv, 
218 ; in the Cuzco Tournament, 244 

Figueroa, Juan de, Spanish Am- 
bassador at Rome, xv, 6; brother 
of Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy 
of Peru, ib. 

Filon. Set Philo, Judceus 

Flood, Inca version of the, 27, &c. 



INDEX 



371 



Floods, six. recorded by the ancients, 

24, &c. 
Florence, archbishop of, 1 1 
Foriunts of Nigel, Sir Walter Scott, 

xiii 
Forum of Trajan, Rome, i 

Francisca Austa, niece of Huayna 

G:apac, married Juan de CoUantes, 

xix 
Franciscans, Order of, Cuzco, 308, 

a 38, 230 
Frias, Geronimo de, general, in the 

Cuzco Tournament, 344 
Froila, King of Oriedo, ancestor of 

Juan de Vivero, ii\ 

Oades. See Cadiz 

Gadiricum (Cadiz), 17 

Gadirun (Eumelo), second son of 
Neptune, 17, 21 

Gadiz (Cadiz), 16 

Galapagos Islands, 136, 137, 315 

Gandia, Duke of. See Borja, Don 
Francisco de 

Garcia Ofiez de Loyola, Don Martin, 
captain of the Viccro/s guard, 1 571, 
3 18 ; biography of, 318, 9 19 ; married 
the Inca Princess Beatriz Clara 
Coya, niece of Tupac Amaru, xviii, 
318; picture of the wedding in the 
church of Copacabana, lima, 210 ; 
serves in the Vilcapampa expedi- 
tion, 1 57 1, aao, &c ; saved by his 
Indian servant, 211; the *'Leap of 
Loyola," ib,\ his death, 1598, 218 

Garcia de Paredes, Don Diego, 
camp master, takes specimens of 
gold from Peru to Philip II, 331 

Garcilasso de la Vega, ei Irua, 
son of Isabel Nusta Yupanqui and 
Garcilasso de la Vega, xix ; a third 
cousin of the regicide Viceroy Fran- 
cisco de Toledo, ib. ; Commentarios 
Reaies, 2 pts., Lisboa, 1609, cited, 
xix, a8, 36, 37, 51, 53, 57-59, 63, 
64, 66. 70, 71, 73, 79, 80, 99, 103, 
no, ii6, 117, I30, 140, 144, 147; 
attempted to obtain concessions in 
S[>ain for the Inca family, 119 

Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca^ 
coat of arms. See his Commentarios 
Reales, Pt i (plate after title), 
Lisboa, 1609, 38a 

Gasca, 318 

Gayangos, Pascual de. Catalogue of 
the manuscripts in the Spanish 
language in the British Museum, 
vols, i-iv, 1875-93, xiv, 310 

GenercU Chronicle of Spain, 1553. See 
Ocampo, Florian de 



Getafe, near Madrid, Diego Ortiz de 

Orue, bom in, xvii 
Gibraltar, straits of, 14, 16, 18, 30 
Gin6s de SepiUveda, Juan. See 

Sepulveda, Juan Gin^s de 
Giron, Francisco Hernandez. See 

Hernandez Giron, Francisco 
Godefridus, Viterbensis, Pantheon 

(Pars v.), Basilese, 1559, 22 
Gold mines, of Purumata, 931 
G6mara, Francisco L6pez de. See 

L6pez de G6mara 
Gomera, Count of La, the elder, 343 
Gomex, Father Friar Nicolas, of the 

Order of Our Lady of Mercy, Vilca- 
pampa, 341 
Gomez d' Arias. See Arias de Avila, 

G6mez 
Gomex de Tordoya, Don, captain, 

in the Cuzco Tournament, 345 ; in 

the Vilcapampa expedition, 157 19 

319; at the battle of Chupas, ib,\ 

his expedition into the montafia of 

Paucartambo, 144, 318; killed by 

the Chunchos, 318 
Gomez Ximenes, Gonzalo, Inca 

interpreter to the Viceroy of Peru, 

I573> 199; attests ihelndica, 1573, 

301 
Gonzalez Holguin, Diego, SJ., 

Gramatica y Arte Nueva, 160*1, 

cited, 316 
Gormaz, Don Hernando de, father 

of Agustin de la Corufia y Gormaz, 

337 
Gossip, 307 
G5ttingen, university library of, 

account of the Sarmiento MS., 1573, 

in, ix-xi 
Goviemo del Peru, See Matienzo de 

Peralta, Juan 
Grado, Francisco de, captain, in the 

Cuzco Tournament, 344 
Granada, Nueva. See Nueva Granada 
Grandescu y antigOadades de la isla 

y ciudadde Cadiz, 1610. See Suarez 

de Salazar, Juan Bautista 
Greeks, in New Spain, 36 
Gronovius, Abraham, acquired Sar- 
miento MS., 1573, xi; the MS. sold 

in 1 785 to Gottingen University, ib, 
Guadalazara, President of, Dr 

Alonso Perez Marchan, 334 
Guahuquif 61 

Guamanga. See Huamanca 
Guaoqui. See Huauqui 
Guaro, village, 64 
Guasano. See Huasano. 
Guatemala, 5, 36 ; bas-relief found 

in, 91 

24 — 2 



372 



INDEX 



Ouayavas, MaiUries, 135 
Gudifio, Pedro, a Portuguese soldier, 

io Mafiaries, 334, 335 
Oueirero, Father Friar Francisco, of 

the Order of Our Lady of Mercy, 

Vilcapampa, ^41 
Guipuxcoa, 318 
Guamanco Ccapac, Sinchi of Caxa- 

marca, captured by Ccapac Yupan- 

qut, 117, 118, 113 



Hachacoma, I>on Pedro (Ayllu of 
Inca Rocca),aged 53, 157a, witness 
to the Indica^ 108 

Hakua ckumpi (Avachumbi), outer 
island, 136 

Hals-quisro, 48, 50 

Hanan-chacan, waters of, dis- 
covered by Inca Rocca, 71; his 
irrigation system, ib, 

Hanan-chancas, 87, 88 

Hanan-Cu2co8, 46, 81, 86, 106, 135, 
136» i39» »54. "69, 171, 184; ety- 
mology, 7 a 

Hanansaya, ^i, 38 

Hanco, captain, in army of Huascar, 

173 
Hanco -hualla (Anco-avUu), 117 
Hancu, an Orejon, killed by Ata- 

hualpa, 171 
Hatun-ayllu^ 139 
Hatun-CoUa, battle of, 111, iii; 

second battle of, 114 
Hatun-coUa, Inii-huatana at, 99 
Hatun-huayllas, nation of the, 116 
Hatun Pilcosone, village, 138 
HcUun Poccoy, loa 
Hatun Tupac Inca. 5«^Viracocha 

Inca, eighth Inca 
Hays-quisro, 48, 50 
Hayti, or Santo Domingo, peopled 

by emigrants from the Atlantic 

Island, 33 
Heber, 30; father of King Jektan, ai 
Hebrews, chronology of the, 20; 

origin of the name, 20 
Helps, Sir Arthur, K.CB,, Spanish 

Conquest in America^ 5. 3 3© 
Henriquez, Fadrique, admiral of 

Castile, 6 
Henrlquez, Don Martin, Viceroy of 

Peru, 1581-83, 335 
Henrlquez de Borja, Juan, son of 

the Marquis of Alcanizes, marries 

Ana Maria Coya de Loyola, 

Marchioness of Oropesa and Yucay, 

xviii, 310 
Henry II, the Bastard, king of 

Castile, xiii 



Hercules, 3, (1^ 

Hercules, columns of (Stiaits of 

Gibraltar), 3, 4, 16, 17 
Heriot, George, xiii 
Hernandez, Diego, of Talaveia, 

second husband of Princess Beatriz 

Nusta, xviii, xix 
Hernandez de Valen9uela, Don 

Gonzalo, son of Don Miguel San- 

chei, in the Cuzco Tournament, 345 
Hernandez Giron, Francisco {d. 

1544). ««»f «44. 330 
Herodes, 3 
Herrera Tordesillas, Antonio de, 

Historia general^ 1601-15, cited, 

64. 79. 83 . 330 
Htrco, in the Cuxco Tournament, 345 
Historia Apolo^etica. See Casas, 

Bartolome de las. Bishop of Chiapa 
Historia del Reino de Quito^ 1789. 

See Velasco, Juan de 
Historia imperii Peruani^ ^590^ Su 

Valera, Bias 
Holguin, Diego Gonzalez, S.J. See 

Gonzalez Holguin, Di^o 
Homer, Odyssey (xvii. 4 16, 417), 

I 
HondarA, valley of, 339 
Honduras, 36 

House of the Sun. See Cuzco 
House of Windows, 44 
Hoyara, valley of, 333 
Huacay 36, 51, 81, 100, I03, 313; 

Huaeas of Cuzco, 114, 133, 137, 

138, 150, 157, 165; Huaca Huana- 

cauri, 156; A^uora of Purumata, 333 
Huacanqui, Don Gonzalo (Ayllu of 

Pachacuti), aged 60, 1573, witness 

to the Indiea^ 198 
Huacaytaqui Ayllu, 46 
Huaca-yuan, mounuin, 31 
Htiaccaniy 79 
Huachalla, fortress, built by Tupac 

Inca Yupanqui, 1 35 
Huacralla, Sinchi of Soras, 109 
Huallas, the, settled in the valley of 

Cuzco, 40; at Huanay-pata, 56; 

conquered by Manco Ccapac, 58, 63 
Huallcancay shield, 316 
Hualfa, a game bird, 7 1 
Hualpa, Inca captain, attacks Loyola 

at the bridge of Chuqui-chaca, 1 57 1 , 

331 

Hualpa, Don Alonso (Sutic-Tocco 

Ayllu), 1573, 46 
Hualpa, Hernando (Ayllu of Lloqui 

Yupanqui), aged 70, 1573, witness 

to the Jndicat 197 
Hualpa Rimachi, tutor of Vira- 

cocha Inca, 8r, 83 



INDEX 



373 



Httalpa Titu, guardian of body of 

Huayna Ccapac, 169 
Hualpa Tupac Yupanqui, brother 

of Huayna Ccapac, xix; father of 

Isabel iJusta Yupanqui, ib. 
Hualpa Yupanqui, Don Juan (Ayllu 

of Pachacuti), aged 75, 157a, witness 

to the Induat iq8 
Hualpaya, son ot Ccapac Yupanqui, 

tutor to Huayna Ccapac, 136; his 

revolt and execution, 157 
Huamachuco, Atahualpa at, 175, 

176; Catiquilla, Huaca of, 165, 

166, 176 
Huanian^ 71 
Huaman Achachi, captain, brother 

of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 136, 155; 

brings Tittt Cusi Hualpa from Qui- 

spicancha to Cuzco, 156; Governor 

of Chinchay-suyu, 157; kills Hual- 
paya,/^.; Governor of Cuzco, 160 
Huamanape, silver mines in the 

hills of, 223, 231 
Huamanca, country of, 87, 116; 

negroes of, 239 ; captain Juan 

Ponce de Leon, a citizen of, 219; 

researches into Inca history made 

in, 1570, ix, 106 
Huaman-cancha (Huanacancha), 

48; battle of, 106 
Huamancay (Aljancay), 220 
Huamani, silver mines in the hills 

of, 222, 231 
Huaman Mayta, Don Antonio 

(Vicaquirau Panaca Ayllu), 1572, 72 
Huaman Paucar, Don Die^o 

(Chauin Cuzco Ayllu), 1572, 4O 
Huaman Rimachi Hachacoma, 

Don Francisco (Vicaquirau Panaca 

Ayllu), 1572, 72 
Huaman Same, chief of Huara, 64 
Huaman Taysi Inca, son of Inca 

Rocca, 71 
Huaman -tupac, Sinchi of Pinahua, 

killed by Inca Rocca, 71 
Huaman Tupac, Sinchi, killed by 

Viracocha Inca, 84 
Huamo, Tupac Inca at, 135 
Huanacancna, 48 
Huanacauri, hill, 50, 52, 57, 62, 

102, 104, 156 
I/uana-cawi, idol, 51, 56 
Huanachiri Amaru, idol of Sinchi 

Rocca, 63 
Huanacu-'pampa, 178 
Huafiapi, Tupac Inca, 135 
Huanay-pata, 54, 57 
Huanca Auqui, brother of Huascar, 

captain in his army, 173; prisoner 

of Atahualpa, 181 



Huanca Indian, a, with six Inca 

captains, murders Atilano de 

. Afiaya, 157 1 , 2 16 ; hanged at Cuzco, 

Huancara, town, conquered by 
Pachacuti Inca, 108 

Huancavelica, town, founded by 
Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy of 
Peru, xvi; a private Quicksilver 
mine seized by the Spanish Govern- 
ment, 225 

Huancavelicas, Indians, conquered 
by Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 134, 135; 
rebel against Huayna Ccapac, 159; 
against Huascar, 171 

Huancavilca, Huayna, Ccapacat, 1 67 

ffuanguisj 61 

Huantuy^ litter, 216 

Huanuco, city, with ruins of an Inca 
palace and town, 1 17, 319 

Huanuquiti, 208 

Huara, Huaman Sano, chief of, 64 

Huarachicu (Huarachico)^ festival of, 
52» 53f 62, 73, loi, 102, 127 

Huarac-tambo (Huarotampu), near 
Huanuco, 117 

Huaracu, 53 

ffuaranca, 1000, 70, 146 

Huaraqui Inca, idol of Huayna 
Ccapac, 169 

Huarhua Chima, Don Tuan, of the 
ayllu of Chima, 1572, 02 

Huarina, battle of, 218 

Huaro, village, 64 

Huarotampu (Huaractambo), 117 

Huasano, Quito, mountain, 30 

Huasca. 103 

Huascar (Tupac Cusi Hualpa Inti 
lUapa), twelfth and last reigning 
Inca, son of Huayna Ccapac and 
Arauo Ocllo, 160; origin of name, 
169; Ayllu of, 189, 199; captured 
by Chalco Chima, 180; declares 
war against his half-brother, Ata- 
hualpa, 171; account of this cam- 
paign, 172-186; executed, by order 
of Atahualpa, at Antamarca, aged 
40f I533» xvi, 189; his body cut up 
and thrown into the Yana-mayu, 
f^.; extermination of his line and 
lineage by Atahualpa, 184-186; 
father of Ataria Cusi Huarcay, wife 
of his brother, Manco Inca, xvii ; 
husband of Chucuy Huypa, 182, 
189; lord of all Peru, by force of 
arms, 199; succeeded his father, 
1524, 189 

Huascar, son of Titu Atauchi, 189; 
uncle of Don Alonso Titu Atauchi, 
157^. i^' 



374 



INDEX 



Huascar Aylluy one single representa- 
tive in 1573, 189 

Huascar- quihumr, birth-place qf 
Huascar, 169 

Hwui^ 113 

Huata, town, conquered by Pacha- 
cuti Inca Yupanqui, 108 

Huatanay, river, 40 

ffuatani, 9^ 

Hua-uquit idols of the Incas, Apu 
Mayta (Uoqui Yupanqui), 65; 
Chuqui llla (Pachacuti), loi, 13S, 
140; Cusl Curi (Tupac Inca), 154; 
Huanachiri Amaru (Sayri Tupac), 
63; Huaraqut Inca (Huayna 
Ccapac), 169; Inca Amaru (Vira- 
cocha), 86; Inti (Manco Ccapac), 
61; Ynti Illapa (Pachacuti), 101, 
138, 140 

I/ua-uqui^ idols of the Incas, un- 
named (Mayta Ccapac), 60; (Cca- 
pac Yupanqui), 70; (Yahuar- 
huaccac), 81 

Huaychac, captain, in army of 
Huascar, 173 

Huayhuacunca, 208 

Huayllacan, people of, war with the 
Ayamarcas, 73; betray Titu Cusi 
Hualpa, 74; ask forgiveness, 80; 
murder Pahuac Hualpa Mayta, ih. ; 
punished by Yahuar-huaccac, 80, 

Huayllacan, Soma Inca, Sinchi of, 
71; his daughter. Mama Micay, 
marries Inca Rocca, 71, 73 

Huaylla-pucara, fortress, Angaraes, 
taken by Tupac Inca, 1 3 1 

Huayllas, province of, pillaged by 
the Chancas, 117; conquered by 
Tupac Inca, 131 

Huayna^ a youth, 51 

Huayna Achachi, captain, rescues 
Huayna Ccapac, 162 

Huayna Ccapac (Titu Cusi Hualpa), 
*'The Boy Chief,** eleventh Inca, 
son of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, and 
Mama Ocllo, born at Tumepampa, 
134, 153; his investiture, 154, &c.; 
assumes title of Shepherd of the 
Sun, 157; Ayllu of, 160, 198; his 
conquests, 157, &c.; father of Bca- 
triz Nusta, X ; and of Manco Inca, 
Paullu Tupac, and Titu Atauchi, 
xvii, 19^; Hua-uqui of, Huasaqui 
Inca, 109; lord of all Peru, by 
force of arms, 199 ; receives in Quito 
news of the landing of Pizarro, 187 ; 
brings statue of Manco Ccapac to 
Quito, 61 ; his visitation of Chile, 
159; his visitation of Colla-suyii, 



>5^« 155^; his visitation of Cntco, 
157; dies of fever at Quito, aged 
80, A.D. 1524, 167-169; his body 
discovered by Polo de Ondegardo 
in Cuxco, 169 

Huayna Vanqui Yupanqui, son 

of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, 114 
Huayna Yupanqui, brother of 

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, 115 
Huasrpar-marca, town, conquered 

by Viracocha Inca, 84 
Huaypon, lake, 78 
Huayupankpa (Huayupata), valley 

of, «39 
Huayupata, valley of, 339 
Huicockico {Quuu'Ckicuy)^ 53 
Humana-mean, a tribe in Cuzco, 

59 

Humpi^ 70 

Humpiri, son of Ccapac Yupanqui, 
69 

Hunuj 10,000, 146 

Hurin-chacan, waters of, discovered 
at Cuzco by Inca Rocca, 71 

Hurin-chancas, 87, 88 

Hurin-cuzcos (Lower Cuzco), 62, 
63. 65, 69, 70, 106, 1^5, 136, 184; 
etymology, ^^ 

Hurinsaya, 31, 38 

Hurtado de Arbieto, Martin, of 
Cuzco, general of Spanish expedi- 
tion agamst Vilcapampa, biography 
of, 118; begins foundations of city 
of Vilcapampa, 213; his triumphal 
entry into Cuzco, 314 

Hurtado de Mendoza, Don Garcia, 
Marquis of Caflete, Viceroy of Peru, 
> 590-9^' ^"^h xviii, 117, 140, 
211, 213, 238, 239; chief guard of 
Cuenca, 138 ; founder of Villarica de 
Argeta, 112 \ invests Sayri Tupac 
as fourteenth Inca, 6 Jan. 1558, 
xviii, an; orders removal of body 
of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui to 
Lima, 140 

laguarhuaque, third Inca, 64 

Ichu-pampa (** grass plain*'), battle 
of, 94, &c., 115; Chancas encamp 
at, 88, 93, 94 

/lla, light, 29 

Iliac, Don Juan, descendant of Pa- 
chacuti Inca Yupanqui, 1572, 139 

Illacumbi, Sinchi, killed by Vira- 
cocha Inca, 85, 108 

lUa-Ticci, eternal light, 29 

lUa-tici-Uiracocha, the Creator, 
39 

lUuc, Sebastian (Ayllu of Manco 



INDEX 



375 



Ccapac), aged 30, 1572, witness to 
the fndica^ 197 

Inaca Panaca Ayllu (Inca Yapanqui 
Pachacuti), 139 

Inca Amaru, idol of Viracocha 
Inca, 86 

Inca Apu, the Inca's lord, or Itea ten- 
ant, appointed by Atahualpa, 175 

Inca Ccapac (Chuchi Ccapac), in 

Inca Capon, lieutenant-governor of 
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, executes 
Ccapac and Huayna Yupanqui, 
119 

Inca Manco. See MaDCo Inca 

Inca Orejones of Cuzco. See 
Orejones 

Inca Paucar, brother of Inca Rocca, 

74. 75 
Inca Paucar, son of Inca Rocca, 

7> 

Inca Rocca, sixth Inca, son of 
Ccapac Yupanqui and Ccuri-hilpay, 
69, 70; Ayllu of, 72, 198; bio- 
graphy, 70-71 ; his death, aged 
103, A.D. 1088, 72; his daughter, 
Ccuri-Occllo, marries Tocay Ccapaci 
79; subdues Mohina and Pinahua, 
82 

Inca Rocca, eldest son of Viracocha 
Inca, 83, 85 ; appointed captain 
general by his father, 84 ; kills his 
brother, Inca Urco, 104, 105 

Inca Rocca, son of Yahuar-huaccac, 
80 

Inca Rocca Yupanqui, son of 
Mayta Ccapac, 68 

Inca S0C8O, son of Viracocha Inca, 
83, 80 

Inca Uiracocha. See Viracocha 
Inca 

Inca Urco, son of Viracocha Inca, 
83, 89 ; nominated by his father as 
successor, 85, 96, 191; killed by 
his brother, Pachacuti Inca Yu- 
panaui, 104, 105 

Inca Yupanqui Pachacuti, ninth 
Inca, third son of Viracocha Inca, 
biography of, 87, &c. ; assumes the 
sovereignty in his father's life-time, 
96,97; Ayllu of, 139, 198; collects 
annals of Peru, on painted boards, 
41, 100,300; conquests of, 82, 106, 
&c. ; his death, A.D. 1191, aged 125 
years, 139; defeats the Chancas, 
89-96; theCoUas, 121-123; erects 
magniBcent buildings atTamboand 
Yucav, 121, 124; on the hill of 
Pataliata, 124; father of Amaru Tu- 
pac Inca, Anqui Yupanqui, TilcaYu- 
panqui, and Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 



114, 129, &c ; idolof^ Chuqui Ilia, 
1 01 ; institutes relief maps of Peru, 
120; marries Mama Afiahuarqui of 
Choco, 107 ; nominates his younger 
son, Tupac Inca Yupanqui, as his 
successor, 125, &c., 192; orders 
Inca Capon to execute Ccapac and 
Huayna Yupanqui, 119; origin of 
name, 92*; rebuilds Cuzco, 98, &c.; 
sends an army to conquer province 
of Chinchay-suyu, 1 1 5, &c. ; Tocto 
Coca, of the lineage of, 169, 171; 
triumphal entry into Cuzco, 105; 
visits Paccari-tambo, 99 

Incas CcapacB. See Incas of Peru 

Incas of Cuzco, origin of, 44, &c. 

Incas of Peru, 5 ; agriculture under 
the, 132 ; Ayllus of the twelve, 
1572, 197-199; bodies of first seven, 
disinterred by Pachacuti Inca Yu- 
panqui, and adonied with gold, 
100, joi ; bridges of the, 158; 
couriers of the, 116; empire of, 
divisions of, tij2 ; festivals of the, 
ro2 ; history of the twelve Incas, 9; 
Informaciones acerca del SeAorio y 
Gobiemo de los Jngas, hechas par 
mandado de Don Francisco de To- 
ledo^ Virey del Peni^ 1 5 70-7 2, edited 
by M&rcos Jimenez de la Espada, 
1882, ix, 313; insignia of the, 215, 
216; irrigation system of the, 71, 
132, 158; longevity of the, 195; 
medallions of, with wives, depicted 
by Sarmiento, 1572, ix, 279 ; palaces 
of the, 117; pedigree, A.D. 1021- 
1862: see Markham, .S/r Clements, 
K.C,B,j Travels in Peru antl Indi ay 
p. 134, 1862,305; pedigrees of, XX, 
225, 242 ; twelve, reigned from A.D. 
565 (Manco Ccapac) to a.d. 1533 
(Huascar), 194, 195; retain their 
independence in Vilcapampa for 
35 years, xxi; roads of the, 132, 
236; slanders on the, 10; Suma y 
Narracion de los If teas y 1880: see 
Betanzos, Juan de ; alleged tyranny 
of the, xiii, 27, 43, &c., 190, &c., 
194; of 35 parishes, attend christen- 
ing of Don Melchior Carlos Inca, 
1 57 1, 208, 209; witnesses to the 
Jndicay 1^72, list of 42, 197-199 

Incas Orejones, of Cuzco, 83, 138 

Incura Hualpa, captain in army 
of Atahualpa, 171 

Indi, bird, familiar spirit of Manco 
Ccapac, 48, 60, 61, 68 

Indian Ocean, 14, 26 

Indians, creation of the, 32, &c. 

IndiaSy Archrvo de, ix, 324 



376 



INDEX 



Iftdica, 1573. 5«^ Sanniento de Gaid- | 
boa, Pedro 

Indies, Council of the. See Council 1 
of the Indies 

Indies, East, 10 ' 

Indies, The Natural and Moral His- 
tory of the^ 1604. See Acosta, 
Joseph de 

Indies of Castille, 3, V 15, 18, 
^5« 3^; formed a continent with 
the Atlantic Island, 19, 94 ; Spanish 
claims to, 5 1 

Inez fiusta, Princess, married (i) 
Francisco Ptzarro, xix; (a) Fran- 
cisco Ampuero, ib. 

InCantado, third Duke of, 303 

Informeuiofus acerea del sefUnio y 
gobiemo de los Ingas^ 1570-73. 
5>^ Jimenez de la Espada, Marcos 

Ingas. See Incas of Peru 

Inguarroca (Sinchi Rocca), 63 

Inguil, Don Felipe, descendant of 
Pachacuti Inca YuiMinqui, 1572, 
139 *'»^ 

Ingtiil Tupac, Don Garcia, descen- 
dant of Huayna Ccapac, 1573, 169 

Innocent, archbishop of Florence, 
II 

Inquisition, in Peru, 6; in the 
Spanish dominions, xiii 

Inti, the Sun god, 48, 09 ; shows a 
mirror of his future fate to Inca 
Yupanqui, 90 ; similar bas-relief 
found in Guatemala, 91 

Inti-huatana, 99 

Inti Illapa, idol of Pachacuti Inca 
Yupanqui, loi, 138, 140 

Inti Raymiy festival, 102, 103, 131 

Intif Apuy 97 

Intip-cancna, Cuzco. See Cuzco 

Intip Churin Inca Pachacuti, 97 

Irrigation, Inca system of, 71, 13a, 

Isabel Nusta Yupanqui, daughter 

of Hualpa Tupac Yupanqui, xix ; 

wife of Garcilasso de da Vega, ib. 
Isidore, Saint, Bishop of Seville, 34 
Islas de Galapagos^ Las, 5>^ Jimenez 

de la Espada, Marcos 
Israel, Aoci, ruler of, 35; Josiah, 

King of, «5 
Italy, «3 

Jacob, the Patriarch, 34 

iames I, King of Great Britain, xiii 
aphet, son of Noah, 30, &c. ; his 
wife, Funda, 30; Atlas, his son by 
the nymph Asia, 33 

Iavas, the, 36 
ayaneo, 34 



lekum. King, son of Heber, ii 

Jerusalem, 35 

Jesuit, the anonymous, historian of 
Peru, 39, 37, 53. 313 

Jesus, Society of, Alonso de Barzana, 
of the, 1571, 336; Luis Lapez, 
Rector, Cuzco, 1571, 338; Fathers 
of the, in the Pilcosones expedition, 
336. &c 

Jews, settled in Catigara, 37 

Jim^nex de U Espada, Don Mar- 
cos, editor of Bartolome de las 
Casas : De las antiguas genUs del 
Peru (Colecdon de Libros Espa- 
fioles Raros 6 Curiosos, torn. 31), 
1893, 6, 315 ; editor of Infer- 
macicms acerca del SeHorio y Gobi' 
emo de los Ingas, hechas for mam- 
dado de Don FranHsco de Toledo, 
1570-73 (Coleccion de Libros Es* 
pafioles Raros 6 Curiosos, tom. 16), 
1883, ix, 313: Las IslcLs de Gala- 
pagos, cited, 137, 315 

John III, Pope (560-573). 194 

josiah. King of Israel, 25 

J nana Pilco Huaco, daughter of 
Tupac Amaru, married Condorcan- 

3ui, Curaca of Surimani, 330 : their 
escendant, Jose Gabriel Condor- 
canqui, 330 

Jubal, 31 

Juries, province of, 7 

Justin II, Emperor of the East 
(565-578), 194 

Justinian!, Don Luis, of Seville, 
marries Catalina Ortiz de Ome, 
xvii; their son Luis was grand- 
father of Dr Justo Pastor Justi- 
niani, ib, 

Justiniani, Don Pablo, Cura of 
Laris, son of Dr Justo Pastor Jus- 
tiniani, and Manuela Catafio, xvii; 
learned in Inca lore, ib. ; possessed 
a very early copy of Inca drama of 
Ollanta, ib. ; a descendant of Maria 
Tupac Usca, sister of Tupac Amaru, 
xvii, 330; in 1853 possessed a por- 
trait of Tupac Amaru, inscribed 
«• Creator of the Worid, behold how 
my enemies spill my blood," 330; 
his death, 1858, xvii 

Justiniani Pedigree. See Garci- 
lasso de la Vega, Royal Commen- 
taries, ed. C. R. Markham, 1871 
(vol. 3, pp. 353, 536), 307; and 
Markham, Sir Clements, Travels 
in Peru, 1863 (pp. 134, 135), 305 

Knights at the Cuzco Tourna- 
ment, 1570, List of 36, 343-345 



INDEX 



377 



Lafone y Quevedo, Don Samuel 
Alexander, El CuUo de Tonapa^ 

i89»» 33» 3'5 
Lake of Blood. See Yahuar-cocha 
Lampa, in the Collas, 114 
Larico, son of Ccapac Yupanqui, 
captain under Tupac Inca Yupan- 
qui, 144 
Laris, Cura of, Don Pablo Justini- 

ani, xvii 
Lasandones, 26 

Las Casas, Bartolom^ de, Bishop of 
Ckiapa. See Casas, Bartolom^ de 
las. 
Lasso de la Vega, Garcia, el Inca. 

See Garcilasso de la Vega, el Inca 
'*Leap of Loyola," the, 1571, 

111 
Leo IV, Emperor of the East (775- 

78o)» 63 
Leo IV,JPope (847-855), 65 
Leonor Nusta, Princess, daughter 
of Huayna Ccapac, xix; her two 
husbands, ib, 
Lexicolot^a Vushtia Uiracocha^ 1887. 

See Villar, Don Leonardo 
Lima, 7, 177; first archbishop of, 
Friar Geronlmo de Loaysa, m8; 
church of Copacabana, contains 
picture of marriage of Loyola and 
the Inca Princess, 219; first Council 
of (1583), 102; second Council of 
(1591), 227; captain Ordoflo Or- 
dofiez, a citizen of, 219; Pachacuti 
Inca Yupanqui's body sent to, by 
order of the Viceroy, 140; royal 
audience of, 225; favours claim of 
Jos^ Gabriel Condorcanqui to Mar- 
quisate of Oropesa, 1770, 230; 
Sayri Tupac enters, 6 Jan. 1558, 
xviii 
Limatambo (Rimac-tampu), pro- 
vince of Anta, with ruins of an Inca 
palace, 119, 209 
Lisbon, founded by Ulysses, 25 
Liuba II, King of the Visigoths | 

(601-603), 62, 194 
LlacoUay a square cloak, 141 < 

Llallahua, fortress, province of 1 

Ayaviri, 145 
Llama Oca, Don Alonso (Maras 

Ayllu), 1572, 46 
Llamas, 49, 75 
Llasa, 113 

Llasa-hasi, Cuzco, 113 
Llasa-huasi, house of skulls, 115 
Llasani^ 113 
LlatUu^ the fringe, 215 
UayiUy head -gear, 130 
Llimpita Usca Mayta, captain, 136 



Lloccuco Panque, 64 
Lloki Yupanqui, 64 
Lloqui^ left-handed, 63 
Lloqui Yupanqui, third Inca, 
second son of Sinchi Rocca and 
Mama Cuca, 63 ; Ayllu of, 65, 197 ; 
his biography, 64, 65 ; his death, 
aged 132, A.D. 786, 65; father of 
Mayta Ccapac, 66; idol of, Apu 
Mayta, 65 
Loarte, Dr Gabriel de, Judge at 
Panama and Quito, 225; one of the 
four first criminal judges, audience 
of Lima, 1570, ib. ; attests the 
Sarmiento Indica MS., 1572, x, 
196, 197, 201 ; Governor of Cuzco, 
sentences Tupac Amaru Inca to be 
beheaded, 1571, 225 ; subsequently 
sent to seize Huancavelica quick- 
silver mine for the Government, 
ib, 
Loaysa, Alonso de, captain, nephew 
of the first archbishop of I,ima, in 
the Cuzco Tournament, 244 ; bio- 
graphy of, ib, ; brother of Don 
Sancho de Orozco, 244 
Loaysa, Friar Francisco Geronimo 
de, first archbishop of Lima (1540- 
75), 228 ; shelters the two little 
daughters of Tupac Amaru, 1571, 
230 
Loaysa, Garcia de, cardinal, arch- 
bishop of Seville (1539-46), uncle 
of Don Alonso de Loaysa, 244; 
confessor to the Emperor Charles V, 
ib, 
Loaysa, Don Geronimo de, in the 

Cuzco Tournament, 244 
Longevity of the Incas, 195 
Lopez, Father Luis, Rector of the 
Company of Tesus, Cuzco, 1571, 228 
L6pez de Gomara, Francisco, La 
istoria de las Indias^ '55^1 cited, 
170, in 
Loyba, the Goth. See Liuba II 
Loyola, Ana Maria Coya de, 
daughter of Martin Garcia Oflez de 
Loyola, 218 ; Marchioness of Oro- 
pesa and Yucay, 1622, 219 
Loyola, Ignatius, 218 
Loyola, Don Martin Garcia Oflez 
de. ,See Garcia Oflez de Loyola, 
Don Martin 
Loyva, son of Aihanagild the Goth. 

See Liuba II 
Luringancho, Peru, Counts of, xii 
Lusitania, Ulysses in, 25 

Macas, subdued by Huayna Ccapac, 
161 



378 



INDEX 



Machuca, Dofta Jnana, wife of Ati- 

Uno de AfUya, 317 
Maffejus, Raphael, VoUteirairas, 

CommuHiarwrum i 'rboM^rum ... 38 

Ubri^ Parrfatsiis, 1511, ai 
Magdalena, daughter of Tupac 

Amaru, 130 
Mai^ellan, straits of, a6 
Malacca, 15. 17 
llama Aflahuairqui. of Choco, wife 

and sister of Pachacuti Inca Yu- 

panqui, 107, 123, 139 
Mama Cava, of Uma, wife of 

Lloqui Yapanqui, 65, 66 
Mama Chicsra, of Ayamarca, 

daughter of Tocay Ccapac, wife of 

Yahuar-huaccac, 79-81 
Mama Chimpa OcUo, sister and 

wife of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, tenth 

Inca, 1 99 ; intercedes with her hus- 
band for a general pardon, 148; 

mother of Titu Cusi Hualpa, 153 
Mama Cuca, of SaAo. wife of Sinchi 

Rocca, 56, 63, 64 
Mama Cuca, sister of Huayna 

Ccapac, dies of the plague at 

Cuzco, 167 
Mama-cunas^ nuns of the temple of 

the Sun, xxi, 110, 157, ai6; many 

killed by Chalco Chima and Quiz- 
quiz, 185 
Mama Cura, 45 
Mama Huaco, '45, 47, 49, 54. 58, 

59. 68 
Mama Ipacura, 45 
Mama Micay, of Huayllacan, wife 

of Inca Rocca, 71, 73, 76 
Mama Ocllo, sister and wife of 

Manco Ccapac, 45, 48; mother of 

Sinchi Rocca, 53, 63 ; her cruelty, 

56 
Mama Ocllo, wife of Tupac Inca 

Yupanqui. See Mama Chimpa 

Ocllo 
Mama Raua, 45 
Mama Rondocaya. See Mama 

Runtucaya 
Mama Runtucaya, of Anta, wife 

of Viracocha Inca, 8r, 83; Mama 

Rondocaya, 81 
Mama Tacucaray, of Tacucaray, 

wife of Mayta Ccapac, 68, 69 
Mafiaries or Yanasimis, near the 

river Tono, tribe of the, conquered 

by Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 143 ; 

pacified by the Viceroy Toledo, 

8, 321 

Maftaries, province of, description 
of, by Ocampo, 234 ; its situation, 
»38, «39 



Manco Ccapac, first Inca. 45, 47, 
51, &C., 68, 99, 190; Ayllu of, 6«, 
197 ; began to reign, A.D. 565, 194; 
Hua-uqui of, Indi, 61 ; his death, 
aged 144, A.D. 665, 60-69 ; names 
of his brethren, 73 ; his route from 
Huanacanri to Cuzco, 156; his 
statue carried into battle by the 
Incas, 63 ; by Huayna Ccapac to 
Quito, ib. ; returned to Cuzco, ib. 

Manco Ccapac Pachacuti Yu- 
panqui, names assumed by Sayri 
Topac, 6 Jan. 1558, xviii 

Manco Inca, son of Huayna Ccapac, 
160; escapes the cruelty of Ata- 
hualpa, 193; crowned 24 March 
1534, xvii ; resists the Spaniards, 
ib,^ 108; retreats to Vilcapampo, 
xxi ; killed in 1 544, ib. ; marries his 
niece Ataria Cusi Huarcay with 
consent of Pope Paul III, ib, 

Manco Sapaca, eldest son of Sinchi 
Rocca, 56, 58; hLs claims to the 
succession ignored, 64, 191 

Mani, 235. 240 

Mano-auyu, tribe of, conquered by 
Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 143 

Manta, on the Pacific Coast, Vira- 
cocha departs from, 36 ; Tupac Inca 

at, 135 

Maps of Peru. See Peru 

Marafion, river, 18, 117 

Marafion, Don Geronimo, knight, 
in the Cuzco Tournament, 244 

Maras, tribe, 45, 46 

Maras, village, Diego Ortiz de Onie, 
encomendero of, xvii 

Maras Ayllu, 46 

Maras-tocco, 44, 45, 46 

Marca-yutu, son of Yahuar-huaccac, 
80 

Marco, village, 95, 208 

Maria Cusi Huarcay, Dofta, mother 
and aunt of Tupac Amaru, her mar- 
riage ratified by Pope Paul III» 
228 

Maria Tupac Usca, daughter of 
Manco Inca, married Don Pedro 
Ortiz de Orue, xvii 

Marinus of Tyre, describes Cati- 
gara, 14 

Markham, Sir Clements Robert, 
K, C.B., Editor of Narratives of the 
Voyages of Pedro Sarmiento de 
Gamboa to the Straits of Magellan^ 

1579-80. 1895. 5. II. 137. 317 
Masca Ayllu, 47 

Afascafaycha, frin^, crown, 126, 216 
Matanua, Sinchi Rocca armed as 

knight at, 53, 54 



INDEX 



379 



Matienxo de Peralta, Juan, lawyer, 
accompanies the Viceroy in his 
visitation of Peru, xiv; Gcviemo 
del Peru, British Museum, Add. 
MSS. 5469, xiv; Relacion del libra 
intUukuUh Govierno del Peru^ 16., 

Maule, river, limit of empire of Tupac 
Inca to the south, 145 

Mauritania, or Barbary, settled by 
Atlas, 21 

Maxima Tolleii Proregis gloria crevit^ 
<5r-<^., 195 

Maya-marca, valley of, 210 

Mayor-domo, 6 

Mayta, Don Diego (Ayllu of Inca 
Rocca), aged 40, 1571, witness to 
the Indica^ 198 

Mayta Ccapac, fourth Inca, son of 
Lloqui Yupanqui and Mama Cava, 
40, 48, 65; Ayllu of, 68, 197; 
biography of, 66-69 » ^^^ Hercules 
of Peru, 66 ; nominates his younger 
son, Ccapac Vupanoui, as his suc- 
cessor, (^, 191 ; his death, aged 
112, A.D. 890, 69 

Mayta Yupanqui, captain in army 
of Huascar, 174 

MaMorca, 146 

Mediterranean Sea, 14; Noah in 
the, 10 

Mela, Pomponius, De situ orbis (lib. 
3, cap. 1), Parisiis, 1556, 14 

Melchior Carlos, Inca, Don. See 
Paullu, Don Melchior Carlos 

Memorias antiguas hisioriales y poiili- 
cas del Peril. See Montesinos, Fer- 
nando de 

Mena, Alonso de. one of the first 
Spanish conquerors of Peru, attests 
the Sarmiento MS., 1572, x 

MendaAa, Alvaro de, general of the 
Fleet, II, 136 

Mendoza, Don Garcia Hurtado de. 
See Hurtado de Mendoza, Don 
Garcia 

Mendoza, Father Friar Gonzalo de, 
Provincial of the Order of Our Lady 
of Mercy, 1571, 127 

Mendoza, Don Nufio de, captain, a 
citizen of Cuzco, in the Cuzco 
Tournament, 344; in the Vilca- 
[>ampa expedition, 1571, lao 

Mendoza y Luna, Don Juan de, 
third Marquis of Montes Claros, 
Viceroy ol Peru, 1607-15, xxi; 
biography of, 303, 333 

Meneses, Don Martin de, captain, in 
the Cuzco Tournament, 144 ; in the 
Vilcapampa expedition, 1 57 1 , 219 



Meotis, Lake of, 14 

MercedarioB, Order of, Cuzco, 207 

Mercury, its use in extraction of 
silver promoted by the Viceroy of 
Peru; xvi 

Mesa, Don Alonso, de, the elder, 
one of the conquerors of Peru, 
biography of, 319 ; a native of the 
Canary Islands, ib. 

Mesa, Captain Don Alonso de, the 
younger, lord of Piedra-buena, in 
the Vilcapampa expedition, 1571, 
319; biography of, ib,\ attempted 
to obtain concessions in Spain for 
the Inca family, 1603, ib, 

Mesopotamia, 21 ; people of, 37 

Mestizos, 211, 236 

Mestor, eighth son of Neptune, 22 

Mexia de Ayala, Gonzalo, second 
son of the Count de la Gomcra, the 
elder, in the Cuzco Tournament, 

Mexico, province of, 26 

Mexico, Augustine preaching friars 
enter, 227 ; Friar Agustin de la 
Corufia y Gormaz enters, 1533, 
227 ; Prior of several convents, and 
Provincial, 1560, ib. 

Mexico, Viceroys of, Don Luis de 
Velasco (1595), 222; Don Juan de 
Mendoza y Luna, Marquis of 
Montes Claros (1603-07), 203 

Michi, oftheHurin-cuzcos, appointed 
captain by Huayna Ccapac, 160, 
103 

Michic^ a shepherd, or governor, 
121, 146. 

Michimalongo, Sinchi of Chile, de- 
feated by Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 
145; appointed Curaca by Huayna 
Ccapac, 159 

Michisca^ the governed, 146 

Michocrima^ garrisons of forts, 121 

MichUy tribute collectors, 146 

Micocancha, town, Titu Cusi 
Hualpa taken to, 74 

Mircoy-mana, tutor of Inca Yu- 
panqui, 89 

Miro, Coya, sister and wife of Huas- 
car, her murder, 186 

Mitayos^ forced labourers, 147, 223 

Mitimaes^ 119-121, 146, 159, 196 

Mochanacoy 95 

Mohina. See Muyna 

Mojos (Musus), forests of the, 114 

Molina, Father Christoval de, au- 
thor of An accimnt of the Fables 
and Rites of the InceUj Priest of 
the Hospital of Our Lady of the 
Remedies, 15711 226; attends Tupac 



38o 



INDEX 



Amaru to the scaffold, lA; cited, 

6. 39» 31. 37. 41, 49- 5«. 53. 54* 

56, 60, 73, 91, 103, MO, .^09 
MoUacA, conquered by Viracocha 

Inca, 80, 84 
Mollo, 167 
Mpllo Cavana, capuin of the 

Collao, 160 
MoUo Pucara, captain of the 

Collao, 160 
Monterey, Count of. Set Zuntga 

Acevedo y Fonseca, Don Caspar 

de 
Montes Claros, Atlantic Mountains, 

17 
Montes Claros, Marquis of. See 

Mendoza y Luna, Don Juan de 
Montesinos, Fernando de. Memo- 

Has antiguas hisiariales y politUas 

del Pent, Madrid, 1883, cited, ix, 

»9» 37. 55. 57f <»3. 79» "<> 
Montoya Romana, Dr, of the 

Company of Jesus, in the Pilcosones 

expedition, 336 
Moon, Festival of the, 101 
Moors, of Granada, almost annihi- 
lated by Philip II, xiii 
Moro-urco, n8 
Moroy urcOy 103, 118 
Moses, 31, 34 
Mosoc Nifia^ I03 
Mossi, cited, 101, 113, 316 
Moxos (Musus), country of the, 144 
Mucha^ worship, 10 1 
Mulattos, 130 
Muruy 103 
Muru'urco, 103 
Mustincia, Martin de, first husband 

of Princess Beatrix Nusta, xix 
Musus (Moxos), country of the, 144 
Musus (Mojos), forests of the, 1 14 
Mutius Scavola, 337 
Muyna, town, 71. 73, 80, 83; its 

conquerors, 83, 84 
Muyna Puncu, Sinchi of Muyna, 

killed by Inca Rocca, 71 
Muyna Puncu, Sinchi, killed by 

Viracocha Inca, 84 

Nano, captain general of army of 

Huascar, 178 
Napa, sacred figure of a llama, 49, 60 
Napani, 49 
Napay, 49 
Narrative of the Execution of the Inca 

Tupac Amaru, 1610. See Ocampo, 

Baltasar de 
Narratives of the Voyages of Pedro 

Sarmiento de Gamboa to the Straits 



I of Mageilan^ 1579-80, 1894. See 
I Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro 
. Natural and Moral History of the 
Indies^ 1 604. See Acosta, Joseph de 
I Navamuel, Inez de, mother of 
Alvaro and Francisco Ruiz de 
I Navamuel, xi 
I Nei^roes, 136 

I Nembrot, King, built Babylon, ai 
, Neptune, 17; ruler of the Atlantic 
' Island, 33 ; assigns it to his ten 
sons, 33, &c. 
Netherlands, devastated by Philip II, 

xiii 
New Guinea, 36 
I New Spain, Greek traces in, 36 
I Newman, John Henry, Cardinaly 

quoted, xtii 
1 Nicaragua, 36 
Nicolas de los dichos. Father, of 
the Order of Our Lady of Mercy, 
an eye-witness of the execution of 
Tupac Amaru, 1571, 339, 346, 147 
Nicoya, 36 
Nile, river, 14, lo 
Ninachumbi. See Niflachumpi 
Niflachumpi (Ninachumbi), island, 
135 ; Tupac Inca Yupanqui*s voyage 
to, 136; discovered by Sarmiento, 

Ninan Coro, Don Francisco (Ayllu 
of Huayna Ccapac), aged 34, 1573, 
witness to the Indica, 198 

Ninan Cuyoche, illegitimate son of 
Huayna Ccapac, 160, 161 ; nomi- 
nated as successor, 168, 193 ; dies 
nf the small •iK>x at Tumipampa, 168 

Noah, the Patriarch, his division of 
the world, 30, &c. ; his vojrages, 
30, &c. ; his wife. Terra or Vesta, 
30; his daughter, Araxa, ii 

Nolitria, Indians of, conquered by 
Huayna Ccapac, 161 

Nombre de Jesus, Archipelago of, 
discovered by Pedro Sarmiento de 
Gamboa, 1567, if, 36 

Nueva Granada, historian of. Set 
Fernandez de Piedrahita, Lucas 

Nueva Granada, Pedro Ordofiez y 
Flores, archbishop of Santa F^ de 
Bogota (1613-14), 307 

Nuriez Manuel, Pedro, in the Cuzco 
_^ Tournament, 344 

Nusta, Princess, 3o8 

Nutanhuari, Sinchi, captured by 
Tupac Inca Yupanqui, I43 

Nuttall, Mrs Zelia, cited, 91 

Oca, 340 

Ocacique, Sinchi of Acos, 109 



INDEX 



381 



Ocampo, Baltasar de, captain, 
Account of the Province of Vilca- 
pampa^ and a NarrcUivc of the 
Execution of the Inca TupcLc Ametru^ 
1 610, xxi, xxii, 203-247 ; a magis- 
trate of the Holy Brotherhood, 
339; owned a house and land at 
Puqaiura, Vilcapampa, 214 

Ocampo, Floriande, Cronica gemrcU 
de Espaika, 1553-86, 17. 274 

Octavianus Augustus, 2 

Ogyges Atticus, 24 

OUanta, Inca drama of, xvii, 308; 
Don Pablo Justiniani, d. 1858, pos- 
sessed a very early copy, xvii 

Ollantay-tampu (Tambo), town, 
xxi ; conquered by Pachacuti Inca, 
107 ; magnificent buildings erected 
by Pachacuti, 121, 124 

Ollantay-tampu, town, Manco 
Inca*s head-quarters at, xvii, 108; 
Juan de Vivero at, 217 

Oma, town, Mama Cava, native of, 65 

Omasayos. See Umasayus 

Onccoy, Vilcapampa, 221, 222 

Ondegardo, Polo de, the Licentiate, 
Corregidor of Cuzco, accompanies 
the Viceroy in his visitation of Peru, 
xiv ; an authority on the laws of the 
Incas, ib, xv; attests the Sarmi- 
ento MS., 1572, x; cited, 37, 61, 
63, 65, 69, 70, 72, 86, 116, 120, 
100: see Jimenez de la Espada, 
Marcos, Tres Relaciones^ 1879 (pp. 
xv-xviii), 312 

Oparo, a Pilcosone Indian, 237 

Opatari, village, 142 

Ordofiez, Ordofio, of Valencia, 
citizen of Lima, captain of artillery, 
219 

Ordofiez y Flores, Pedro, the 
Apostolic Inquisitor, accompanies 
the Viceroy in his visitation of 
Peru, xiv; archbishop of Santa 
Fe de Bogota (1613-14), 207; 
his brother, the Viceroy's chaplain 
and confessor, i^., 207 

Ordofiez y Flores, Dr Pedro, 
chaplain to the Viceroy of Peru, 
and confessor to the Order of 
Alcantara, xiv, 207 

Orejones, 75, 79, 80, 81, 83, 88, 93, 
116, 123, 129, 131, 140, 151; the 
fate of the 5000 Orejones, in the 
Collao, 125; Incas Orejones, of 
Cuzco, 83, 138, 153, 154, 156, 160, 
162, &c., 170 

Orellana, river, 18 

Orgoflez, lieutenant of Almagro, 
defeats Manco Inca, xvii 



Ormachea, Captain Nicolas de, 239, 
240 

Oro Ayllu, 47 

Oropesa, Francisco Alvarez de 
Toledo, third Count of, xv, 6; 
Ana Maria Coya de Loyola, 
Marchioness of, xviii, 219; Tupac 
Amaru's children placed in suc- 
cession to the title of, by Philip II, 
XX ; Jos6 Gabriel Condorcanqui 
establishes his claim to the title of, 
1770, 230 

Orozco, Don Sancho de, brother of 
the Loaysas, in the Cuzco Tourna- 
ment, 244 

Ortiz, Diego, Augustinian friar, 
biography of, 211 ; sent to convert 
Titu Cusi Yupanqui, ib.\ his life, 
by Father Fuleencio Baldani, ib. ; 
martyrdom oi7 215; buried in 
Augustinian convent, Cuzco, ib. 

Ortiz de Arbildo y Berriz, Angela, 
wife of Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel, 
xii 

Ortiz de Orue, Catalina, marries 
Don Luis Justiniani, of Seville, xvii 

Ortiz de Orue, Don Pedro, one of 
the first conquerors of Peru, married 
Maria Tupac Usca, daughter of 
Manco Inca, xvii ; his descendants, 
ib. 

Otabalo, Huayna Ccapac at, 161 

Our Lady of Mercy, Order of, 
Cuzco, two monks of, 226; Friar 
Gonzalo de Mendoza, Provincial of, 
1 57 1, 227; Gonzalo Ballastero, 
Vicar Provincial, 157 1, 228; Father 
Nicolas de los dichos, an eye- 
witness of the execution of Tupac 
Amaru, 1571, 220, 246, 247 

Our Lady of Mercy, Order of, 
Vilcapampa, monastery and church, 
241 ; abandoned after 15 years, 
242; the monks move to Cuzco, 
ib. 

Our Lady of the Remedies, 
hospital of, Cuzco, 226 

Ovieao, Froila, King of, 211 

Oviedo, Father Friar Gabriel de 
prior of Santo Domingo, Cuzco 
157'. »28 

Paca, 33 

Paca, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui at, 

104 
Pacamoros, the, 173 
Pacanis 33 
Pacasmayu, valley of, conquered by 

Tupac Inca, 131 
Pacay, river, 117 



382 



INDEX 



PacaycAcha, town, conquered by 

Viracocha Inca, 84 
Paccari-tampu (Tampu-tocco), 43, 

44, 57, 60, 208; myth of, 57; 

depicted by Sarmiento, ix; visited 

by Pachacuti, ^ 
Paccays, Maftanes, 135 
Pacha, meaning of, 39 
Ptuhtu^ 100, 146 
Pachata^ xv 
Pachacamac, attribute of the deity, 

39 
POchacca, 33 

PachachaUa Viracocha, a chief, 64 
Pachaculla Viracocha, a chief, 64 
Pachacuti, '*Overturner of the 

Earth," 9« 
Pachacuti Yamqui Salcamaygua, 

Juan de Santa Cruz. See Santa Cruz 

Pachacuti Yamqui Salcamaygua, 

Juan de 
Pacha Poccoy, 101 
Pachatopan, 101 
Peuha tupac^ 102 
Pachayachachia, attribute of the 

deity, 29 
Pacheco, Geronimo, captain, in the 

Cuzco Tournament, 244; ukesSar- 

miento MS., 1572, to Philip II 

(Col. de doc. ined. Arch, de Indias, 

VIII. 235), X, xi 
Pache/a^ 213 
Pacific Ocean, 11, 26, 34, 132, 

134 

Pacopata, 208 

Pacta Mayta, captain, in army of 
Huascar, 177 

Pahuac Hualpa Mayta, second son 
of Yahuar-huaccac, 80 ; also called 
Pahuac Mayta Inca, ib. ; murdered 
by the Huayllacans, 81, 82 

Pahuac Mayta Inca, 80 

Pahuani, 80 

Pallata, 48 

Palmas, 11 1 

Palomino, Juan de, 219 

Palomino, Don Luiz, in the Cuzco 
Tournament, 244; in the Vilca- 
pampa expedition, 1571* 219; his 
acts of munificence, 233 

Palomino, Dofia Mayor, sister of 
Don Luis, 233 

Palpa, 208 

Paltas, Mafiaries, 235 

Paltas, province of the, 131 

Pamaca, descent, 62 

Pampacuchu, 208 

Pancorvo Celiorigo, Don Juan de, 
one of the first Spanish conquerors 
of Peru, a citizen of Cuzco, 224 ; in 



the Cuzco Tournament, 244 ; attests 
the Sarmiento MS., 1572, x 

Pando, Pedro, a mestuo native of 
Cuzco, 211, 212, 214; killed by the 
Incas, 215 

Papal division of the world, 1493, 4 

Papris, the, conquered by Viracocha 
Inca, 85 

Paraguay, kingdom of, Order of Oar 
Lady of Mercy first to evangelize, 142 

Parcoa, Huamanca, 116, 208 

Paria, 125 

Paruro, province of, 208 

Pascac, Don Domingo (Ayllu of 
Pachacuti), aged 90, 1572, witness 
to the Indica^ 198 

Pastos, province of, rebek against 
Huayna Ccapac, 159; conquered, 
161; Atahualpa*s flight in campaign 
against the, 170 

Pata-huayllacan (Huayllacan), 71 

Patallata, hill, near Cuzco, Pachacuti 
Inca Yupanqui erects palaces on, 
124, 138 

Patuar^ beautiful, 71, 124 

Paucar-ancho, Sinchi of OllanUy- 
tampu, 107 

Paucar Aucaylli, Don Gonzalo 
(Aucaylli Panaca Ayllu), 1572, 8i 

Paucaray, Huanca Auqui retreats 
to, 174 

Paucar Ayllu, son of Yahuar- 
huaccac, 80 

Paucar Chima, Francisco (Ayllu of 
Manco Ccapac), aged 30, 1572, 
witness to the Imiica, 197 

Paucar Sucau, Don Garcia, aged 
34, 1572, witness to the Indica^ 
199 

Paucartambo, mofltana of, expedi- 
tion of Tupac Inca Yupanqui into 
the, 143, 145; Spanish expeditions 
into the, 144, 218 

Paucar Tupac, Sinchi, 108 

Paucar Usna, captain general, in 
army of Huascar, 181 ; prisoner of 
Atahualpa, ib. 

Paul III, Pope [Alessandro Faraese, 
1534-49]. i<>9. '95; legaUses 
marriage of Princess Ataria Cusi 
Huarcay to her uncle, Manco Inca, 
xvii; legalises marriage of Dofta 
Maria Cusi Huarcay to her brother, 
Manco Inca, 228 

PauUu, Don Carlos, Inca, son of 
Paullu Tupac Yupanqui and Cata- 
lina Usica, 169, 186, 193; grandson 
of Huayna Ccapac, 207; succeeds 
his father. May 1549, xviii; on the 
Colcampata, Cuzco, 1571, xix; his 



INDEX 



383 



wife, Maria de Esquivel, ib., 306; 
baptism of his son, Melchior Carlos, 
XXI, 306, 307 

Paullu, Don Felipe, Inca, son of 
PauUu Tupac Vupanqui, 1571, 
xviii, 169, 193 

Paullu, Don Melchior Carlos, Inca, 
son of Don Carlos Paullu, Inca, 
bapdsm of, 6 Jan. 1571, described 
by Ocampo, xxi, 106, 207; 
attempted, 1603, to obtain con- 
cessions in Spain for the Inca 
family, 219 ; his lawsuit against the 
Spaniards for the Colcaropata 
houses successful, 125; died at 
Alcala de Henares, ib. 

Paullu Cusi Tupac Inca Yupan- 
qui, Don Crist6val, son of Huayna 
Ccapac, xvii, 160, 169; baptized as 
Cristoval, xviii, 193; his death. 
May 1549, xviii; escapes death on 
the defeat of Huascar, 185, 193; 
father of Bartolom^, Carlos, and 
Felipe Inca, 186, 193; is granted 
a Kepartimiento of Indians by 
Philip II, 193; his houses on the 
Colcampata, Cuzco, 224, 225 ; hus- 
band of Dofia Catalina Usica Coya, 
186, 206 

Paullu Tupac. See Paullu Cusi 
Tupac Inca Yupanqui, Don 
Cristoval 

Paulo, town, capital of the Huayl- 
lacans, 74, 75, 80 

PajTta, Curaca of, warns Atahualpa 
of the arrival of the Spaniards, 186 

Paytiti, river, 143, 334 

Peccaries, Mafiaries, 235 

Pe&a Alba, Marquis of, married 
Francisca, daughter of Ana Maria 
Coya de Loyola, 219 

Pereyra, Don Antonio de, captain, 
in the Cuzco Tournament, 244; in 
the Vilcapampa expedition, 157 1, 
219 

Perez Marchan, Doctor Alonso, 
President of Guadalaxara, 224 

Periplus of the Erythraan Sea, 14 

Persia, or Prusia, wife of Sem, 20 

Persia, kingdom of, 26 

Peru, agriculture, under the Incas, 

Peru, bridges of the Incas, 158 
Peru, The Chronicle of Peru, 1532- 

50, 1544. See Cieza de Leon, 

Pedro de 
Peru, Extirpeuion de la Idolatria del 

PirUf 1 62 1. See' KxtvBcg^ Pablo 

Joseph de 
Peru, forests of, 39 



Peru, Goviertto del Peru, See 
Matienzo de Peralta, Juan 

Peru, Historia imperii Peruani, 
1590. See Valera, Bias 

Peru, Incas of. See Incas 

Peru, irrigation under the Incas, 71, 
132, 158 

Peru, map of, by Sanniento, 1572, 
ix; relief maps of, executed b^ 
order of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, 
120 

Peru, mines of, 222, 231, 232; orga- 
nised by Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 1 50 

Peru, Order of Our Lady of Mercy 
first to evangelize, 242 

Peru, Relacion del lihro intittUctdo 
Goviemo del Peru, See Matienzo 
de Peralta, Juan 

Peru, Relacion de las cosas mas 
notables que hiza en d Peru, siendo 
Virev Don Francisco de Toledo, 
20 Dec. 1578. See Ruiz de 
Navamuel, Alvaro 

Peru, roads "of the Inca,V 132, 236 

Peru, settled by the Atlantics, 27 

Peru, Viceroys of, Don Francisco de 
Toledo (1569-81), 6; Don Martin 
Henriquez (1581-83), 235; Don 
Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, Mar- 
quis of Cafiete (1590-96), xvii, xviii, 
117, 140, 211, 222, 228, 239; Don 
Luis de Velasco, Marquis of Sali- 
nas (i 596-1604), 222, 239; Don 
Caspar de Zuniga Acevedo y Fon- 
seca, Count of Monterey (1604-07), 
203, 222, 232 ; Don Juan de Men- 
doza y Luna, Marquis of Montes 
Claros (1607-15), 203; Don Fran- 
cisco de Borja y Acevedo, Prince 
de Esquilache (16 15-21), 203 

Peru, visitation of, under the Incas, 
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, 132; 
Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 146, &c. ; 
Huayna Ccapac, 158, &c. 

Peso, Melchior del, the widow of, 
239; her negroes in revolt, 240 

Phaacians, Alcinous, King of the, i 

Philip II, King of Spain (1556-98), 
Sarmiento's MS. addressed to, ix, 
I, &c.; his title to the Spanish 
throne, xiii; his christening pre- 
sents to Don Carlos Inca, 157 1, 
211; indirectly informed of the 
execution of Tupac Amaru, 230; 
disgraces Don Francisco de Toledo 
in consequence, on the Viceroy's 
return to Spain, xx, 230; places 
children of Tupac Amaru in succes- 
sion to the Marquisate of Oropesa, 



384 



INDEX 



PhUip III, King of Spun (1598- 
164 1 ), creates Ana Maria Coya de 
Loyola Maichioness of Oropesa 
and Yucay, 1631, xviii, 119; 
creates Don Lois de Velasco Mar- 
quis of Salinas, 1609, m 

Phllo, Judaus^ cited, 10 

Phcenicians, 3 

Piajajalca, Chachapoyas, fortress, 

Pichcapackaca (500), xv, 146 

Picol, Id 

Piedra-buena, town, 119 

Piedrahita, Lucas Fernandez de. Sa 
Fernandez de Piedrahita, Lucas 

Pietschmann, Professor Dr Richard, 
Director of Gottingen University 
Library, edits Sarmiento MS. 1571, 
Berlin, August 1906, xi; cited, 5, 

17 
Pilco, Don Garcia (Ccapac Ayllu), 

^1572, 154. 198 

Pilcocanti, 8 

Pilcones (Pilcosones), province of 
the, 110, 335, &c. ; Spanish expedi- 
tion against the, 136, &c. 

Pilcosone Indian, Francisco Chi- 
chiraa, a, 339; Oparo, a, 337 

Pilcosones (Pilcones), province of 
the, 230, 135, &c.; Spanish ex- 
pedition against the, 336, &c.; 
Pilcosones only mentioned by 
Ocampo, 339 

Pilcopata, 141 

Pilco Tupac, Don Garcia (Ayllu of 
Tupac Inca), aged 40, 1571, witness 
to the Indica^ 198: set also Pilco, 
Don Garcia 

Pillcua-llayta^ head-dress, 136 

Pillaca llaytUy 136 

Pillahua-marca, Huayllas, fortress, 

131 

Pilla-huaso, Sinchi of Quito, 133 

Pillauya, town, near Pisac, 80 

Pillu, 130 

Pilpinto, 208 

Pinahua, town, 71, 80; its con- 
querors, 83, 84 

Pinelo, Leon, Relacion de la Jornada 
de Ahuarei Maldonado^ 1617, 318 

Pinto, Sinchi of the Cayambis, 
captured by Huayna Ccapac, 165; 
a drum made of his skin, ib, 

Pirua, 39 

Pirui, 39 

Pisac, province of Galea, 308 ; Inti- 
huaiana at, 99; valley of, 80, 84 

Pisac Tupac, Don Cristoval (Ayllu 
of Tupac Inca), aged 50, 1573, 
witness to the Indica^ 154, 198 



Pisar Ccapac, Sinchi of the Cafiaris, 
conquered by Tupac Inca, 131^ 

133 

Pifuy, Don Antonio (Apu Mayta 
Panaca Ayllu), 1573, 70 

Piru. See Pern 

Pitcos, fortress, Vilcapampa, Inca 
Tupac Amaru in, 310 

Pisarro, Francisca, daughter of 
Francisco, and the Princess Inez 
Nusta, xix 

Pixarro, Don Francisco (1475- 
1 541), appropriates the magnificent 
Huaca ot Viracocha, Cuzco, 36; 
his discovery of Peru, with 180 
Spaniards, 187, 193, 199; his 
second landing, i^. ; forms a station 
at Tangarara, 187, and marches to 
Caxamarca, 188; orders Atahualpa 
to produce Huascar, 188; orders 
execution of Atahualpa, 190; mar- 
ried Princess Inez Nusta, xix ; their 
daughter, Francisca, ib. ; his diffe- 
rences with Almagro, 153 

Piaarro, Gonzalo (1500-48), dis- 
inters body of Viracocha Inca, 86 ; 
recognises Manoo Inca on death of 
Huascar, xvti; at the battle of 
Huarina, 318 

Pizarro, Hernando (1538-78), re- 
pulsed by Manco Inca, xvii 

Plato, Critias (io8e), description of 
the Atlantic Island, 17, 33, &c. 

Plato, 7»id"tfj (35 c), 15, 18 

Pocona, Huayna Ccapac at, 159 

Poconas, 135 

Pocoray, 308 

Politica Indiana, 1648. See Solorzano 
Pereyra, Juan de 

Polo, the Licentiate. 5>^Ondegardo, 
Polo de 

Pomponius. See Mela, Pompo- 
nius 

Ponce de Leon, Juan, citizen of 
Huamanca, Provost Marshal, 310 

Popayan, bishop of, Agustin de fa 
Corufia y Gormaz (1561-90), bio- 

• graphy of, 337 

Poquen-cancha, temple, 41 

Porco, silver mines of, 135 

Portugal, Don Diego de, president 
of Charcas, 330 

Potosi, 335 ; governor of, Don Martin 
Garcia Ofiez de Loyola, C579, 318 

Proteus, 34 

Prusia, or Persia, wife of Sem, 30 

Ptolemseus, Claudius, 14; describes 
Catigara, 36 

Pucara, edifices of, 30; fortress of, 
145 



INDEX 



385 



Pucuy Sucatua^ Cuzco, 99 
Puerto Viejo, 36 
Pumacocha, nations of, 173 
Puma Lloqui, Stnchi, killed by 

Viracocha Inca, 85, 108 
Pumap chupan, Cuzco, 151 
Pumpu (Bombon), province of, 174 
Puna, island, 135; Sinchi of, pays 

tribute to Hua3ma Ccapac, 1O7 
Puquiura, 108; Baltasar de Ocampo 

lived at, 114; Don Crist6val de 

Albomoz of, ib, 
Puri Paucar (Ccuri Paucar), with 

six other Inca captains, murders 

Atilano de Aliaya, 157 1, 916; 

hanged at Cuzco, 335 
Purucaya^ festival of, 10 1, 138, 115 
Puruccayan, loi 
Purumata, ravine of, 133 
Puruvay, province of, conquered by 

Huayna Ccapac, 161 
Puscon, Don Alonso (Raura Panaca 

Ayllu), aged 40, I5P« witness to 

the Indicaj 63, 197 
Putisuc Titu Avcaylli. See Avcaylli 

Titu Putisuc 
Pyrrha, 14 

Queco Avcaylli, son of Mayta 

Ccapac, 68 
Queco Ma3rta, captain of Viracocha 

Inca, 90. See also Apu Mayta 
Quichua, Don Francisco (Ayllu of 

Pachacuti), aged 68, 1573, witness 

to the Tndica, 198 
Quichua language, xvii, 335, 336; 

Juan de Betanzos, learned in the, 

xix; enforced by Pachacuti Inca 

Yupanqui, isi 
Quicnua Sucsu, Martin (Ayllu of 

Viracocha), aged 64, i57^» witness 

to the Indica^ 198 
Quichuas, province of the, 130 
Quicksilver mines, Huancavelica, 

Q«ftr^AfV<» (quico-chicuy), 53 
Quihual Tupac, captain, 136, 145 
Quilaco, Tupac Palla, of, mother of 

Atahualpa, 170 
Quilla^ the moon, 166 
Quillapampa, valley of, 236, 339 
QuiUis-cacha, a chief, remains with 

Inca Yupanqui, 89 
Quillis-cachi Urco Huaranca, an 

Oreion, 03 
QuiUiscacnis, the, 64, 90, pi 
Quinchi-caxa, Caftaris, (ortress, 

built by Tupac Inca, 131 
Quinos, Don Juan de, captain, in the 

Cuzco Tournament, 344 

M. S. 



Quint! -cancha, 58 

Quipers, 41 

d«»^ 41 

Quiquijana, province of Quispi- 

cancha, 308 
Quiquijana, town, conquered by 

Viracocha Inca, 85 
•a«, 7' 

•uirinal, Rome, i 

uirirmanta (Huanacauri), 50 

uisin, 135 

uisna, conquered by Huayna 

Ccapac, 161 
Quiso Ma3rta, Don Baltasar (Usca 

Mayta Panaca), 6p 
Quispi, an Inca, strikes Friar Diego 

Ortiz, 315 ; his arm withered, ib, 

;uispi, Don Diego, 63 

uispi, Don Francisco (Arayraca 

Ayllu Cuzco-Callan), 1573, 46 
Quispi, Juan (Masca Ayllu), 1573, 

47 

Quispicancha, province of, 308, 335 

Quispicancha, Titu Cusi Hualpa 
concealed at, 156 

Quispi Conde Masrta, Tuan Baptista 
(Avayni Panaca Ayllu), 1573, 65 

Quispi Cusi, Don Juan (Ayllu of 
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui), aged 45, 
1573, witness to the Indica^ 139, 
198 

Quispi Ma3rta, Don Juan (Ayllu of 
Ccapac Yupanaui), aged 30, 1573, 
witness to the Indica^ 198 

Quisu Mayta, captain, 136 

Quito, city of, 10, 30, 39, 133, 
158; Atahualpa at, 176; Historia 
del Reino de Quilo, Juan de Ve- 
lasco, 1789, 170; Huayna Ccapac 
dies at, 165, &c. ; Inca roads from, 
133; Manco Ccapac's statue taken 
by Huayna Ccapac to, 63 ; princess 
of, mother of Atahualpa {Gomara, 
Velasco)^ 170 

Quito, province of, rebels against 
Huayna Ccapac, 159 

Quiuipay, head-quarters of Chalco 
Chima and Quiz-quiz, 181 

Quiz -quiz, captain in army of 
Atahualpa, 171, 173, &c. ; his 
interview with the people of Cuzco 
at Quiuipay, 181, &c. 



Rando^ 70 

Rarapa, town, Inca Rocca's body 

found at, 73 
Raura Panaca Ayllu (Sinchi Rooca], 63 
Raymif festival of, io3 
Raymi napOy 49 
Red Sea, 14 



«S 



386 



INDEX 



ReiacioH dt Antiguedades date Reyn« 
del Fini^ c, 1610. See SanU Cruz 
Pachacuti Yamqui Salcamaygua, 
Joan de 

ReiacioH de la Jornada de Alvarez 
Maldonadot 1617. See Pinelo, Leon 

RelacioH de las cosas mas notables que 
hiaa en d Peru^ siendo Virev Don 
Francisco de Toledo^ 10 Dec. 1578. 
See Ruiz de Navamuel, Alyaro 

Relacion del libra intitukuU Goviemo 
del Peru. See Matienzo de Peralta, 
Juan 

Relief Maps, of Peru. See Peru 

Repartimiento, of Indians, granted to 
Paullu Tupac Yupanqui, by Philip 
II, 193 

RibadeneirA, one of the two Span- 
iards killed at Chuqui-chaca, 1571, 
111 

Ricinit 1 10 

Rimachi, Martin (Ayllu of Yahuar- 
huaccac), aged 16, 1571, witness to 
the Indica, 198 

Rimachi Chaco, Don Francisco, 
(Ayllu of Pachacuti), aged 40, 1571, 
witness to the /ndica, 1^9, 198 

Rimachi Mayta, Miguel (Ayllu of 
Lloqui Yupanqui), aged 30, 1571, 
witness to the /ndica, 197 

Rimac-pampa, Cuzco, 156 

Rimac-Tampu (Umatambo), pro- 
vince of Anta, with ruins of an Inca 
palace, 119, 100 

Rimac Tupac, Don Garcia (Ayllu 
of Huayna Ccapac), aged 34, 1573, 
witness to the indica^ 198 

Rimay, to speak, iii 

Rinocoruras, 20 

Rio, province of, 143 

Riobamba (Riopampa), battle of, 
between Huascar and Atahualpa, 

I7«» »73 
Rio de la Plata, 144 
Rios, Don Diego de los, a citizen of 

Cuzco, in the Cuzco Tournament, a 46 
Rioa, Juan de los, son of Alvaro Ruiz 

de Navamuel, xii; his descendants 

formed mayarcugos of Rios and 

Cavallero, tb. 
Rivas, Father Friar Juan de, of the 

Order of Our Lady of Mercy, Vilca- 

pampa, 141 
Roads **of the Inca," 132, 236 
Rocca Inca, sixth Inca. See Inca 

Rocca 
Rocca Inca, son of Yahuar-huaccac, 

80' 
Rocca Yupanqui, son of Mayta 

Ccapac, 68 



• Rock of lead, Titicaca, 33 
. Rodriguex de Figueroa, Diego, 
I one of the Viceroy's Ambassadors 
I to Titu Cttsi Yupanqui, iii, 3149 
117 

Roman Consuls, i 

Rome, 43 ; Tarquinius Priscus, King 
of, 15 

Ruiz de Navamuel, Alvaro (d. 
161 3), secreury to five Viceroys 
of Peru, autograph of, in the Sar- 
miento Indica MS., 1573, zi« \^*r 
197, 101 ; biography of, xi, xii, xiv; 
his Relacion de las cosas mas notables 
que kiaa en el Peru^ siendo Virev 
Don Francisco de Toledo, 10 Dec. 
1578, xi 

Ruix de Navamuel, Francisco, 
captain, biography of, xi, xii 

Ruix de Navamuel, Inez, wife of 
Geronimo de Aliajga, xii 

Rumi-fiaui, captain in army of 
Atahualpa, 171 

Runlu, 70 

Runtucancha, town, 84 

Rupaca, Priest of the Sun, invested 
Huascar, 181 

Rupaca, Don Alonso (Apu MayU 
Panaca), 1571, 70 

Ruparupa, province of, 117 

RulucJkico, 54 

Ru/nckicu, 54 

Rutuni, 54 

Saca, 70 

Sacsahuana (Surita), 104; battle 
of, 118 

Saint Augustine, Order of, Cuzco, 
107, 211 

Saint Francis of Victory, of Vilca- 
pampa, province of, 103 

Saint John, lights of, 101 

Saint Paul, eloquence of, 337 

Salamanca, 311, 337 

Salas de Valdas, Don Juan de. 
Factor, brother of the archbishop 
of Seville, in the Cuzco Tourna- 
ment, 345 

Salazar, Juan Bautista Suarez de. 
See Suarez de Salazar, Juan Bau- 
tista 

Salinas, battle of, 319 

Salinas, Juan de, 7 

Salinas, Marquis de. See Velasco, 
Don Luis de 

Sallust, 3 

Salmaraura Inca, Dr Justo, arch- 
deacon of Cuzco, a descendant of 
Paullu Tupac Yupanqui, xix 

Salvages, the, 35 



INDEX 



387 



Samca-Aasi {Samcsi'huBis), 113 
Samgaguacy, 113 
San Bias, Cuzco. See Cuzco. 
Sanchez, Don Miguel, the treasurer, 

in the Cuzco Tournament, 245; 

father of Don Gonzalo Hernandez 

de Valencuela, ib. 
Sancho Iv, King of Navarre (1054- 

1076), a usurper, xiii 
San Cristoval, Church of, the Col- 

campata, Cuzco, xviii, 107 
San Francisco de Quito, 134 
San Francisco of the Victory, 

Vilcapampa, city and province of, 

303, sc. ; origin of its name, 311 
San Geronimo de Corama, ioq 
San Juan de Buena Vista, first 

Marquis of, descendant of Geronimo 

CastilLa, 344 
San Salvador, Peru, 309 
San Sebastian, Cuzco cercado, 209 
San Sebastian, death of, 237 
Saflo, town, Mama Cuca, native of, 

Sanoc Ayllu, 46 

Santa Ana, Carmenca, Cuzco, 
church of, its Corpus Christi paint- 
ings, c. 1570, 207 

Santa Clara, Cuzco, 58 

Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui 
Salcamaygu, Juan de, ReUuion de 
Antigiledades deste Reyno del Pirii, 
€, 1620 (Biblioteca Nacional MS.)t 
edited by Marcos Jimenez de la 
Espada, 1879; An Account of the 
Antiquities of Peru^ edited by Sir 
Clements Markham, 1873, cited, 33, 
37, 40, 48, 49, 52, 53, 57, 60, 64, 

7i-73» 79» 83. i«o» 170. 174, 309 
Santa Cruz de la Sierra, govern- 
ment of, 7 ; kingdom of, Order of 
Our Lady of Mercy first to evan- 
gelize, 242 
Santa Maria, port, Spain, 21 
Santiago, Red Cross of, 6; conferred 
on Don Carlos Inca, 1571, 211; 
Pablo Alonso Carrasco, Geronimo 
Castilla, Martin Dolmas, Juan de 
Silva, Juan de Sotomayor, Fran- 
cisco de Valveorde, of the Order of, 
219, 244, 245 
Santiago de los Montaiias, 7 
Santiago Rodriguez de los Rios, 
Francisco, father of Alvaro and 
Francisco Ruiz de Navamuel, xi 
Santillan, Fernando de, Relcuion del 
Origen, 1879, c»^«i» 37» iio> i40» 
3" 
Santo Domingo (Hayti), island, 

«3, 147 



Santo Domingo, monastery of, 

^C««io» 55> 57 

Santo Tomas, Domingo de, 38 

Safiu, lineage of, 56 

Sapaca. See Manco Sap€u» 

Saracens, 2 

Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro, bio- 
graphy. See infra: NcurrcUives of 
'his Voyages, 1895 (Introduction); 
at the Galapagos Islands, 30 Nov. 
i.5^7» '3^> Cosmographer-General 
of the kingdoms of Peru, 196; his 
Indica (History of the Incas), 1572, 
its division, X, 12, 13; in three parts, 
12, 13; written by order of the 
Viceroy of Peru, ix, 12, 13, 43 ; 
certificate of the proofs and verifi- 
cation of the Indica, 195-201 ; con- 
veyed to Philip II by Geronimo 
Pacheco, xi; MS. acquired by 
Abraham Gronovius, and sold in 
1785 to Gottingen University, where 
it remained unprinted and unedited 
for 120 years, xi; text edited with 
German notes by Richard Pietsch- 
mann, Berlin, August 1906, ib. ; 
text translated into English by Sir 
Clements Markham, September 
1906, ib, ; description of the MS., 
io, ; Narratives of his Voyages to 
the Straits of Magellan, 1579-80, 
edited by Sir Clements Markham, 

1895. 5. ii» I37» 317 

Sauaseras, settlement of the, 40, 
57-59 ; conquered by Manco Ccapac, 
62 

Sauaseray Panaca, 57 

Sayri, Don Francisco (Ayllu of 
Huayna Ccapac), aged 28, 1572, 
witness to the Indica, 198 

Sayri, Gonzalo, descendant of Huayna 
Ccapac, 1572, 169 

Sayri -cancha, 58 

Sayri Tupac, Don Diego, four- 
teenth Inca of Peru, son of Manco 
Inca, xvii, xviii; baptised by Juan 
de Vivero, 1558, 211; biography 
of, xviii, 193; his death, 1560, 
xviii 

Scott, Sir Walter, Fortunes of Nigel, 
xiii 

Sedulius, Coelius, 3 

Sem, son of Noah, 20, &c. ; his wife, 
Prusia or Persia, 20 

Sepdlveda, Juan Gin^s de (149&- 
*573)» author of a treatise on the 
right of Spain to subdue the Indians 
by war, 5, 273; opposed by Las 
Casas, ib, ; prohibited by Charles V, 



388 



INDEX 



Seville, archbishop of, Garcia de 
Loaysa (153^40). U4 

Shepherd of the Sun, Huayna 
Ccapac. 157 

Sidf 307 

Sierra de Leg^isano, Don Juan, 
son of Don Mancio, 1 19 ; a sdiool- 
fellow of the Inca Garcilasso de la 
Vega, id, ; sees the head of Tupac 
Amam worshipped by the Indians 
in Cuzco, iig; reports the same to 
the Viceroy, iA. 

Sierra de Leguisano, Don Mancio, 
one of the first conquerors of Peru, 
one of the first settlers at Cuzco, 
I534> ^191 married an Inca prin- 
cess, Dofia Beatriz Coya, xviit, xix, 
319; captain in the Vilcapampa 
Expedition, 1571, 119; attests the 
Sarmiento MS., 1571, x; in his 
will recognised the virtues of the 
Incas, 319 

Silis (Don), river, 14 

Silva, Don Juan de, of the Order of 
Santiago, in the Cuzco Tournament, 

US 

Silva y Guzman, Don Tristan de, 
citizen of Cuzco, 334 

Silver mines, of Huamanape and 
Huamani, 332, 131 ; of Porco, 135; 
of Vilcapampa, 131 

Simaponte, valley of, 71 1 

StncAif strong, 38 

Sifuhi-cuna, 38 

Sinchi Rocca, second Inca, son of 
Manco Ccapac and Mama Ocllo, 
48; Ayllu of, 63, 197; biography 
of, 61, 63; his death, aged 127, 
A.D. 675,63; Huauquioi^ Iluani- 
chini Amaru, 63 ; husband of Mama 
Cuca, 56, 63; his investiture as 
knight, 53; nominates his second 
son, Lloqui Yupanqui, as his suc- 
cessor, 19 1; his settlement, 58; 
succeeds Manco Ccapac, 60 

Sinchi Rocca, illegitimate son of 
Tupac Inca Yupanqui, architect 
of Casana, Cuzco, and Yucay, 

158 
Sisiquilla Pucara, Xauxa, 131 
Sitic-huaman, Sinchi, 56 
Situa^ festival of, 102 
Socma, town, conquered by Vira- 

cocha Inca, 85 
S0C8O, Inca, son of Viracocha Inca, 

83, 89 
Socso Panaca Ayllu (Viracocha Inca), 

86 
Solinus, Caius Julius, Polyhistor^ 

1538, cited, 25 



Solomon, wisdom of, 246 
Solomon Isles, 1567, 11 
Solon, and the Egyptian priest, 15, 

16, 25 
Solorzano Pereyra, Juan de (1575- 

1653), Politica Indiana^ 16481 xiv, 

203, 288 
Soma Inca, fother of Mama Micay, 

71. 80 
Sombreros^ 208 
Soras, province of the, 109 ; troops 

of, 174 
Soras, town, conquered by Pacha- 

cuti Inca, 109 
Sotelo, Captain Caspar de, a native 

of Zamora, 157 1, 220 
Soto, Juan de, chief officer of the 

Viceroy's court, sent to hasten exe- 
cution of Tupac Amaru, I57i» 

228 
Sotomayor, Don Juan de, of the 

Order of Santiago, in the Cuzco 

Tournament, 245 
South Sea. See Pacific Ocean 
Spain, CranUa geturcU de EspafUi, 

by Florian de Ocampo, 1553, 17, 

«74 
Spain, geography of, 18 
Spain, Kings of, their rights to the 

Indies, 5 ; to Peru, 194 
Spain, Kin^ of. See Liuba II, King 

of the Visigoths; Wamba, King of 

the Visigoths; Alfonso el Casto; 

Charles V, Emperor of Germany ; 

Philip II ; Philip III 
Spain, New. See New Spain 
Spanish Conquest in Ameriea, See 

Helps, Sir Arthur, ^.C,B, 
Spanish manuscripts. See Gay- 

an^s, Pascual de 
Squier, Ephraim George, Peru, 

1877, cited, 36, 311 
Strabo, cited, 25 
Suarez, Captain Alonso, in Maftaries, 

«34-236 
Suarez de Figueroa, Don Gomez, 

Duke of Feria, m. Jane Dormer, 6 
Suarez de Salazar, Juan Bautista, 

Grandetas y aniigOadades de la isla 

ciudad de Cadi%, 16 10, 17, 283 
Suaso, Don Lope de, in the Cuzco 

Tournament, 245 
Suca, 99 

Sucanca, Cuzco, 99 
Sucani, 90 
Sucres, ot Cuzco, 98 
Suetonius, i 

Sugar cane, in Vilcapampa, 230 
Sunia y Narracum de hs Incas, 1880. 

See Betanzos, Juan de 



INDEX 



389 



Sumac Yupanqui, guardum of body 

of Huayna Cotpac, 169 
Sun, House of the. Su Cuzco, Iniip- 

eofuAa 
Sun, Temple of the. See Cuzco : 

see also Vilcapampa 
Sun, Gardens of the, Cuzco, 58 
Sun-dials, of Cuzco, 98, 99 
Sun- God. See Intt 
Suntur paucar^ 49, 60, 126 
Surimani, Curaca of, Condorcanqui, 

Surita, plain of, its early names, 

104 
Surite, province of Anta, 109 
Susurpuquio, fountain, 90 
Sutic-tocco, 44, 45; Ayllu, 46 
Suyus, or divisions of the Inca Em- 
pire, four, 133, 150, 160 
Suyuyoc Apu^ Governor General of 
the Inca Empire, 150 



Tabasco, province of, 26 
Tacucaray, town, 68 
Taguapaca, survivor of the Flood, 

3«» 37 
Takua, 33 
Tahuapaca, 33 
Talavera, Diego Hernandez, of, xix ; 

archbishop Geronimo de Loaysa, a 

native of, 244 
TaUanas Indians, 186 
Tambo, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui 

erects magnificent buildings at, 121 ; 

valley of, seized by Pachacuti Inca 

Yupanqui, 103 
Tambo. See also Ollantay-tampu 
Tambo Usca Masrta, Don Juan 

(Usca Mayta Panaca), 1572, 08 
Tampu^ 225 
Tampu Chacay, ordered by Manco 

Ccapac to kill Ayar Cachi, 49, 50, 

191 
Tampu -cunca, the Ayamarcas o]r, 

<54 
Tampu-quiro, Sinchi Rocca bora 

at, 48 
Tampus, Indians, 45 
Tampu-tocco, hill, 44, 47, 49, 50, 

53, 60, 68; visited by Pachacuti, 

99: see also Paccari-tampu 
Tampu Usca Mayta, captain, in 

army of Huascar, 173 
Tampu Usca Mayta, Don Tuan 

(Ayllu of Mayta Ccapac), aged 60, 

1572, witness to the Indica^ 197 
Tanais (Don), river, 14 
Tangalongo (Antalongo), Sinchi, of 

Chile, defeated by Tupac Inca 



Yupanqui, 145; appointed Curaca 

by Huayna Ccapac, 159 
Tangarara, Francisco Pizano forms 

a station at, 187 
Taocamarca, town, conquered by 

Yahuar-huaccac, 81 
Tapacari, 125 
Tapirs, Cuzco, 243; Vilcapampa, 

«35 
Taquiy dance in honour of the Sun, 

Tarapa, 33 

Tarapaca, 33 

Tarco Huaman, son of Mayta 

Ccapac, 68 
Tarma Yupanqui, Alonso (Aravraca 

Ayllu Cuzco-Callan), 1572, 46 
Tarpuntay Ayllu, 46 
Tarquinius Priscus, King of Rome, 

Tasas, of Francisco de Toledo, xvi 
Tauca, village, Conchucos, Cata- 

quilla, the oracle of, 166 
Tavern of the Dawn, 44 
Tecsi-Uiracocha, the Creator, 29 
Temple of the Sun. See Cuzco 
Teos, 26 

Terra, or Vesta, wife of Noah, 20 
Thessaly, flood in, 24 
Tiahuanacu, Colla-suyu, 34, 37, 

338 ; residence of the Suyuyoc Apu, 

150 ; Huayna Ccapac at, 159 
Tiana, a seat, throne, 126, 216 
Ticci, etymology of, 20 
Ticei Ccapac, Lord ot the World, 

Atahualpa, 181 
Ticci -Uiracocha, the Creator, 29 
Ticci Viracocha Pachayachachi, 

the Creator, 34, 45, 81, 82, 5^4, 95 ; 

Huaca of, on island of Titicaca, 



.'of? 



Tici, etymology of, 29 

Tici- Uiracocha, the Creator, 29 

Tilca Yupanqui, brother of Pacha- 
cuti Inca Yupanqui, 129, 13^; 
feneral of the Inca fleet, 130; 
illed by his brother, 137 

Timaus, See Plato 

Timana, Don Agustin de la Corufta 
y Gormaz died at, 1590, 227 

Tirrenia, 23 

Titicaca, island, Viracocha Pacha- 
yachachi at, 32, &c.; Huaca of 
Ticci Viracocha on, 159; Huayna 
Ccapac at, ib, 

Titicaca, lake. 66; the Urus in the 
reed-beds of, 159 

Titu, 71 

Titu Atauchi, youngest son of 
Huayna Ccapac, xvii, 160; &ther 

25—3 



390 



INDEX 



of Alonso, xix ; of Huascar, 189 ; 
captain in army of his brother, 
Huascar, 173, 178; captured by 
Atahualpa, 181 ; murdered, 189 

Titu Atauchi, I>on Alonso, 1571, 
grandson of Huascar, twelfth Inca, 
189, 194; aged 40, 1579, witness to 
the Indica^ 199 

Titu Conde Masrta, Don Felipe 
(Avayni Panaca), 1573, 65 

Titu Cusi Hualpa, son of Inca 
Rocca. Su Yahuar-huaccac 

Titu Cusi Hualpa (Huayna Ccapac), 
son of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, oom 
at Tumenampa, 134, 153 

Titu Cusi Yupanqui, illegitimate 
son of Manco Inca, present at 
baptism of Don Melchior Carlos 
Inca, 1571, io<); baptised as Felipe 
by Juan de Vivero m Vilcapampia, 
114; his embassy to the Viceroy oif 
Peru, 1 57 1 , 1 10, &c. ; the Viceroy's 
embassy sent in return to, ib,\ in 
rebellion in the Andes, 1571, 193 ; 
secludes his brother, Tupac Amaru, 
in the House of the Sun, 110; 
usurps the inheritance of his brother, 
Tupac Amaru, 310, &c.; his death, 
314 

Titu Rimachi (Avayni Panaca), 

Titus, emperor of Rome, i 

Titu Yupanqui, Don Martin 

(Aucaylli Panaca Ayllu), 1573, 81 
Tlaguzgalpa, 36 
Tocafm, 86 
Tocay Ccapac, Sinchi of the Aya- 

marcas, 71, 73, &c. ; kidnaps Titu 

Cusi Hualpa, 75, who marries his 

daughter, Mama Chicya, 79 ; 

marries Ccnri-OccUo, daughter of 

Inca Rocca, 79; his death, 84, 

106 
Tocco, window, 44, 45 
Tococachi, Pachacuti Inca Yupan- 

qui*s body found by Polo de 

Ondegardo in, 140 
Tocori Tupac, Sinchi of Ollantay- 

tampu, 107 
Tocto, Dofia Juana, spared by Ata- 

hualpa, 186 
Tocto Coca, cousin of Huayna 

Ccapac, mother of his son Ata- 

hualpa, 169, 170 
Toguaro, town, conquered by Pacha- 
cuti Inca, 108 
Tohara, fortress, occupied by Tupac 

Inca, 130 
Toledo, Juan de Vivero dies at, 

I577» «" 



Toledo, Don Fiandsoo de. Viceroy 
of Peru, 1569-81 ; biography, 
xiv'zxi, 6; portrait, 6; coat of 
arms, xi, 6; a third cousin of the 
Inca Garcilasso de la Vega, six; 
commissions Pedro Sarmiento de 
Gamboa to write the history of the 
Incas, ix, 11, 13, 43; insists on the 
cruelty and usurpations of the Incas 
as establishing the rights of Spain 
to Peru, xiii; el txtcrabU regicidic 
(Inca pedigrees), xx, 343; his ex- 
pedition acainst Vilcapampa, 318, 
ac; godiather to Don Melchior 
Carlos Inca, at Cuzco, 6 Jan. 1571, 
307, &c. ; Informacwus acerca dd 
seHcrio y Gobiemo de los Ingas^ 
heckas por mandado de Don Fran- 
cisco de Toied^t 1570-73, edited by 
Marcos Jimenez de la Espada 
(Colecciim de Lihros EspaHoUs 
Raros 6 Curiosos, tom. 16), 1883, 
iX} 3 1 3 1 interpolates passages in the 
Sarmiento MS., 15721 to vilify the 
Incas, X, xiii ; Maxima ToUeti Pro- 
regis gloria creint, &*c., 195; mur- 
ders the Inca Tupac Amaru, Dec 
1 57 1, XX, 6; hence named el exe- 
crable regicidio in the Inca pedi- 
ffrees, xx ; the murder denounced 
by Philip II, ib,\ ecclesiastical de- 
putation from Cuzco protests against 
his murder of Tupac Amaru, 1571, 
337, 338 ; Relctcion de las cosas mas 
notables que hixa en el Peru^ siendo 
Virev Don Francisco de Toledo^ 
30 Dec. 1578, by Alvaro Ruiz de 
Navamuel, xi; signs the Indica 
MS., 39 Feb. 1573, 301; his Tasas 
or Ordinances, Peru, xvi, 337; 
tilted at the Cuzco Tournament, 
34 June 1570, 346; his visitation 
of Peru, 1573, 1^4 

Toledo, Don Luis de, uncle of the 
Viceroy of Peru, 334 

Tomay-huaraca, Sinchi of the 
Hunn-chancas, 88; marches on 
Cuzco, 89, &c.; his death, 95 

Tomayrica, and Chinchaycocha, 
Huaca^ 166 

Tomay Rima, captain in army of 
Atahualpa, slain by Arampa 
Yupanqui, 178 

Tonapa, 33 

Tono, river, the Maflaries live near 
the, 143, 339 ; expedition of Tupac 
Inca Yupanqui down the, 143 

Toro Cavallero, Father Friar 
Gonzalo de, of the Order of Our 
Lady of Mercy, Vilcapampa, 341 



INDEX 



391 



Tournament of Cusco, 34 Jane, 

1570, H»-346 
Tradescos, descendants of Tuscan, 

10 
Trajan, Forum of, i 
Trinidad, coast of Brazil, 18, 15 
Troy, 23; fall of, 15 
Truzillo, city, Estremadura, 118, 

131* 137; Dofia Maria de Esquivel, 

of, 200 
Tuapaca, 33 
Tucorico Apu^ 149, 151 
Tucuman, kingdom of; Order of Our 

Lady of Mercy first to evangelize, 

341; province of, 7 
Tucuyj all, xto 
Tucuyrico, xv, no, i«o, 131, 131. 

^»5^, 158, 159 
Tully. Se€ Cicero 
Tumbez, sea-port, Tupac Inca at, 
135; Huayna Ccapac at, 161; 
Curaca of, warns Atahualpa of the 
arrival of the Spaniards, 186 
Turnip a knife, battle axe, 315 
Tumibamba (Tumipampa), 30 
Tumipampa, Quito, 30, 133; Ata- 
hualpa at, 173, 173, 181; battle 
of, between Huanca Auqui and 
Atahualpa, 1 73, 1 8 1 ; Huayna Ccapac 
bom at, 134; Huavna Ccapac re- 
builds, 1 60 ; recruits his army at, 163 ; 
Ninan Cuyochi dies of small-pox at, 
168 ; Tupac Inca Yupanqui revisits, 

*37 

Tumipampa Panaca Ayllu (Hu- 
ayna Ccapac), 169 

Tungasuca, Curaca of, Jos^ Gabriel 
Condorcanqui (1743-81), 330 

Tup€Lc^ royal, 134 

Tupac, Don Gonzalo, aged 30, 1573, 
witness to the Indica^ 199 

Tupac Amaru (Amaru Tupac Inca), 
134 

Tupac Amaru, Inca, son of Manco 
Inca and Maria Cusi Huarcay, xvii, 
xviii, 114, 193; in the mountains of 
Vilcapampa, 1571, xix; called uii 
by the Indians, 193; present at 
baptism of Don Melchior Carlos 
Inca, 157 1 1 309; his accession, 316; 
bis two daughters, Juana Pilco 
Huaco and Magdalena, 330; de- 
feated by the Spaniards at the 
bridge of'^Chuquichaca, 1571, 330; 
captured by Don Martin (rarcia 
Ofiez de I^yola, ib,\ is taken in 
chains to Cuzco, 1571, 334; his 
baptism before his execution, 335, 
330; his dying speech, 337; mur- 



der of, by Francisco de Toledo, 
Viceroy of Peru, Dec. 1571, xx, 6; 
disapproved by Philip II, xx; the 
murder not recorded by Sarmiento, 
ib,\ his children placed in succes- 
sion to Marquisate of Oropesa, ib,% 
the murder recorded by an eye- 
witness, Baltasar de Ocampo, xxi, 
333, &c. ; buried in Cuzco cathedral, 
1 57 1, 338, 33p; his head exhibited 
on a spike m the great square, 
Cuzco, 157 1, 339; Narrative of the 
Execution of the Inca Tupac AmarUj 
by Captain Baltasar de Ocampo, 
10 10 (British Museum, Add. MSS. 
I7»585)i xxi, 303-347; portrait of, 
with inscription, in possession of 
Don Pablo Justiniani, his descend- 
ant, 1853, 330; the rightful sove- 
reign of Peru, as the legitimate son 
of Inca Manco, grandson of Huayna 
Ccapac, 330 

Tuj^ac Amaru, 1780, names assumed 
by Jos^ Gabriel Condorcanqui, 
descendant of the murdered Inca, 
on his revolt, 1780, 330 

Tupac Atao, captain general of 
army of Huascar, his brother, 178, 
179 

Tupac Ayar Manco, son of Pacha- 
cuti Inca Yupanqui, 133, &c. 

Tupac Ccapac, appointed Visitor 
General of the Empire of Peru b^ 
his brother, Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 
147 ; his death, 148 

TUpac-ccusi^ 49 

Tupac cusi, golden vases, 49 

Tupac Cu8i Hualpa Inti lUapa 
(Huascar), son of Huayna Ccapac, 
160 

Tupac Inca Yupanqui, tenth Inca, 
son of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, 
10, 39, 48, 119, 133; ancestor of 
Manuela Catafio, wife of Dr Justo 
Pastor Justiniani, xvii; Ayllu of, 
154, 198; his Chinchay-suyu cam- 
paign, 139, &c.; conquers the pro- 
vince of the Antis, 141, &c.; in- 
vades Chile, 145 ; Cusi-churit hua- 
uqui of, found in Calispuquiu, 1 54 ; 
death of, at Chinchero, aged 85, 
A.D. 1358, 153, 154; his body bumt 
by Chalco Chima, 1533, 154 ; father 
of Ayar Manco, 148; his investi- 
ture, 138, 139, 140; lord of all 
Peru, by force of arms, 199 ; marries 
his sister, MamaOcllo, 139 ; mummy 
of, burnt by Chalco Cfhima and 
Quizquiz, 185; nominated by his 



392 



INDEX 



iiUher as successor, 135, &c. ; nomi> 
nates his yoanger son, Ccapac Huari, 
as his successor, 154, 155, 193; his 
organisation of the Inca Empire, 
150, &c. ; his triumphal entries 
into Cuxco, 131, 137; his voyage 
to islands of Avachumbi and Nifia- 
chumbi, 136; wife of, Anahnarqui, 
101 

Tupac PaUa, of Quilaco, mother 
of Atahualpa {Cieta dt Lton)^ 
170 

Tupac yaurij sceptre, 60 

Tupac Yupanqui, second son of 
Viracocha Inca, 83 

Tupac Yupanqui, Don Andres 
(Ayllu of Tupac Inca), aged 40, 
1571, witness to the Indicoy 154, 
198 

Tupac Yupanqui, Don Felipe, 

i57«» 154 
Tupu^ land measure, 150 
Turquoises, 167 
Tunica, lupac Inca at, 135 
Tuscan, sons of, 30 



Uchun-cuna^ 70 
Uchun-cuna-scalla-rando, son of 

Ccapac Yupanqui, 70 
Uilca, 71 

Uira, etvmolo^ of, 39 
Uiracocna (Viracocha), the Creator, 

38, &c., 138 
Uiracocha, Lexicologia Vitshua 

Uiracochay 1887, by Don Leonardo 

Villar, of Cuzco, 39 
Uiracocha Inca. See Viracocha 

Inca 
Ulco Colla, C»rara, killed by Chalco 

Chima and Quiz-quiz, 185 
67/1, jar, 107 
Ulysses, i ; his fate, 35 ; founds 

Lis1x>n, ib. 
Uma Raymi^ 103 
Umaran, Don Julian de, captain, in 

the Cuzco Tournament, 345 ; in 

the Vilcapampa expedition, 1571 

319 
Umasayus, conquered by Pachacuti 

Inca, 109, 177 
Umu^ wizards, 177 
Una ChuUo, captain, in army of 

Atahualpa, 171 
Uncu^ a tunic; 136 
UHu^ water, 33 

Uftu pachacuti^ the Flood, 39, &c. 
Urco. See Inca Urco 
Urco-colla, fortress, near Parcos, 



Inca army valorously resisted at, 
116; conquered by Tupac Inca, 

131 

Urco Huaranca, a chief, remains 
with Inca Vupanqni, 8q; his in- 
terview with viracocha Inca, 93 

Urco-huaranca, captain in army of 
Atahualpa, 171 

Urco Huaranca, captain general in 
army of Huascar, 178; witness to 
authenticity of relics of Inca ex- 
pedition to Avachumbi, 136 

Urcos, town, province of Qnispi- 
cancha, 309 ; Viracocha at, 36 ; 
Hatun Tupac Inca takes name of 
Viracocha at, 81, 83 

Urcu^ 70 

Urcu-cuna, Sinchi of Huancaia, 
108 

Urubamba, province of, 309 

Urupampa, capital of province of 
Urubamba, 30Q 

Urus, a tribe of fishermen, subjects 
of Huayna Ccapac, 159 

Usca Masrta, Don Felipe (Ayllu of 
Mayta Ccapac), aged 70, 1573, wit- 
ness to the Indicay 197 

Usca Ma3rta, I>on Francisco (Ayllu 
of Mayta Ccapac), aged 30, 1573, 
witness to the Indica^ 197 

Uica Maria PatuLca Ayllu (Majrta 
Ccapac), 68 

Uscovilca, Sinchi of the Hanan- 
chancas, 87; his statue, AncoallOy 
I*., 93 

Usica, Dofta Catalina, wife of Don 
.Paullu Tupac, 306 ; spared by Ata- 
hualpa, 186 

Usnuy judgment seat, 134 

Usuiasy shoes, 146, 313, 316 

Utiy weak-minded, 193 

Utu huasi, Sinchi of Acos, 109 

Uturuncu Achachi, captain of 
Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 143; his 
three years' campaign among the 
Amis, 145 



Vacas de antay tapirs, 335 

Vdhido, 48 

Valencia, Pero Anton Beuter, his- 
torian of, 35 

Valencia, Primera Part d' la Bis- 
tpria de yalicui, I $$^. .Sflr Beuter, 
Pedro Antonio 

Valera, Bias, Jesuit missionary (b. 
I55»f ^' I597)f Historia imperii 
Peruani, MS. (c. 1500), 378 

Valladolid, Junta of Theologians, 



INDEX 



393 



'55o> 5; Joan de Vivero born at, 

III 
ValUno, 139 
Valveorde, Don Francisco de, of 

the Order of Santiago, in the Cuzco 

Tournament, 145 
Valverde, Friar Vicente, at Caxa- 

marca, 188 
Varay 61, 98 
Vargas de Carbasal, Don Diego 

de, 133 
Vaaquez Davila, Melchior, Gover- 
nor, in the Cuzco Tournament, 

Velasco, Dofia Catalina de, mother 
of Agustin de la Corufia y Gormaz, 
H7 

Velasco, Don Luis de. Marquis of 
Salinas (1609), Viceroy of Mexico 
('595)» Viceroy of Peru (i59<5- 
1604), ail, «39 

Velasco, Juan de, Historia del Reino 
de Quito y 1789, cited, 170 

Velez, Father Friar Francisco, guar- 
dian of San Francisco, Cuzco, 1571, 
138 

Venus, the chief kingdom of the 
Atlantic Island, 93 

Vera, Canon Juan de, read the Epis- 
tle at funeral of Tupac Amaru, 
1571, M9 

Veragua, 16 

Veredas, Francisco de las, public 
notary, iti, 314 

Vesta, or Terra, wife of Noah, 90 

Vica, 71 

Vicaquirau Inca, son of Inca Rocca, 
a great general, 70-71 ; subdues 
Mohina and Pinahua, &c., 80, 83, 
&c., 140 

Vicaquirau Panaca Ayilu (Inca 
Rocca), 73 

Vicchu, town, conquered by Vicchu 
Tupac, who took its name, 80 

Viccnu Tupac, son of Yahuar- 
huaccac, 80 

Victoria, Fray Francisco de, 11 

Vilcacunca, range of, xxi 

Vilcamayu, river, 316, 338; valley 
of the, xvii, xxi, 36, 64 

Vilcafiota, snowy peak of, xviii 

Vilcapampa, city of. Order of Our 
Lady of Mercy, monastery and 
church abandoned after 15 years, 
941, 941; the monks move to 
Cuzco, 344; want of friars at, 
349 

Vilcapampa, province of, Account 
of the Province of Vilcapampa^ by 



Baltasar de Ocampo, 1610, xxi, 
xxii, 303-247 ; factories of, insur- 
rection of the African slaves, 339 ; 
Incas independent in, for 35 years, 
xxi; Manco Inca retreats to, xvii, 
xxi; Sayri Tupac leaves, 7 Oct. 
1557, xviii; Spanish expedition 
against, 1571, names of officers, 
&c., 318, &c; Temple of the Sun 
transferred to, xxi 

Vilcas, Don Garcia, 1573, 154 

Vilcas-huaman (Vilcas), Huanca 
Auqui retreats to, 175 

Villa CarriUo, Father Friar Gerinimo 
de. Provincial of San Francisco, 
Cuzco, 338 

Villacastin, Francisco de, second 
husband of Princess Leonor Nusta, 
xix 

Villalom, Canon Estevan de, Gos- 
peller at funeral of Tupac Amaru, 
IJ7I, 339 

Villar, Senor Don Leonardo, of 
Cuzco, Lexicologia Vieshua Utra- 
cocka^ Lima, 1887, 39 

Villa-rica de Argeta, founded by 
the Viceroy Hurtado de Mendoza, 
333 

Vinchincayua, Sinchi, captured by 
Tupac Inca Yupanqui, 143 

Vira, etymology of, 39 

Viracocna, the Creator, 38, &c. ; 
varia of the name, ib. ; his support 
of Inca Yupanqui at Cuzco, 93 

Viracocha, creations of, depicted by 
Sarmiento, 1573, ix 

Viracocha Inca, eighth Inca, third 
son of Yahuar-huaccac and Mama 
Chicya, 70, 71, 79, 80, 86, 104, 
106; fourth Inca (Acosta), 66; 
eighth Inca, Ayllu of, 86, 198; 
biography, 81-86; as a child called 
Hatun Tupac Inca, 81 ; cause of 
change of name, 81, 83; his con- 
Guests, 83, &c. ; takes refuge from 
tne Chancas at Caquia Xaquixa- 
huana, 88, 89; nominates Inca 
Urco as his successor, 191; re- 
visits the new Cuzco, 104; his 
death, aged 119, at Caquia Xaquixa- 
huana, 86, 104, 100; his body 
disinterred by Gonzaio Pizarro, 
86 

Viracocha Inca, Don Diego, de- 
scendant of Huajma Ccapac, 1573, 
169; aged 34, 1573, witness to the 
/ndica, 190 

Viracocha Inca Paucar, remains 
with Inca Yupanqui, 89 



394 



INDEX 



Viracocha Pachayachachi, the 
Creator, 18, &c.» 44, 116; golden 
image of, made by Pachacuu Inca 
Yupanqui, loi 

Viracocha-tocapu^ brocade, 86 

Viraquirau. .Saf Vicaquirau Inca 

Virgil. « 

Vivero, Juan de, Augustine friar, 
accompanies the Viceroy in his 
visitation of Peru, xiv; biography 
of, 111; sent to convert Titu Cust 
Yupanqui, li^. ; returns to Cuzco, 
314; at OUantay-tampu, 117 

Volaterranua. 5«rManejus, Raphael, 
VolaUrranus 



Wamba, King of the Visigoths (673- 

680), 63 
Witnesses to the Indica^ 1574, list 

of 42, 197-190 
World, first inhabitanu of the, 19, 

&c. 



Xalisco, province of, 36 

Xaquixaguana (Surita), called by 
Sarmiento Caquia Xaauixahuana, 
91 1 95* 104; Huascar's relations 
massacred on the road to, 184, 
309 ; conquered by Viracocha Inca, 
85; Viracodia dies at, 86, 104; 
battle of, 318 

Xauxa, Andes of, 8 ; Huanca Auqui 
at, 174; residence of the Suyoyoc 
Adu, 150; province of, ix, 131; 
valley of, 3 16; researches into 
Inca history made in the, 1570, 
196 

Xenophon, 30, 34 

Xerea, 6 



Yachachiay the Teacher, 39 
Yacolla^ robe, 315 
Yagualsongo, government of, 7 
Yiihuar^ blood, 76, 70, 164 
Yahuar-cocha, *' the Lake of 

Blood," 164 
Yahuar-huaccac (Titu Cusi Uual- 
1^), seventh Inca, son of Inca 
Rocca and Mama Micay, 7 1 ; 
Ayllu of, 81, 198; biography of, 
79-81; his adventurous childhood, 
73, &c. ; named Yahuar-huaccac by 
the Ayamarcas, 76 ; his escape from 
the Ayamarcas, 77, &c. ; marries 
Mama Chicya, daughter of Tocay 
Ccapac, 79; subdues Mohina and 



Pinahoa, 83; his death, aged 115, 

81 
Yamqui Pachacuti. See SanU 

Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui Salca- 

maygtt, Juan de 
Yamqui Yupanqui, tenth Inca 

{Juan de Betatuos), 140 
Yanaamas^ xvi, 147, ft^ 
Yanacunas, See YanatoHae 
Yanamarca, battle of, between 

Huanca Auqui and Chalco Chima, 

Yana-mayu, province of, it6 

Yana-mayu, river, Atahuaipa's 
boundary pillars in the, 189; Huas- 
car's body cut up and thrown into 
the, 1533, 189 

Yanasimis or Maflaris, tribe of the, 
conquered by Tupac Inca Yupan- 
qui, 143 

Yana-yacu, nver, 147, 148 

YaHa-yacu-cuna, 147 

Yancan Masrta, captain, 136 

Yanyos troops, under Huascar, 174 

Yapaquitt i03 

Yarambuy-cancha, 58 

Yasca, captain in army of Iluayna 
Ccapac, 165; defeats the Chiri- 
huanas, 166 

Yauira, hill of, Cuzco, 103, 181 

Yauirca, a fabulous creature, 103 

Yauri, sceptre, loi 

Yaurisca, province of Paruro, 309 

YUuc, Sebastian. .S^ lUuc, Sebas- 
tian 

YntL See Inti 

Yntip. See Intip. 

Yocy a particle, 150 

Yscaysingas, province of the, 336 

Yucas, in Vilcapampa, 331, 335 

Yucatan, 36 

Yucay, city of, ix, 309; Pachacuti 
Inca Yupanqui erects buildings at, 
131 ; Sinchi Rocca, the architect 
of, 158; the Viceroy Toledo des- 
patches the Sarmiento MS., i March 
1573, from, xi 

Yucay, province of Urubamba, valley 
of, xviii, 104; assigned to Sayri 
Tupac, 1555, xviii 

Yucay, Ana Maria Coya de Loyohi, 
Marchioness of Oropesa and, xviii, 
319 

Yucay, Don Pedro (Oro Ayllu), 

^ '57^. 47 ^ 

Yuco, town, 80 

Yupanqui, captain in army of Ata- 

hualpa, 171 
Yupanqui, Juan (Ayllu of Yahuar- 



INDEX 



395 



htiaccac), aged 60, 1573, witness to 
the Indicoj 198 
Yupanqui, Juan Pizarro (Arayraca 
Ayllu Cuzco-Callan), 1571, 46 

Zamora, Caspar de Sotelo, a native 
of, no 



Zamora, Geronimo Castilla, a native 
of, 344 

Zuniga Acevedo y Ponseca, Don 
Caspar de, Conde de Monterey y 
de Santo Toribio, Viceroy of Peru 
(1604-07), his death, 305, sai, 
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